Narrative work! What on earth? Concepts and methods

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1 Narrative wrk! What n earth? Cncepts and methds

2 HAN University f Applied Sciences HAN research grup Lcal Service Prvisin frm a Client Perspective/ Lectraat Lkale Dienstverlening vanuit Klantperspectief Dr M.A.W. van Biene Dr M.M.J.G. Heessels Ir J.J.B. Khlmann E.C. Bbbink H.M. Degen-Nijeber E.C.M. Geurts M.M.H. Pelzer J.N. Wudenberg Design: A. Haegens, G. van Limbeek & J.J.B. Khlmann Phtgraphy: E.C. Bbbink et al. Printed by Bureau Ketel graphic design, Nijmegen, first English editin April 2013 ISBN: This publicatin and its cntents may be reprduced and distributed with apprpriate reference t the authrs.

3 Preface A stry can be tld in many ways. Stries give insight int the hw, what and why f life, and help t bring memries t the fre. This bk represents the effrts f a grup f students t fill the narrative gaps they encuntered in their research n lecturers experiences with narrative research and narrative methds. While many lecturers already use narrative methds and research, they are nt always aware that they are ding s. Furthermre, it appears that lecturers wuld like t gain mre knwledge and experience in the use f narrative methds and research. Many lecturers are curius abut these fields, but sme are sceptical. With this bk, the students aim t cultivate lecturers knwledge abut and experience with narrative methds and research in a playful way. In the first part, we clarify the cncepts invlved. Subsequently, we present interactive methds fr wrking with the stries that are cllected. These methds are designed t bring individuals stries t the fre and fster understanding f them. T this end, the reader is invited t give meaning t them, t search fr the stryline and t identify the plt. Meanwhile, telling yur wn stry prvides insight int yur thughts and actins. Wrking with narrative methds gives the students the pprtunity fr persnal develpment. When it cmes t narrative research and methds sme lecturers still have a way t g. Lecturers agree n the usefulness f studying the meaning f clients stries in the scial wrk cntext. But, mst lecturers are unfamiliar with the cncepts and methds f narrative research. With this bk, we hpe t challenge ur clleagues as well as their students t give further shape t narrative methds and research within the curriculum. This bk is abut the wnderful cmbinatin f talking abut the past and present, and acting in the here and nw! Allw us t surprise yu Lieseltte, Helga, Elke, Milu and Jshi, yur dedicatin and perseverance have been impressive. We wish yu all a bright future full f stries. Dr Martha van Biene Dr Meike Heessels Ir Jidske Khlmann 5

4 Table f cntents Intrductin Thery Narrative Wrking with narratives Narrative research Wrking with dialgues Interactive methds Writing a life stry Drawing the future Pht elicitatin Making a treasure map Inspiratin cards Musical stries Bringing back memries Playing with assciatins Life-size Open interview References Images 7

5 Intrductin This bk started as a research prject n the use f narrative methds by lecturers f Cultural and Scial Develpment at HAN. In the study, we asked lecturers abut their knwledge, experience and perceptins f narrative research and methds. The fllwing seven questin patterns emerged, which the lecturers recgnised and acknwledged during a transdisciplinary meeting t fster dialgue. 1. Hw can the use f narrative methds be imprved and integrated within the existing HAN curricula? 2. Hw can the existing knwledge and skills f HAN lecturers with respect t narrative methds be increased? 3. Hw can the existing knwledge and skills f HAN lecturers with respect t narrative research be increased? 4. Hw can narrative research be implemented/taught in the existing curricula? 5. Hw can narrative research be used in creative ways? 6. Hw can the quality f HAN research be imprved? 7. Hw can students f Scial Wrk at HAN gain sufficient knwledge f general research methds and skills within the available time? The study shwed that lecturers lacked clarity with respect t the brader cncepts f narrative methds and narrative research. They indicated that an insightful bk defining and explaining the narrative apprach wuld be f use, particularly ne that described cncrete interactive methds. Due t lecturers heavy wrklads, the bk shuld be written in an accessible manner and the interactive methds shuld be straightfrward t incrprate int lessns. Furthermre, the lecturers were lking fr a link between narrative and creative methds. During the study, we interviewed the chair f the curriculum cmmittee and the manager f the Cultural and Scial Develpment prgramme. We learned that wuld als welcme a wrkbk n narrative methds and research fr lecturers. Therefre, this bk is aimed at lecturers and students f scial wrk curses in higher prfessinal educatin that invlve the use f creative methds. We aim t inspire lecturers t elicit narratives frm their students using interactive methds and t start wrking with these narratives. In additin, students and lecturers can use these interactive methds with diverse target grups in their prfessinal field. We have written the bk as generally as pssible, s that the methds described can be used bth fr students and fr target grups in the field. 9

6 The bk cnsists f tw parts. In the first part we explain the cncepts invlved in wrking with narratives. The secnd part presents 10 cmpact, interactive methds fr getting started with stries, which can be put int practice immediately. Each methd can be mdified fr different purpses and settings; experimentatin is encuraged. Fr inspiratin, therefre, we prvide suggestins fr variants as well as references t further infrmatin. A cmplete list f surces can be fund in the reference list. 10

7 Thery Wrking and researching in dialgue 11

8 Narrative This bk is abut narrative methds and narrative research. The wrd narrativity derives frm the Latin wrd narrare, which means t tell. Narratives are present everywhere. They cme in the frm f fairy tales, drama, drawings, art, histry, bigraphy, myths and legends. Narratives can be fund at all ages and in all scieties. Stries have always played an imprtant rle in human life (Ten Hlter, 2010). Simply put, a stry is a sequence f cherent events. The fllwing questins can usually be asked: Hw did it start? Then what happened? Hw did it end? (Bijl, Baars & Schueren, 2002). In the field f narratlgy, stries are the bject f study and the fcus is n the way in which these stries are tld. Narratives are abut bigraphical events as tld by thse wh experienced them (Van Biene et al., 2008). They ften have a time sequence; i.e. the narratr establishes a link between the past, the present and the future. Peple tell stries frm a particular perspective. The narratr takes his r her wn psitin in a stry, but psitins can als be assigned by thers (e.g. the listener) (ibid). In additin t the narratr, narratives als include ther parties; fr example, a persn may speak abut their family r neighburs. 13

9 Wrking with narratives Definitin Wrking with narratives means wrking with stries. In wrking with stries, the narratr and the listener ascribe themselves and the ther a place in varius cntexts. Wrking with narratives can cntribute t the attributin f meaning, identity cnstructin and empwerment amng individuals and/r grups. What is wrking with narratives all abut? Stries can be used t cnvey emtins, feelings, knwledge and insight. Van Rsmalen (1999) suggests that in a narrative recnstructin, yu can present yurself as yu wish. Recnstructin in this cntext means that by retelling certain events, the narratr is able t give them a new meaning. This narrative recnstructin can help peple t mve frward in their lives by giving events a new meaning. Accrding t Lhuis, Schilpenrt and Schut (in Dries & Hffman, 2008), a life stry is a subjective cnstructin f reality. When wrking with narratives, it is imprtant t take the tempral cntext int accunt. The descriptin f a situatin can never be viewed separately frm the past and the future f the persn invlved (Klppenburg & Heemelaar, 1999). This apprach, als knwn as cnstructivism, assumes that peple create their wn reality based n the subjective selectin f persnal and scial experiences. It is assumed that truths can be viewed in varius ways and n varius levels, and that a single bjective reality des nt exist. In reading abut r practising narrative recnstructin, als keep in mind the differences between cultures. What is seen as strange r freign in ne culture may be perfectly nrmal in anther (Ten Hlter, 2010). Accrding t Dries and Hffman (2008), stries help linking the present, the past and the future. Thrugh stries, peple discver what influence a particular event has had in their life. Stries speak t ur subcnscius and ur intuitins. Yu can als use imagery t tell a stry, asking students r clients t depict the essence f their stry in a different way (Dries & Hffman, 2008). The interactive methds described later suggest a range f creative techniques fr this. 14

10 Narrative research Definitin Narrative research is a frm f interpretive research. The narratr s stry serves as the starting pint frm which t analyse events, the way in which the narratr experiences them, and the meaning that the narratr ascribes t them. Hw d yu cnduct narrative research? In narrative research, the stry takes centre stage. Mighelbrink (2007) describes the gal f qualitative research as gaining insight int hw peple experience and ascribe meaning t reality. It cncerns the narratr stry; his r her signal, questin r bjective. Accrding t Dries & Hffman (2008), peple are narrative and dialgical beings. By way f stries, peple can express themselves, get t knw ne anther and help ne anther. During dialgues, the events that peple have experienced are selected, rganised and cnnected t ne anther. One f the key characteristics f narrative research is its fcus n the cnstructin f meaning between the researcher and the research subject (Ten Hlter, 2010). This relatinship is described as a cllabrative prcess. In narrative research, research is nt cnducted n peple but with peple. In cnducting research, varius steps are taken t prgress frm a research questin t a result. Within the research grup Lcal Service Prvisin frm a Client Perspective, we distinguish eight steps fr cnducting narrative research (see figure 1). 15

11 , Figure 1: Narrative research prcess, Lcal Service Prvisin frm a Client Perspective (2013). 16

12 Step 1. Research questin All research starts with a prblem r questin. This questin may be raised by an institutin r a private party, r it may arise frm a prblem that yu yurself identify in practice r in the literature. Step 2. Study design Once yu have identified the prblem, yu set up a study design and chse a particular methdlgy. Then yu refrmulate the prblem int an bjective, a research questin and a series f subquestins (Van der Dnk & Van Lanen, 2011). Step 3. Cnducting interviews Having established the research questins and methds, yu can nw arrange the interviews. Yu start by selecting ptential interviewees by way f stratified r purpsive sampling (Beije, 2005; Rbsn 2011). The issue here is hw t represent varius manifestatins f a phenmenn in yur study ppulatin. Fr example, yu may want t ensure a balance between men and wmen, r a spread acrss all age grups. In narrative research, pen interviews are used. This means the interviewer s main rle is t listen and t invite and encurage the participant t tell his r her stry, in rder t btain as much infrmatin as pssible. These interviews are semi-structured, fllwing an interview guide that sets ut the bjective, the directin and the structure f the interview. The guide als cntains a number f questins that serve t elicit mre infrmatin during the interview; these shuld be brad, pen questins that steer the interview as little as pssible (Van Biene et al., 2008). 17

13 Step 4. Prcessing the data Make sure yu gain the interviewee s cnsent t recrd the interview. Yu can then transcribe the interviews verbatim, including all hesitatins, self-crrectins, jumbled sentences and emtins. The transcript shuld be presented t the interviewees t allw them t crrect any inaccuracies r make additins; this is als knwn as a member check (Beije, 2005). Yu then prcess these changes int the transcript. Once the interviews have been fully prcessed, yu divide each transcript int fragments. Each time a new tpic is brached in the interview, yu start a new fragment (Van Biene et al., 2008). Step 5. Cding the data Once yu have divided the interviews int fragments, yu can start cding them. The idea here is t identify what and wh has been spken abut, and hw (Van Biene et al., 2008). The cdes may be determined by means f an pen cding prcess. This means yu first read a number f interviews and try t figure ut what they are abut. Then yu establish a number f cdes that are brad enugh nt t restrict the research r t frame it t early. This way yu creat a bttm-up cding frmat. In ther cases, the cdes are predetermined. The research grup has a standard cding frmat that is ften used with varius mdificatins. The advantages f this frmat are that it has been tested, apprved and that the frmat is predetermined yet pen enugh t let the stries speak fr themselves. Belw we explain the system s categries. What categries These categries relate t the cmpsitin f the wrld that emerges frm the narrative: the events, the peple, their experiences and mutual relatinships. In shrt, the what categries cncern the essence f what the interviewee s cmments are abut. Wh categries The wh categries indicate the perspective frm which the what has t be interpreted. Narratives invlve an alternatin between the primary and the secndary speaker. This results in different levels f language, which can be classed as either internal r external. The internal narratr talks abut him- r herself and is the actr in his r her wn stry. The external narratr speaks n behalf f a brader grup f peple, fr example the family r neighburhd. In the cding system, yu translate this int wn, clse relatins and thers. 18

14 Hw categries The hw categries refer t the way in which a persn says smething. This may include the interviewee s pinin abut the what, but als his r her use f language, such as figures f speech. Think in terms f dichtmus pairs like psitive/negative, demand/supply r prblem/slutin; in narratives, bth terms f a pair can be applicable simultaneusly. Thrughut the cding prcess, it is crucial that the team members discuss their interpretatins f the different cdes. This frm f peer debriefing cntributes t the validity f qualitative research (Rbsn, 2011: 158). One apprach is t have each team member first read and cde five fragments and then discuss these with the grup. This helps t ensure that the cdes mean the same thing fr all researchers. This guarantees that the cding is as cnsistent as pssible and that the right fragments are identified in the analysis prcess. Step 6. Analysing the data After all fragments have been cded, yu can begin questining the data. This means that yu figure ut fr each subquestin, which cdes are useful in answering it, thus using the cdes as a srt f frmula. By applying the frmula and varius filters fr each questin, yu uncver the narratives that relate t the subquestin. In establishing the frmula, yu cnsider the wh, what and hw cdes per categry. Try nt t use t many cdes, s as t avid selecting t many fragments. The cdes lend themselves readily t cntrasts such as wn versus clse relatins, which allws yu t cntrast the varius perspectives while the rest f the cdes remain the same. Once the narratives fr each subquestin have been identified, they can be analysed using the fllwing steps: - Read the narratives. - Nte dwn whatever yu think is imprtant fr each narrative in an assciative manner. - Mark the narratives that speak t yu. - When yu have studied all narratives relating t a particular subquestin, summarise yur findings in a few sentences. Belw yur summary, add the qutes that were particularly striking r ntewrthy. 19

15 Step 7. Discvering patterns When this is dne, discuss all subquestins with the grup. This is anther mment f peer debriefing (Rbsn, 2011: 158). Fcus n what was particularly striking r ntewrthy and what patterns std ut; think f cmmn characteristics, recurrent structures and cultural cnventins (Van Biene et al., 2008). Assign smene t take minutes f this meeting, which can then frm the input fr investigatin f the questin patterns. Once yu have identified all themes, the next step is t draw up a needs framewrk. This invlves lking at what the interviewees need, want, require and can cntribute per theme. Give every sectin a catchy title, derived frm a qute r recurrent pattern. These then serve as the questin patterns (recurrent themes) that are presented t the interviewees during the transdisciplinary dialgue. Step 8. Transdisciplinary dialgue T increase the validity f the questin patterns, the interviewees are invited t take part in a transdisciplinary meeting. During this meeting, the needs framewrks are presented and the interviewees are asked whether the patterns seem familiar. In additin, subgrups are frmed t identify initiatives that stem frm each questin pattern, what cntributins the different parties culd make, and what the resulting actins shuld be. After this meeting, the cnclusins can be finalised and used t develp a prduct, actin r interventin. 20

16 Wrking with dialgues Wrking with dialgues means wrking at a persnal level. Yu start a dialgue and keep the dialgue ging. In this cntext, the listener is equal t the narratr (Van Biene, 2005). It is f vital imprtance that the participants d nt feel pressured, and that everyne has the same pprtunities t discuss and questin ne anther s ideas (Dixn, 1998). Every cntributin is taken seriusly and accepted as meaningful. Multiple dialgues arise when varius stries cme t the fre alngside ne anther during yur search fr slutins t a questin. When peple tell their stries, certain ways f thinking and acting emerge. The key bjective is t identify the questin underlying the questin (Van Biene, 2005). If this is achieved, dialgues can help t change an individual s present thughts and actins. T investigate the underlying questin, it is imprtant t cntinue asking questins t get t the very cre f the matter. Use questins like: What d yu mean by that? What did yu experience? Hw did things g in this situatin? The aim is nt t end up in a debate (Van Biene, 2005). Dialgues are nt abut wh is speaking the truth, but hw the ther s situatin can be viewed frm different perspectives. Rather than trying t cnvince the ther f yur view, yu try t understand their view. The aim is t arrive at shared insight, which can frm a basis fr new directins and cmmn gals. Keep in mind that in a dialgue, listening is just as imprtant as talking (Van Biene, 2005). Listen t the peple arund yu and shw engagement in the theme being discussed. Yu can d this by adpting an active listening attitude, in which yu summarize t check whether yu have really understd what the ther is saying. 21

17 A dialgue is different frm a discussin (Van Biene, 2005). A dialgue calls fr different skills and triggers different emtins. Using the fllwing examples yu can figure ut fr yurself whether yu are a dialgue r a discussin type. If yu tend t say things like yes, it culd be, if..., then dialgues are fr yu. On the ther hand, if yu ften find yurself saying yes, but..., that can t be, because... r I think that... then yu are mre f a discussin type. In the client prfessinal relatinship, the dialgue is the mst apprpriate apprach (see figure 2). In wrking with narratives and cnducting narrative research, the dialgue is a tl used t uncver the interviewee s stry, and t search fr persnal meanings and slutins. DIALOGUE - Cnversatin between tw peple - Search fr the questin underlying the questin - Ask mre and mre questins - Try t learn smething frm the ther - Facilitate the ther in telling their stry, instead f filling it in fr them - Gain new knwledge - Bring t light the ther s qualities It culd be, if DISCUSSION - Yes, but - I think that - Impse ne s wn pinin - Want t be right - Stick t yur wn views - Maintain existing knwledge - G n the defensive - D nt gain new knwledge That can t be, because Figure 2: Dialgue versus discussin (Van Biene, 2005) In a dialgue, the aim is nt t change the ther, but t learn frm ne anther. Differences in views are respected, recgnised and acknwledged, and are seen as enriching the dialgue. The gal is t figure ut hw t deal cnstructively with the differences bserved. The questin is nt wh is right, but hw everyne can use the insights gained t mve frwards. The participants are nt trying t cnvince ne anther; instead, they are mutually seeking the right infrmatin, meaningful interpretatins, clear insights, apprpriate cnclusins and the best chices. A dialgue is abut gaining a better understanding f ne anther s views and dealing with challenges t ne s wn views, with the ultimate aim f reaching shared insights that can serve as the basis fr cmmn gals (Van Biene, 2005). 22

18 Interactive methds On bringing stries t light 11 23

19 Interactive methds On bringing stries t light On the fllwing pages yu will find 10 interactive methds. These methds can be applied in the classrm, in practice r fr persnal develpment. Each methd serves as an invitatin t bring peple s stries t light in creative ways. The stries that emerge can then be used fr wrk r research purpses. Writing a life stry Drawing the future 24

20 Pht elicitatin Making a treasure map Inspiratin cards Musical stries Bringing back memries Playing with assciatins Life-size Open interview 25

21 Writing a life stry Describing an inner jurney 26

22 Learning utcmes Increase yur capacity fr reflectin. Cmmit yur feelings and thughts t paper. Reflect n the phases f yur life in the past, present and future. Think abut wh serves as an example fr yu. Take yurself seriusly by ding smething with yur insights. Requirements Cmputer r pen and paper Writing a life stry helps peple t give themselves a vice. They can identify ways t further develp their talents, dreams and ambitins. As a narrative apprach, writing a life stry can be a stepping stne t the narratr s future, as it helps defining a career path r bradening yur persnal visin (De Lange, 2000; Van Stekelenburg, 2008). By writing dwn yur life stry, yu get a clear picture f what yu have achieved and where yu nw stand. Yu can use the fllwing steps t write yur life stry. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Make sure yu write frm yur wn pint f view. Start by describing the different phases in yur life t date. Include bth the pleasant and nt s pleasant aspects, and pay extra attentin t memries that stick ut in yur mind. Give meaning t yur life stry. Chse three r fur mments that have been the mst imprtant fr yu. Identify wh yur heres are, and why. Once yu have written yur stry dwn, read it back carefully. What stands ut? What insights have yu gained? Ask yurself hw a particular insight culd help yu in the future. 27

23 * Variant Yu can als write yur life stry based n persnal items, such as bags, bks, jewellery, clthes r shes. By intrducing bjects in the dialgue stries are elicited thugh peple s particular assciatins with the bjects (Cllier in Samuels, 2004). Use the fllwing steps: Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Identify the persnal items yu want t use; fr example, yur shes. Try t remember all the shes yu have had. Describe the shes in chrnlgical rder, frm ldest t newest. Nw fr every pair f shes, try t describe the perid in which yu used them. D yu remember hw ld yu were? Wh played a rle in yur life then? What did yu enjy r nt enjy abut this perid? Have yu kept certain shes that yu n lnger use? Why is that? Which shes are yur least preferred, and why? Which episdes in yur life d yu assciate these shes with? Which shes d yu mst like t use, and why? Which episdes in yur life d yu assciate these shes with? 28

24 Image 1. 29

25 Drawing the future Give yur future shape and clur 30

26 Learning utcmes Fr participants: Identify and put int wrds yur desires and needs. Tap int and utilise ne s wn pwer. Eigen kracht aanbren en benutten. Requirements Paper Pencils, pens and chalk Scissrs (ptinal) Fr facilitatrs: Facilitate rather than influence the participants. This methd gives participants the pprtunity t give shape t their persnal gals. The drawing they make paints a picture f their future. T this end, the fllwing questins are useful t keep in mind: What has changed?, What d these changes lk like? and What d yu want? Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Decide n a theme r let the participants chse their wn theme. What shuld their images f the future be abut? The mre cncrete the situatin, the mre useful the narratives yu elicit will be. Give the participants free reign t create their drawing. The fcus shuld be n their ideas, desires and needs. Yu can encurage r guide them, but try nt t influence them. Discuss the drawing. What des the participant see in the drawing? What meaning des the participant give t the different elements? 31

27 * Variant This variant is based n Signs f Safety, als knwn as the Three Huses methd (Rzebm & Timmer, 2012). The drawing exercise is divided int fur steps, with a predetermined theme. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: The first drawing is abut safety. What des the participant cnsider t be safe? This culd be anything whatever the participant cmes up with. Wh is present with respect t the theme? Where are they and what are they ding? The secnd drawing is abut nn-safety in the cntext f the theme. Again, they key here is t address whatever the participant cmes up with. What des the participant cnsider t be unsafe? Wh is present, where are they, and what are they ding? The final drawing is abut the future. What des the participant want in the future with respect t the theme? Again, cnsider the individual s envirnment and the peple in it. Discuss the three drawings with the participant in line with the principles f dialgue (see figure 2). Fcus n the participant s stry. Yu will find that the drawings help t bring the participant s perceptins t the fre. 32

28 Image 3. 33

29 Pht elicitatin The pwer f pictures t elicit narratives 34

30 Learning utcmes Learn t utilise the pwer f the ther. Understand what the ther cnsiders imprtant. Discver peple s underlying desires and needs and discuss them in dialgue. Requirements Camera with memry card Pht printer and pht paper Pictures can be used in interviews t stimulate the respndents memry (Clark-Ibaňez, 2004; Samuels 2004). The use f pictures enables dialgue n tab subjects, as interviewer and respndent bth fcus n the pictures, relieving the strain f being questined directly (Cllier, 1957: 849). When the researcher intrduces the images, it is called pht elicitatin (Vanderveen, 2008). But, the researcher can als ask respndents t take pictures themselves, this methd is called phtvice (Ibid.). Fr example, the respndents can be asked t take pictures f their wn living envirnment (Ryers & De Ree, 2003). Yu can use this methd with individuals r grups, using the fllwing steps. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Decide n a theme. As the facilitatr yu can chse this in advance, r decide n it jintly with the participants. Have the participants take phts based n this theme. Ask the participants t tell a stry with their phts. The idea is t cnsider what assciatins and meanings the phts evke. The participant s wn experiences take centre stage (see figure 2 n the principles f dialgue versus discussin). Ask mre questins. Based n the stry elicited by the phts, ask further questins abut the participant s experiences, desires, needs and strengths. 35

31 * Variant 1 Instead f having the participant take phts n a particular theme, yu can use phts the participant already has. The advantage f this is that it helps t elicit stries invlving experiences and events frm the past. Yu can encurage the participant t talk abut hw the past has led t the present, fr example by cmpiling a pht album with ld and new phts relating t the theme. This gives rise t pssible tpics fr new dialgues, fllw-up steps r research. * Variant 2 Alternatively, the phts can be replaced by persnal belngings. The participant then discusses his r her experiences and perceptins related t particular belngings, and yu can examine the significance f the theme fr the participant s past, present and future. * Variant 3 Anther alternative is t use the assciatin cards by Dmmisse (2007). This set cnsists f 40 cards with clurful phts, which can serve as inspiratin t elicit stries. Nte that it is imprtant that the participant chses his r her wn cards. 36

32 Image 4. 37

33 Making a treasure map A persnal image f reality 38

34 Learning utcmes Learn t give directin t yur life. Discver yur desires and gals. Becme aware f the central elements in yur life. Identify the steps yu need t take t realise yur desires and gals. Requirements Paper Scissrs Pencils, crayns, markers, paint and brushes Magazines (fr pictures) Making an artistic treasure map is a gd way t visualise yur gal. By fcusing yur attentin in this way, yu can really give directin t yur gal and create a piece f wrk that embdies yur energy and desires. The fllwing steps fr making a treasure map are based n Hefslt (2007). Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Decide n the tpic. Fcus n ne gal that yu wuld lve t have realised already, fr example having the perfect jb. Be psitive. Psitivity in yur treasure map is imprtant; dn t use anything that culd hld yu back frm yur treasure. The treasure map shuld shw an image f yurself when yu have reached yur treasure. Create the treasure map. Yu can use paint, pencils, crayns, phts r ther images, r a cmbinatin f all f them. Only use materials that yu think can really represent yur treasure. Be creative in a way that suits yu. Yu can even take a pht r draw a picture f yurself and wrk this int yur treasure map, s that it is clear that the map is abut yu and yur desires. 39

35 * Variant As an alternative t using the treasure map t frmulate a particular gal, yu can als map all the treasures that are already present in yur life. This exercise will help yu t better visualise yur life, which in turn can give yu mre self-cnfidence. It is a nice way t see what yu have already achieved in yur life and hw rich yu actually already are. Start by chsing a particular tpic, a perid in yur life, r yur whle life. Then fllw the steps abve. Be psitive abut the experiences that have shaped yu and everything that has made yu strnger, friendlier, mre prfessinal, etc. 40