Alternative Options to Large Scales of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Facilities Management in Thailand

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1 Alternative Options to Large Scales of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Facilities Management in Thailand By. Dr. Wijarn Simachaya Mr. Somchai Songprakob Pollution Control Department Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment For the 3 rd WEPA International Workshop, September 2011, Manila, the Philippines Overview of the Presentation State of Water Quality Problem in Bangkok and Surrounding Areas Type of Collection System and Treatment Facilities Alternatives Options of Domestic Wastewater Technologies The Implementation of Wastewater Treatment in Bangkok Metropolitan Lesson Learned from Domestic Wastewater Treatment Facilities Implementation in Thailand 1

2 Chaopraya River Chart of Water Quality Problems in Central Basin, Thailand in 2010 NH 3 9% DO 12% BOD 11% FCB 25% TCB 32% Central region 2

3 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) in the Lower Part of the Chao Phraya River from 1978 to BOD(mg/l) Std. 4 mg/l Min Max Ave Year Status of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Thailand Location of 101 Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Thailand Constructed 90 Plants Under Construction 10 Plants Delayed (Samutprakan Province) 1 Plant 6 6 3

4 Domestic Wastewater Treatment Facilities Status in Thailand Area/Region Number (plants) Wastewater treatment facilities status (plants) Constructed Delay Under construction ti Capacity (m 3 /d) 1. Bangkok ,112, Municipality/ Pattaya city /Tumbol Administration organization 2.1 Central , Eastern , Northern , Northeastern , Southern ,750 Total ,213,395 The Type of Collection Systems Central Wastewater Treatment Design Criteria for Central Wastewater Treatment The type of BOD SS collection systems (mg/l) (mg/l) Combined Sewer System Separate Sewer System (80) (80) (160) (160) Combined Sewer System : drain both rainfalls and wastewater within one system Separate Sewer System : the sewerage and drainage are collected in separate piping systems 4

5 22/09/54 Types of existing technologies of wastewater treatment facilities in Thailand Constructed (CW) 2% ( 2 Plants) Activated Sludge (AS) 36% ( 36 Plants) Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) 1% (1 Plant ) ระบบบ อปร บเสถ ยร Stabilization ti pond SP ระบบสระเต ม Aerated Lagoons อากาศ AL ระบบแอ กท เวเต ด Activated Sludge สล ดจ AS ระบบบ งประด ษฐ Constructed wetland CW RBC Aerated Lagoon (AL) 16% (16 Plants) Stabilization Pond (SP) 45 % (46 Plants) Technologies for Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Thailand Stabilization Pond (46%) Aerated Lagoon (16%) 5

6 Technologies for Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Thailand (Cont.) Activated Sludge (36%) Alternative for Domestic Wastewater Management Technologies in Thailand 12 6

7 On-Site Wastewater Treatment On-Site Wastewater Treatment 13 Cluster Wastewater Treatment

8 Centralized Wastewater Treatment Pilot Projects or Case Studies for Wastewater Treatment in Thailand 16 8

9 On-site Wastewater Treatment 17 On-site Wastewater Treatment System in Small Communities Anaerobic Filter (AF) / Aeration Tank 9

10 On-site Wastewater Treatment System in Small Communities Anaerobic Filter (AF) On-site Wastewater Treatment System in Small Communities ON SITE AERATION TANK 10

11 On-site Wastewater Treatment System in Small Communities ON SITE AERATION TANK On-site Wastewater Treatment System in Small Communities Mae Sa (Chiang Mai Province) Anaerobic Filter (AF) capacity of 1 m 3 /d AF Grease trap Septic tank wastewater Toilet 22 11

12 On-site Wastewater Treatment System in Small Communities (Cont.) Ko Lanta (Krabi Province) Anaerobic Filter (AF) capacity of 0.75 m 3 /d septic construction filter Installation Installation 23 On-site Wastewater Treatment System in Small Communities (Cont.) Ko Chang (Trat Province) 19 onsite treatment (AF) with capacity of 30 m 3 /d Community wastewater t is directly discharging into the sea People participation People participation 24 12

13 Ko Chang (Trat Province) Flow 1-3 m 3 /d BOD 200 mg/l Inf. Ko Chang : Anaerobic Filter (AF) AF 1 Septic AF 2 AF 3 Eff. BOD <30 mg/l Construction Cost 32,200-61,600 Baht (1,00-2,00 US$) Media Cluster Wastewater Treatment Plant

14 22/09/54 Cluster Wastewater Treatment Plant 27 Cluster Wastewater Treatment Plant Equalizing Tank ก นยายน 54 Aeration Tank S di i Sedimentation Tank

15 22/09/54 Pilot Project : Under construction On site Wastewater Treatment capacity of 50 m3/d ก นยายน Pilot Project : Under construction On site Wastewater Treatment capacity of 50 m3/d (Cont.) ก นยายน

16 Pilot Project : On site Wastewater Treatment capacity of 50 m 3 /d (Cont.) 31 ก นยายน Aerated Fixed Film กวนผสมให น าเส ย ม ค ณล กษณะคงท ระบบบ าบ ดน าเส ยบ านร วมม อร วมใจ อ. ตะก วป า จ.พ งงา จ ล นทร ย บนต วกลาง ในน าเส ย ย อยสลาย สารอ นทร ย ในน าเส ย 32 16

17 22/09/54 Pilot Project : Restaurant wastewater treatment for capacity of 12 m3/d and area 2500 m2 ก นยายน Pilot Project : Restaurant wastewater treatment for capacity of 12 m3/d and area 2500 m2 ก นยายน

18 Pilot Project : Restaurant wastewater treatment for capacity of 12 m 3 /d and area 2500 m 2 On Land System Treated water 35 ก นยายน Pilot Project : Mobile wastewater treatment capacity of 30 m 3 /d 36 ก นยายน

19 Pilot Project : Mobile wastewater treatment system 37 Layout of Wetland Treatment 38 19

20 Cluster Wastewater Treatment Plant-Constructed Wetland Kian Ubonrat Municipality, Khonkhen Province Type of Cluster Wastewater t Treatment tat Kian Ubonrat Municipality is Constructed Wetland Construction & Improve Landscape Cost ~ 2,794,000 Baht (95,000 US$) Capacity 400 m3/day (Construction Cost ~ 1,936,400 Baht) O&M ~ Baht/m3 (0.03 US$/m3) 39 Canna Reed Typha 40 20

21 Cluster Wastewater Treatment Plant (Cont.) Small community on lakeside area at Songkhla Province Septic + Oxidation Pond; capacity 50 m 3 /d Grit chamber Septic tank Sludge Stabilization pond BOD-eff. <5 mg/l Flow 50 m 3 /d BOD- in 500 mg/l Sand drying bed Wetland 41 Wastewater Treatment System in Bangkok Metropolitan Rattanakosin (40,000 m 3 /d) Thon Buri (305,000 m 3 /d) Bang Sue (120,000 m 3 /d) Chatuchak (150,000 m 3 /d) Din Daeng (350,000 m 3 /d) Si Phraya (30,000 m 3 /d) Klong Toei (360,000 m 3 /d) Nong Khaem (157,000 m 3 /d) Thung Khru (65,000 m 3 /d) Chong Nonsi (200,000 m 3 /d) Symbols Operation Under construction in Future 21

22 Wastewater Treatment System in Bangkok Metropolitan Constructed 7 Plants,the treatment capacity ~ 999, m3/d Under Construction 1 Plants, the treatment capacity ~ 120, m3/d Construction Plan 2 Plants, the treatment capacity ~ 603, m3/d Funds for Construction of Wastewater Treatment System in BMA Treatment Area Area (km 2 ) Served Population Current BMA Wastewater Treatment Systems Capacity (m 3 /d) Start of Operation Source of Fund (BMA:GOV) Cost (Million Baht) 1. Si Phraya ,000 30, BMA 100% Rattanakosin ,000 40, GOV 100% Din Daeng ,080, , :75 6, Cong Nonsi , , :60 4, Nong Khaem , , :60 2, Thung Khru ,000 65, :60 1, Chatuchak , , :40 3,482 Total ,979, ,000 19,871 Future BMA Wastewater Treatment Project (F/S basis) 1. Bang Sue , , BMA 100% 4, Klong Toei , ,000 60:40 11, Thon Buri , ,000 11,561 Total ,439, ,000 27,339 22

23 Treatment Performance of Existing WWTP in BMA Si Praya Rattanakosin Din Daeng Chong Nonsi Nong Khaem Thung Khru Chatuchak 1. Start of operation Treatment area (km 2 ) 3. Treatment process AS AS AS AS AS AS AS 4. Site area (ha) Length of sewer pipe (km) 6. Capacity (m 3 /d) 30,000 40, , , ,000 65, , O&M by DDS* DDS* Private company 8. Design Criteria Private company Private company Private company Private company 8.1 BOD (mg/l) SS (mg/l) Inflow (m 3 /d) 18,213 28, , , ,605 63, ,470 (% of Cap.) (60.7) (72.0) (58.6) (62.1) (84.5) (98.4) (80.3) 10. Influent BOD (mg/l) 11. Influent SS (mg/l) Effluent BOD (mg/l) (% Removal) 13. Effluent SS (mg/l) (% Removal) 5 (90.5) 7 (94.0) 11 (76.4) 11 (55.5) 5 (80.6) 8 (73.4) 5 (79.3) 7 (72.7) 4 (93.2) 10 (91.4) 3 (88.5) 6 (90.6) 11 (67.8) 12 (68.4) Si Phraya Wastewater Treatment System in BMA Service Areas: 2.7 km 2 Treatment capacity ~ 3o,ooo m 3 /d Type of Wastewater Treatment System : Contact Stabilization Activated Sludge 23

24 Si Phraya Wastewater Treatment System (Contact Stabilization Activated Sludge ) Dindaeng Wastewater Treatment System in BMA Service Areas: 37 km 2 Treatment capacity ~ 35o,ooo m 3 /d Type of Wastewater Treatment System : Biological Activated Sludge Process with Nutrient Removal 24

25 Rattanakosin Wastewater Treatment System in BMA Aeration tank Service Areas: 4.1 km 2 Treatment capacity ~ 4o,ooo m 3 /d Type of Wastewater Treatment System : Two-Stage Activated Sludge Chongnonsi Wastewater Treatment System in BMA Service Areas: 28.5 km 2 Treatment capacity ~ 2oo,ooo m 3 /d Type of Wastewater Treatment System : Activated Sludge : Cyclic Activated Sludge System ( CASS TM ) 25

26 Nong Khaem Wastewater Treatment System in BMA Digester Tanks Service Areas: 44 km 2 Treatment capacity ~ 157,000 m 3 /d Type of Wastewater Treatment System : Activated Sludge with Nutrient Removal Tungkhru Wastewater Treatment System in BMA Service Areas: 42 km 2 Treatment capacity ~ 65,000 m 3 /d Type of Wastewater Treatment System : Activated Sludge Process with Vertical Loop Reactor 26

27 Chatuchak Wastewater Treatment System Service Areas: 33.4 km 2 Treatment capacity ~ 150,000 m 3 /d Type of Wastewater Treatment System : Activated Sludge Bang Sue Wastewater Treatment System (Under Construction) Service Areas: 22 km 2 Treatment capacity ~ 120,000 m 3 /d Type of Wastewater Treatment System : Activated Sludge with Nutrient Removal 27

28 Lesson Learned for the Implementation of Central Wastewater Treatment in Thailand Treatment facilities including the collection and the treatment systems should be planned in advance and at the same time of city planning. High treatment technologies would require while the city lacks available public land and to ensure the high efficiency for operation and maintenance the system. Public awareness and acceptance of the treatment system is crucial especially for the willing to pay for wastewater treatment fees. Law enforcement is also important especially to enforce the Building Effluent Standards for individual buildings. Public Private Partnership (PPP) should be applied for large scale wastewater treatment plants. Conclusions Domestic Wastewater Management Measures Construction Measures Collection and Wastewater Treatment Systems Sludge Management Project Wastewater Reuse and Recycle Non Construction Measures Legislation Measures/ Law Enforcement Public Awareness Raising Wastewater Discharge Fees Collection Private Sector Participation 28

29 Thank you : Sawasdee 29

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