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3 DOCUMENT INFORMATION Report Title: Kigali City Transport Master Plan Report Project Title: detailed physical plan for gasabo and kicukiro, kigali Project Ref No.: Client: City of Kigali Submission Date: File Name: RWF1101_KIGALI CITY TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN REPORT_ Approvals Name Designation Date Author James Ellison Asvin Ang Aditya Nugroho Assistant VP Engineer Engineer Reviewer Djoko Prinhanto Yin Kam Meng Senior VP Senior VP Number of copies issued: 2 DOCUMENT STATUS Version No. Date Issued Details Approval for Issue draft 1 djoko prihanto Final djoko prihanto 3 4 5

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PREFACE 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE TRANSPORTATION MASTER PLAN 1.1 INTRODUCTION The National Perspective The Vision of the City of Kigali ABOUT THE TRANSPORTATION MASTER PLAN The Rationale for a Transportation Master Plan The Specific Goals of the Transportation Master Plan Preparation of the Transportation Master Plan Implementation Mechanisms THE DELIVERABLES ORGANISATION OF THE REPORT Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Context, Constraints and Opportunities Chapter 3 Specific Goals, Objectives and Strategies Chapter 4 Kigali Concept Transportation Development Plans Chapter 5 Institutional Setup, Traffic Management and Policies Chapter 6 Implementation Projects and Proposals 5 2 CONTEXT, CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES 2.1 KIGALI: HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT Historical Demographics Climate Geographical OVERVIEW OF THE TRANSPORT SECTOR IN RWANDA Road Transport in Rwanda Air Transport in Rwanda Water Transport in Rwanda Rail Transport in Rwanda EXISTING TRANSPORTATION IN KIGALI Overview of Road, Rail and Air Transportation Existing Road Network and Conditions Existing Traffic Management System PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION IN KIGALI Bus Services and Infrastructure Taxi Services Non-Motorised Transportation Existing Rail Network in Kigali Existing Air Transportation in Kigali TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN AND OTHER INITIATIVES Current Road Network Initiatives Current Rail Network Initiatives Current Air Transportation Initiatives Proposed Public Transport Initiatives Development Control Measures CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN TRANSPORT Opportunities Challenges Summary 27 3 SPECIFIC GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES 3.1 SPECIFIC GOAL 1: TO BECOME A TRANSIT-ORIENTED CITY Objective 1: Ensure a Public Transport to Private Transport Participation Rate of 70: Objective 2: Provide a Public Transport System with an average commuting time of 60 minutes or less SPECIFIC GOAL 2: TO ESTABLISH A COMPREHENSIVE TRANSPORT SYSTEM Objective 3: Construct Urban Roads in Kigali to a minimum Density of 6km/km² Objective 4 Provide Seamless Intermodal Transport Connectivity Objective 5: Integrate Intercity Freight Routes and Infrastructure SPECIFIC GOAL 3: TO CREATE A SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT NETWORK Objective 6: Integrate Non-motorised Transport Infrastructure into Road Network Objective 7: Ensure 100% of Public Amenities and Facilities to be served by Public Transport Objective 8: Establishment of Green Transportation Network and Pedestrian-Friendly Streets in Kigali BENCHMARKING APPLICATIONS OF STRATEGIES Proposed Road Network Strategies Proposed Public Transportation Strategies Proposed Freight Management Strategy Proposed Green Transportation Network Strategies 44 i

6 4 KIGALI CONCEPT TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT PLANS 4.1 PROPOSED LAND USE MASTER PLAN Population and traffic growth Proposed Broad Land Use Plan Proposed Broad Land Use Plan INTEGRATED LAND USE AND ROAD PLANNING THE PROPOSED ROAD NETWORK TRAFFIC MODELLING AND CAPACITY ANALYSIS Establishing a transport network Design Considerations Analysing the Network Capacity Analysis Coverage of Road Network Types of Roads High Capacity Urban Roads Coverage of Roads Access Roads Standardised Road Design PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION PLANS Rail and Intercity Transportation Plan The Mass Transit Network Supplementary Public Transportation Plan Transport Hubs and Infrastructure Plan FREIGHT MANAGEMENT PLAN Realignment and Integration of Freight Routes and High Capacity Urban Roads Possible Locations for Logistics Hubs GREEN TRANSPORTATION NETWORK PLAN Major Green and Local Area Connectors Supporting NMT Infrastructure Pedestrian Zones and Complete Streets 88 5 INSTITUTIONAL SETUP, TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AND POLICIES 5.1 EXISTING INSTITUTIONAL SETUP AND ISSUES Background ESTABLISHMENT OF KIGALI TRANSPORT AUTHORITY Review of Current Institutional Structure Institutional Development: Coordination Review of Transportation Authority in Other Metropolitan Areas Establishment of Transportation Authority in City of Kigali Institutional Development Process Proposed KTA Roles and Responsibilities REFORMING OF GENERAL BUS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Standardizing Minimum Service Standards (Quality of Service) Rejuvenation of Bus Fleets Restructuring General Bus License System MANAGE TRANSPORT ASSETS DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES AND MANUALS Road Construction Strategy TRAFFIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTS AND PROPOSALS 6.1 DEVELOPMENT PHASING CONSTRUCTION OF KEY ROAD AND MASS TRANSIT INFRASTRUCTURE Ring Road (North) Ring Road (South) High Capacity Urban Roads Implementation Study of Bus Rapid Transit Lines and Transport Hub Infrastructure Junction Improvement and Development Programme Pedestrianisation REORGANISATION OF THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT INSTITUTIONS AND MANAGEMENT Establishment of Public Transport Executive THE WAY FORWARD 116 APPENDIX A PROPOSED ROAD CROSS SECTIONS AND DESIGN DIMENSIONS APPENDIX B ROAD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS APPENDIX C TRAFFIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT ii

7 LIST OF FIGURES Note: The numbering of Figures and Tables share the same sequence, for example, Table 1.4 follows Figure 1.3, and Figure 1.5 follows Table 1.4. This enables easier browsing in the document. Figure 1.1 Goals of the Transportation Master Plan 2 Figure 1.2 Goals and Objectives of the Transportation Master Plan 4 Figure 1.3 Conceptual Design of the City of Kigali, showing Connectivity and Decentralised Regional Centres 5 Figure 2.2 Map of Rwanda (about.com, 2012) 6 Figure 2.3 Average Temperatures based on Historical Data (World Meteorological Organisation, 2012) 6 Figure 2.1 Rwanda Population Pyramid 2012 and 2040 (projected) 6 Figure 2.4 Kigali Regional Circulation Plan (OZ Architecture, 2007) 7 Figure 2.5 Primary Road Network in Rwanda (Google Maps, 2012) 8 Figure 2.6 Air Transport in Rwanda 9 Figure 2.7 Extract of the Map of the Existing and Proposed Rail Network Links 10 Figure 2.8 Typical Unpaved Road 11 Figure 2.10 A Rural National Road in Kigali 11 Figure 2.11 Well-maintained National Road in City - Vers Kibungo 11 Figure 2.9 Public Bus Station 11 Figure 2.12 Example of Unpaved Road in Kigali 12 Figure 2.13 Existing Roads in Kigali (Red indicating paved) 12 Figure 2.17 Different Pavement Types found in the City of Kigali 14 Figure 2.15 Road Inventory in Kigali (MININFRA, 2012) 14 Figure 2.18 Road Usage in Kigali (Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey 3,EICV3, 2011) 14 Figure 2.16 Number of Households based on Vehicle Ownership (EICV3, 2011) 14 Figure 2.19 Vehicle Ownership by Category (EICV3, 2011) 14 Figure 2.20 Unregulated On-street Parking 15 Figure 2.21 Traffic Road Markings absent from Road in Kigali 15 Figure 2.22 Dual Carriageway with Median separating Traffic 15 Figure 2.23 Freight Traffic Analysis in the Rwanda Strategic Transport Master Plan (Aurecon, 2012) 16 Figure 2.24 Usage Rates for Public Transport in Kigali (EICV3,2011) 17 Figure 2.25 Public Bus Station in Kigali 17 Figure 2.26 Typical Bus Stop in Urban Kigali 18 Figure 2.28 Taximotos in the City 18 Figure 2.27 Informal Bus Stop next to Road 18 Figure 2.29 Bicycle Taxis 18 Figure 2.30 Existing Rural Road without Pedestrian Walkways 19 Figure 2.32 Pedestrians walking on Carriageway with disregard to Existing Infrastructure 19 Figure 2.31 Existing Urban Road without Pedestrian Walkways 19 Figure 2.33 One-sided Walkway Provision 19 Figure 2.34 Car parking on Existing Walkway 19 Figure 2.36 Location of the Proposed Bugesera International Airport in relation to Kigali 20 Figure 2.35 Existing Kigali Airport in the City Centre 20 Figure 2.37 Current Road Network Initiatives 21 Figure 2.38 Extract of the Map of the Existing and Proposed Rail Network Links 22 Figure 2.39 An Example of Freight Rail Lines 22 Figure 2.40 Location of the Proposed Bugesera International Airport in relation to Kigali 23 Figure Trip Generation and Attraction (SSI, 2012) 24 Figure Public Transport Routes (SSI, 2012) 24 Figure 2.43 Undulating Topography in Kigali 26 Figure 3.1 Goals and Objectives of the Transportation Master Plan 28 Figure 3.2 Proposed Transit Oriented Developments in Kigali 29 Figure 3.3 Concept Layout of Urban Land Use Plan 33 Figure 3.4 Goals of the Transportation Master Plan 34 Figure 3.9 Proposed Road Hierarchy based on Rwanda Gazette and Master Plan Classification 39 Figure 3.10 Example of a Road Type in the Matrix 39 Figure 3.11 Hub and Spoke Mechanism 40 Figure 3.12 Linking Urban Centres with High Capacity Urban Roads 40 Figure 3.13 Location of Proposed Rail Interchange and Existing Airport in Kigali in Figure 3.14 Example of how Feeder Buses provide continuity to BRT 42 Figure 3.15 Access onto Buses from BRT Boarding Stations in Curitiba, Brazil 42 Figure 3.16 Existing Freight Routing in Kigali 43 Figure 3.17 Proposed Freight Routing in Kigali in 2025 and beyond 43 iii

8 iv Figure 3.18 Proposed Cycle/Pedestrian Link Enhancements in Palo Alto, United States 44 Figure 3.19 Pedestrian and Cyclist Priority as the standard-de-facto in most the Urban Zones of Modern Cities 45 Figure 3.20 Pedestrian Crossing Enhancement at Oxford Circus, London 46 Figure 3.21 Creation of Cul-de-sacs by closing Roads 46 Figure 3.22 Pedestrianised Streets in City Centres 46 Figure 4.1 Proposed 2040 Land Use Plan 48 Figure 4.2 Density Distribution Plan 49 Figure 4.3 Proposed Township Plan 51 Figure 4.5 Proposed Employment Distribution by District 51 Figure 4.4 Proposed Population Distribution by District 51 Figure 4.6 Proposed 2025 Land Use for City of Kigali 52 Figure 4.7 Different Scheme Applications of how Land Use and Transport Planning can be organised (Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, 2010) 53 Figure 4.8 Proposed Residential Zones in the City 53 Figure 4.9 Evolution of Land Use from Existing 2012 to Figure 4.10 Proposed Road Network overlaying the 2040 Land Use Plan 55 Figure 4.11 Identification of the Road Network and the Ideal Alignments 56 Figure 4.12 Inclusion of Additional Connectors to the Grids and Proposed Public Transport links to Major Centres 57 Figure 4.13 Refinement of Arterial Routes based on Density, Traffic Analysis and Pedestrian Routing 58 Figure 4.14 Proposed Road Network Capacity 59 Figure 4.15 Proposed Road Network Capacity (Collector Roads omitted for clarity) 59 Figure 4.16 Classification of Roads based on Results from VISUM 60 Figure 4.17 Proposed High Capacity Road Network to replace the Existing National Roads through Kigali 61 Figure 4.18 Coverage of Proposed Road Network 62 Figure 4.20 Example of an Access Development for a Township in Canada 63 Figure 4.19 Example of an Internal Plot Circulation in Vauban,Germany 63 Figure 4.21 Example of an Access Lane in Europe 63 Figure 4.22 High Levels of Adaptability in Road Design 64 Figure 4.23 Example of Standardised Road Design 64 Figure 4.24 Proposed Rail Station in Kigali in Figure 4.25 Location of Air Transit Connectivity in Kigali in Figure 4.26 Location of Public Transit Connectivity in Kigali in Figure 4.27 Proposed BRT Trunk Routes 69 Figure 4.28 Possible BRT Schematic Map for Kigali 69 Figure 4.29 Catchment of BRTs 70 Figure 4.31 Overview of the BRT Planning Process (ITDP, 2007) 71 Figure 4.30 Boarding Stations in Curitiba, Brazil 71 Figure 4.32 Proposed Light Rail Transit and BRT Routes 72 Figure 4.33 A Possible Integrated BRT/LRT Map for Kigali 72 Figure 4.34 Transit Oriented Developments with Integrated Car Parks 73 Figure 4.35 Comparison of Cars and Bus Footprint 74 Figure 4.36 Hierarchy of Travel from Village to City 74 Figure 4.37 Qualitative and Quantitative Representation of Traffic Flows in different Routes of the City (MININFRA, 2012) 75 Figure 4.38 Integration of NMT and Public Transport 75 Figure 4.39 Example Components of Bus Stops (Translink, 2012) 75 Figure 4.40 Example of a Transport Hub with Integrated Car Parks adjacent to BRT Station 76 Figure 4.41 Potential Locations of Transport Hubs 76 Figure 4.42 Proposed Interchange Transport Hubs 77 Figure 4.43 Locality Guidance for Station Facilities (Translink 2012) 77 Figure 4.44 Example of a Transport Hub 78 Figure 4.45 Proposed End Terminal Transport Hubs 78 Figure 4.46 Proposed Interchange Transport Hubs 79 Figure 4.47 Preston Bus Station, UK, with Car Parking Facilities 79 Figure 4.48 Proposed Development along Transit Corridors 80 Figure 4.49 Proposed Development along Transit Stations, including MRT 80 Figure 4.50 Detailed Developments Plan for Kimironko, Kigali 80 Figure 4.51 International and Regional Connectivity to Kigali 81 Figure 4.52 Existing Freight Route through Kigali 82

9 Figure 4.53 Proposed Freight Route in Figure 4.54 Possible Locations for Logistics Hubs 83 Figure 4.55 Proposed Green Transportation Network Plan 84 Figure 4.56 Ecological Features along Green Connectors 85 Figure 4.57 Well-integrated Pedestrian Facilities in a Shared Surface Green Space in Vancouver, Canada 85 Figure 4.58 Pedestrian-friendly Streets provide Accessibility to all Levels and Modes of Transport 86 Figure 4.59 Transit Oriented Developments with Focus on Pedestrian Connectivity 86 Figure 4.60 On-street Cycle Lanes 87 Figure 4.61 Integration of On-street and Separated Cycleways 87 Figure 4.62 Provision of Cycle Storage on Buses 87 Figure 4.63 Typical Cycle Parking 87 Figure 4.64 Shangxiajiu Pedestrian Street in Guangzhou, China 88 Figure 4.65 Example of Pedestrian Schematic Plan for Nyarugenge Market 88 Figure 4.66 An Urban Complete Street in Canada 89 Figure 4.67 Proposed Complete Street Scheme at Eglinton Avenue East, Toronto: Before and After 89 Figure 5.1 Proposed Timeline for the Establishment of the Kigali Transport Authority 93 Figure 5.3 Structure of Transport Commission 94 Figure 5.5 Proposed Establishment of Organizational Structure for Phase 2 95 Figure 5.6 Final Organizational Structure for KTA 96 Figure 5.10 Mechanisms for managing Public Transport Fleets 99 Figure 5.12 Concept of Mixed License to Classified Contract System 101 Figure 5.13 Proposed BRT Trunk Routes 101 Figure 5.14 Maintenance Regime will be required for Road Structures such as Bridges 103 Figure 5.15 Road Furniture such as Street Lighting and Cycle Racks within Right-of-Way shall be the purview of the Transport Authority 103 Figure 5.16 Typical Deterioration Curves 103 Figure 5.17 Proposed Role of the Land Transport Infrastructure Division of KTA 104 Figure 5.18 Example of Utilities and their Location in Pavement 105 Figure 5.19 Proposed Framework for Traffic Impact Assessments 106 Figure 5.20 Intelligent Transport Systems Centre in Singapore 107 Figure 5.21 A Variable Messaging System in Use 107 Figure 5.22 Signal Architecture for Expressway Monitoring and Advisory System 107 Figure 5.23 Subsystems that can integrate with the Intelligent Transport Systems 107 Figure 6.1 Catalyst Development Projects (Short to Medium Term) 108 Figure 6.2 Proposed Implementation Project - High Capacity Urban Roads and Ring Roads Scheme 109 Figure 6.3 Proposed Implementation Project - Bus Rapid Transit Scheme 110 Figure 6.4 Locations for Junctions earmarked for Improvements 111 Figure 6.5 Mini-roundabout in the Lurgan, Northern Ireland 112 Figure 6.6 Double Teardrop Roundabout Proposal, Keystone Parkway, United States 112 Figure 6.7 Proposed Gisimenti Gateway Junction 112 Figure 6.8 Proposed Gisimenti Gateway Junction (different perspective) 112 Figure 6.9 SIDRA Junction Capacity Analysis for use in Traffic Impact Assessment 113 Figure 6.10 Example Schematic for Pedestrianisation of Nyarugenge Market 114 Figure 6.11 Conceptual Framework of BRT Management and Operation 115 Figure 6.13 Proposed Organizational Structure of Public Transport Executive 116 v

10 LIST OF TABLES Note: The numbering of Figures and Tables share the same sequence, for example, Table 1.4 follows Figure 1.3, and Figure 1.5 follows Table 1.4. This enables easier browsing in the document. Table 2.14 Summary of Official Gazette No. 04 of 23/01/2012 on Roads in Rwanda 13 Table 3.5 Table of Benchmark Cities (Surbana, 2013) 35 Table 3.6 Key Strategies and Performance Indicators 36 Table 3.7 Key Strategies and Performance Indicators (Continued) 37 Table 3.8 Objectives to be achieved by Proposed Plans 38 Table 5.2 Institutional Development Process - Phase 1 94 Table 5.4 Institutional Development Process - Phase 2 95 Table 5.7 Institutional Development Process - Phase 3 96 Table 5.8 Transportation Management for City of Kigali 98 Table 5.9 Major Outlines of Proposed Institutions 98 Table 5.11 Comparison of Responsibility of BRT and Intermediate Routes 101 Table 6.12 Functions of KTA, BRT agency and Governments 116 vi

11 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to acknowledge and thank the following individuals and organizations for their invaluable insights and contributions to the preparation of the Detailed Physical Plan of Kicukiro and Gasabo. Government authorities City of Kigali HE Prof. Silas Lwakabamba- Minister of Infrastructure MININFRA HE Albert Nsengiyumva-Minister of State in the Ministry of Education in charge of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, Former Minister of Infrastructure, MININFRA HE Sheikh M.Fazil-Minister of Internal Security. HE Gen Gatsinzi Marcel-Minister of Disaster Management and Refugee Affairs. HE Stanely Kamanzi-Minister MINIRENA HE Alexis Nzahabwanimana-Minister of state in charge of Transport MININFRA Mutamba Esther, Director General, RHA Eric Ntagengerwa, Transport Director, RTDA Dr.Twagira M.Elias (PhD), Director General, RTDA Masenga Marcel, Engineer, RTDA Kayitesi Vivian, Head of Department, RDB Karasira Faustine, Product Development and Planning, RDB Harerimana Simeon Ntuye Environmental Analyst, RDB Mpunga Joseph, Dir. of One Stop Center Division, RDB Mutoni Doreen, Investment Promotion Officer, RDB Musoni Jordi-Michel, Utilities Delegated Manage, RDB Thierry Hoza NGOGA, Division Manager, RNRA Duhuze Remy Nobert, Environmental Regulation and Pollution Control, REMA Muhayimana Annette Sylvie, Project Coordinator LVEMP 11, REMA Rugege Denis, Environmental Advisor, REMA/UNDP Rutabingwa Frank, Director, NAFA Nzitonda Jacques, Director of Water and Sanitation, RURA Mark Murenzi Rukata, Director of Electricity Utility, EWSA Udahemuka Sirus, Director of Airports, CAA Sagashya Didier G., Deputy Director General, NLC Dr. Mahabubul Bari, International Expert on Transport Infrastructure, MININFRA Antonin Coantic, International Road Expert, MININFRA Rurangwa Raphael, Director General Planning& Programme Coordinator, MINAGRI Fidèle Ndayisaba, Mayor City of Kigali Nizeyimana Alphonse, Vice Mayor FED City of Kigali Mupende U. Lilane, OSC Director Donna Rubinoff PHD, Senior Advisor in Sustainable Urbanism, OSC Ahimbisibwe Reuben, Infrastructure Department Director Sugi Félix, Urban Planner and GIS Specialist, OSC Ashimwe Joshua Senior Urban Planner, OSC Rangira Bruno, PR & Communication Rurangwa Claude, Transport & Transport Management Officer Mizero Solange, Transport Planner Gasabo district Ndizeye K.Willy, Mayor Gasabo District Munara Jean-Claude, Vice Mayor Economic Affairs Gasabo District Kalamagye John, Infrastructure Department Gasabo District Muhinda Arthur, Coordinator Infrastructure Gasabo District Thomas, Director of Lands Gasabo District Kicukiro District Jules Ndamage, Mayor Kicukiro District Mukunde Angelique, Vice Mayor FED Kicukiro District Eng.Kabongo T.Patrick, Urban Planner Rwakazina Claude, Director Land Bureau Rwamurangwa Félix, Infrastructure Department vii

12 PREFACE Project Background Project Process The City of Kigali (CoK), one of the most active and progressive City Councils of Africa, aspires to see Kigali develop as a competitive, safe and clean modern city. In the recent past, the Government of Rwanda has undertaken the preparation of several urban development plans in the sectors of planning, transport, infrastructure, housing and environment for Kigali. Having completed the Kigali Conceptual Master Plan (2008) and Detailed Master Plans for Nyarugenge District as well as various other sub-areas of Kigali, the City now intends to develop Detailed Physical Plans for the other two Districts, namely, Gasabo and Kicukiro, so as to have an integrated detailed plan for the entire City. Project Commissioning and Scope In October 2011, through a public tender, the City of Kigali awarded the Design of Detailed District Physical Plans for Kicukiro & Gasabo to Surbana International Consultants, Singapore (Surbana). This master planning project, in addition to the detailed planning of the two districts, has the following objectives: To review the planning direction and strategies for the entire City of Kigali, while integrating all the past planning and development initiatives undertaken. To prepare Conceptual Kigali Transportation Plan and Final Kigali Transport Master Plan. This would include the review and integration of existing plans, so as to make available a complete city wide transportation master plan for the whole of Kigali. To establish a GIS database for the entire City which has a coordinated base map, proposed land use plan & development control information for all areas of the City. This GIS system would form a part of the MIS system being put in place by the Government. To ensure participation of the various stakeholders in the development of the Master Plan so as to develop a plan that reflects the needs and aspirations of the City s residents. To ensure participation in the planning process as well as capacity building of the CoK staff through training programmes in Singapore and the Surbana project office in Kigali. Project Organization & Schedule The project is spread over one year and comprises of the following 6 task orders, each with a duration of 2-4 months: Task Order 1: Task Order 2: Task Order 3: Task Order 4: Task Order 5: Task Order 6: Start-up, Reconnaissance & Base-mapping Existing Conditions & Vision Conceptual District Plan Schematic District Plans Detailed Urban Design Implementation Plans In line with the project scope discussed above, the process to be adopted for this project is as elaborated below: Establishment of a proper working base which incorporates all land use related information for developing the master plan. In-depth analysis of various existing issues facing the City and stock-taking and review of previous master plans and transportation planning initiative in the City in order to develop an integrated plan. Benchmarking with international best practices in city planning and management, determining the future growth scenario, and setting the development vision and the strategic growth direction for the city. Development of a conceptual transport plan and management strategy for the entire city followed by detailed integrated master plans, transport plan and urban design plans for two districts. The planning process adopted for this project is further illustrated in the diagram. viii

13 Project Deliverables Stakeholders Participation & Capacity Building Various reports, corresponding to the various task orders are to be submitted to the City of Kigali, which include: Task Order 1: Inception Report Task Order 2: Analysis, Benchmarking Report and Visioning Task Order 3: Conceptual Kigali Transportation Plan report Gasabo Conceptual Plan Report Kicukiro Conceptual Plan Report Task Order 4: Final Transportation Master Plan Report Final Gasabo Master Plan Report Final Kicukiro Master Plan Report Gasabo Zoning booklet Kicukiro Zoning booklet Task Order 5: Gasabo Town Centre Urban Design report Kicukiro Town Centre Urban Design report Gasabo Town Centre Zoning booklet Kicukiro Town Centre Zoning booklet Task Order 6: Implementation Report A key component of the project would be to ensure adequate participation in the planning process from various stakeholders such as decision-makers, private sector focus groups, community organisations and various public interest groups. As such, numerous meetings, seminars and workshops are to be undertaken at all stages of the project. A long-term public exhibition of the master planning project is to be undertaken at the end of the project with an objective to launch and market the master plan. In addition, a communication plan, executed through various print, broadcasting & online media would ensure participation and feedback from the wider public. This plan preparation process would also be an opportunity for capacity building of CoK staff to further enhance their competency and capability of the staff to execute the master plan. This comprehensive city wide plan, incorporating the detailed plans of the two districts as well as all the past planning initiatives would become the long term development framework for Kigali City, guiding it into an era of progressive and holistic city development. ix

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15 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE TRANSPORTATION MASTER PLAN 1.1 INTRODUCTION The National Perspective The Vision of the City of Kigali Population in Kigali has been growing steadily from six thousand in 1960 to over two hundred thousand in the early 1990s, and after a period of unrest in 1994, doubled to over six hundred thousand people in the year The increase in population was due to Rwandans returning from around the world after the 1994 genocide. They tended to settle in the capital where there was considerable security, which has led to spontaneous, uncontrolled growth in the City and resulted in inefficient land use and resources. Today, the population of Kigali stands at 1.2 million and is expected to grow to between 4 to 5 million in the next twenty-five to thirty years. Economic growth often follows intense growth in population, especially in developing countries, and Rwanda is expected to follow the same trend. Transportation is an integral part of a city s growth. Its state directly impacts a city s economic viability and its condition affects the economic performance, safety and liveability of a city, in addition to strengthening resilience to climate change. The road network in Kigali has begun to show signs of age, and while the overall condition of the network is healthy, it is expected to deteriorate further in the next 30 years, if a good maintenance regime is not put in place. The transportation master plan is developed to ensure that Kigali is well-equipped to fulfil the transport requirements of a modern city while supporting a healthy economic growth and promoting a higher quality of life. It can help in mitigating the effects of climate change and provide sustainable measures to adapt to the changes. The Republic of Rwanda has set a vision to transform itself from a low scale agrarian economy to an active player within the regional economy. The City of Kigali is the centre of transformation in Rwanda and is currently experiencing rapid economic growth. As a result of this growth, traffic in the City has similarly grown and is expected to grow at the same rate as the economy. Planned growth is vital to ensure that preservation and improvement of the quality of life for the communities of Kigali. The Government of Rwanda has recently undertaken the preparation of several development plans in the sectors of urban planning, transport, infrastructure, housing and environment for Kigali. In support of the national vision of the Republic of Rwanda, the City Council intends to make Kigali a safer, cleaner, more competitive, modern city with expanding opportunity for sustainable development of its citizens and the country at large. To achieve this, the City has identified several Pillars of the Vision as follows:- To be a modern city with expanding opportunity to grow; To act as an engine for national economic growth ; To be able to receive all the constituents of Rwanda as well as all visitors to Rwanda; To represent a good image of the country and strengthen both regional and international collaboration and partnership. The vision for the City of Kigali is to be The Centre of Urban Excellence in Africa. The broad vision for the entire city is to be achieved through 6 critical goals set by the Detailed Master Plan. These are:- 1. City of Character, Vibrant Economy and Diversity 2. City of Green Transport 3. City of Affordable Homes 4. City of Enchanting Nature and Biodiversity 5. City of Endearing Character and Unique Local Identity 6. City of Sustainable Resource Management The Transportation Master Plan is intended to set out a strategic vision for the City of Kigali in its pursuit to become a City of Green Transport. It will ensure that future transportation needs for the City such as integrated network of roads, rapid and non-motorised transit, and policies and guides can be planned and budgeted for as the City grows. 1

16 1.2 ABOUT THE TRANSPORTATION MASTER PLAN The Specific Goals of the Transportation Master Plan The Rationale for a Transportation Master Plan The Government of Rwanda has previously commissioned a Kigali Conceptual Master Plan and Detailed Master Plans for Nyarugenge District as well as various other sub-areas of Kigali. The Kigali City Council now intends to develop Detailed Physical Plans for the other two Districts in Kigali, namely, Gasabo and Kicukiro, to achieve an integrated detailed plan for the entire City. While the direction of the City of Kigali has been set through these Master Plans, the City does not have an integrated transportation master plan to direct development in terms of transport. The Kigali Transportation Master Plan (TMP) intends to fulfil this role by providing a framework for the long-term development and expansion of existing transportation systems that will support the City of Kigali in an intelligent and a sustainable manner. The Transportation Master Plan is intended as a long-term strategic planning document for transport-related issues. It should be recognised that the TMP is not intended to address site-specific or corridor-specific issues. The TMP will evolve and expand to suit the community s requirements and needs as the City develops. As a live document, the TMP should be updated on a regular basis. This TMP sets the planning horizon at By doing so, the TMP defines the City as it would look in However, as the City s growth is organic, it is difficult to foresee the City s developments as it matures. As such, implementation projects in this TMP is current for the years and the TMP is to be updated approximately every five years by key stakeholders such as the City Council, the relevant Statutory Boards, Commissions and the Community. Key implementation proposals, at both policy level and network improvement level, are provided in this document for the short-term as catalyst for future long term projects. The package of actions presented, if implemented, are intended to achieve the Ultimate Goal of the TMP to make Kigali a City of Green Transport. To establish a Complete Transport System Figure 1.1 To become a Transit- Oriented City Specific Goals of the Transportation Master Plan Goals of the Transportation Master Plan To create a Sustainable Transport Network As part of the Vision to become a City of Green Transport, the vision report identified several areas for improvement in terms of transport, namely:- An extensive New Road Network A comprehensive Public Transport Network Inclusion of Non-motorised Transit Upon further study and discussions with members of MININFRA and the City Council, the areas of improvement have been further refined to become the following specific goals of the Transportation Master Plan as shown in Figure 1.1:- 1. To become a Transit-Oriented City 2. To establish a Complete Transport System 3. To create a Sustainable Transport Network Achieving these three goals would help progress the City of Kigali towards becoming a City of Green Transport. This overarching theme of goals forms the backbone and its characteristics serve as key principles in guiding the TMP process. 2

17 1.2.3 Preparation of the Transportation Master Plan The TMP was prepared by Surbana International Consultants in association with the Surbana Urban Planning Group. The preparation of the TMP consisted of the following major components: Meetings with stakeholder groups in Kigali Public Consultation Activities Site Visits to the City of Kigali Review of the proposed land use master plans and existing transportation planning initiatives Preparation of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) road alignment database Development of a macroscopic transport model Development of concept transport plans for implementation in Kigali Development of Implementation Plans Implementation Mechanisms As agreed with the City, the TMP would present long-term plans and proposals for the design horizon of 2040 while preparing interim designs for implementation in the short term. The implementation plans presented in the TMP represents the mechanisms to be implemented by 2025, and will serve as the benchmark for progress on achievement of goals and objectives set by this document. The results of the short-term implementation plans will then identify shortfalls of the current plans and allow for future amendments to the proposals to better suit the City. 1.3 THE DELIVERABLES The TMP provides guidance for the City to plan for its transportation needs. To aid the City in its transport network development process, the TMP will deliver the following:- Concept Transportation Plans Proposals for Institutional Setup, Development Policies and Asset Management A Schematic GIS database for use in the transport planning of the City A macro-level traffic model for use to analyse traffic along the major corridors and at critical junctions in the City The Transportation Master Plan can be used as a catalyst to initiate changes to the existing transportation network in Kigali, using the above-said deliverables. The Development Plans and Implementation Proposals would guide the City in legislation and policy-making, while the GIS database can be used as a starting point for guiding road network development. This can be supported by the traffic model developed for the City, as the City can actively monitor traffic impacts of new developments on the proposed road network. 3

18 1.4 ORGANISATION OF THE REPORT Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 4 Kigali Concept Transportation Development Plans 4 In this chapter, the City s need for a Transportation Master Plan has been identified, and the visions and goals introduced. This chapter also discusses the process of preparing the TMP, and the outcomes of the TMP Chapter 2 Context, Constraints and Opportunities Kigali s position in context of the current and future challenges and opportunities for transportation is explained. The chapter provides a holistic view on the existing and projected socio-economic aspects and describes in detail the existing transportation networks in Kigali and current proposals in place such as the new Bugesera International Airport and proposed rail connections to Tanzania. Existing initiatives are identified with regard to rail and air, and current practices by institutions are identified. The opportunities and challenges faced by the Transportation sector are also discussed Chapter 3 Specific Goals, Objectives and Strategies The objectives of the goals are explained in detail in this chapter (Figure 1.2). The strategies for each goal will be explained and elaborated in terms of their relevance to the Transportation Plans in Chapter 4. Ultimate Goal Specific Goals Public/ Private Transport Modal Split of 70:30 Objectives Proposed Road Network Plan To become a Transit Oriented City Average Public Transport Commuting time of 60 minutes Rail and Intercity Plan Transportation Plans Construction of Urban Roads to a minimum density of 6km/km² Seamless Intermodal Transport Connectivity City of Green Transport To establish a Comprehensive Strategic Road Network Construction of Intercity Freight Routes and Infrastructure Proposed Public Transportation Plans Figure 1.2 Rapid Transit Plan Supplementary Public Transport Plan Transport Hubs and Infrastructure Plan Integrated Nonmotorised Transport Infrastructure Goals and Objectives of the Transportation Master Plan To create a Sustainable Transport Network 100% of Public Amenities and Facilities served by Public Transport Proposed Freight Management Plan The Establishment of Green Network and Pedestrianfriendly Streets Proposed Green Transport Network Plan Figure 1.3 shows the original conceptual plan of the City of Kigali with conceptual regional connectivity and regional centres. Sustainable transportation has been included in the design of the transport network. Detailed proposals for the Transportation Plans are provided in this Chapter. The development strategies are further explained, and concepts and applications demonstrated. In the preparation of the Master Plan, several development proposals were devised for improving the transportation network in Kigali. Following modelling analysis and predicted projections for the population and employment of the City, several recommendations have been identified and formalised as Development Proposals for use in this Master Plan. The Development Proposals are as follows:- 1. Proposed Road Network Plan 2. Proposed Public Transportation Plans, consisting of:- Rail and Intercity Plan Rapid Transit Plan Supplementary Public Transport Plan Transport Hubs and Infrastructure Plan 3. Proposed Freight Management Plan 4. Proposed Non-motorised Transport Network Plan

19 1.4.5 Chapter 5 Institutional Setup, Traffic Management and Policies Chapter 6 Implementation Projects and Proposals Figure 1.3 Conceptual Design of the City of Kigali, showing Connectivity and Decentralised Regional Centres In Chapter 5, issues relating to the institutional setup, traffic management and policies are identified and addressed. In regards to the institutional setup, the fragmented form of institutions involved in transportation matters and bureaucracy may affect the enabling of the projects identified in Chapter 4. A detailed proposal for establishing the Kigali Transport Authority (KTA) is provided in order to aid the implementation of this master plan. Secondly, proposed guidelines are suggested for commission by the City to guide future development. Among these guidelines are road design standards, manuals for designing residential streets and the context sensitive design methods. These guidelines would form the policies which would be used to implement the proposed plans. Thirdly, it is also recommended that traffic management becomes part of the legislation in the city. Several planning tools such as Transport Impact Assessments can be made a requisite for planning approvals, where traffic studies will guide the approval of projects within the city, and especially within the commercial core. In addition, by providing analysis on intersections level of service and improvement needs, general traffic hazards, accidents, parking, environmental and aesthetic concerns, and funding, traffic impact such as congestion on urban centres may be alleviated. The application of Intelligent Transportation Systems are also discussed as a part of the traffic management process in Kigali. The last chapter addresses the key Implementation Projects, and proposes demonstration projects and key studies in the short-term. Short-term catalyst projects have been identified in discussions with Kigali City Council, and following site visits, some insight into how the short-term development of the transportation network in Kigali can be influential in the development of the City. In addition to this, several projects may be implemented with the current institutional setup, for example a public transport study may be commissioned to investigate the feasibility of BRT proposals. Additionally the current institutional setup is able to commission an asset inventory exercise and prepare a street design manual based on proposals within this document. 5

20 2 CONTEXT, CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES KIGALI: HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT Historical Kigali was founded in 1907 as the administrative centre of Rwanda and quickly developed into a major commercial centre primarily due to its central location. It gained importance as a transit centre with through-routes going to neighbouring countries through Kigali. It became Rwanda s capital when it gained independence in 1962 and since then it has become Rwanda s major economic, cultural and transport hub Demographics The population of Rwanda is relatively young compared to many countries. Rwanda has the highest population density in Africa, and the population is still growing at 2.8% per year. By 2050, Rwanda is estimated to have 26 million people, more than double its current population estimated at 11 million. 4 to 5 million of the population are expected to live in Kigali City in 2040, compared to the current population estimate of 1.2 million Climate The average temperature and precipitation of Kigali are shown in Figure 2.3. Kigali s average high temperature of between 25.9 and 28.2 C can be attributed to its location along the equator. The average yearly precipitation is 950.9mm. It rains throughout the year; however it peaks between March-April and October- November. It is significantly dry between June and August with less than 50mm of rain Geographical Kigali is located in the region of the Albertine Rift region, forming part of the watershed for the Nile. Hills with prominent ridges define its topography. Developments can be found mainly in the valleys. The tops of the ridges have an average elevation of 1,600 metres above sea level (ASL), while the valleys are around 1,300 metres ASL. Slopes are generally steep, and most roads traverse along contours to ascend the slopes. The City is ringed towards the north and west by higher hills. The highest of these is Mt. Kigali, with an elevation of 1,850 metres ASL. The southern reaches of the district is defined by the Nyabarongo River, which forms the marshes of Kigali. Rwanda is bordered to the north by Uganda, to the east by Tanzania, the south by Burundi and the west by the Democratic Republic of Congo (see Figure 2.2). Within Rwanda, the City of Kigali province shares borders with three other provinces (East, North and South); the West province forms Rwanda s borders with Lake Kivu to the west and the North and South provinces to the east. Temperature C Rwanda Population Pyramid 2012 vs 2040 Source:U.S. Census Bureau, International Database (2012) 1,500 1, ,000 1, Male 2012 Female 2040 Male 2040 Female Figure 2.1 Rwanda Population Pyramid 2012 and 2040 (projected) Kigali Climate Data Source: World Meteorological Organisation Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Temperature Range Precipitation Figure 2.2 Map of Rwanda (about.com, 2012) Figure 2.3 Average Temperatures based on Historical Data (World Meteorological Organisation, 2012) Percipiatation (mm)

21 2.2 OVERVIEW OF THE TRANSPORT SECTOR IN RWANDA Figure 2.4 Kigali Regional Circulation Plan (OZ Architecture, 2007) The transport sector is considered a strategic sector for Rwanda given that high transport costs are currently regarded as a hindrance to the economic growth and development of the country. MININFRA has prepared a Transport Sector Policy (2008) which defines the vision of the Government as well as its strategic orientations for the Transport Sector. The transport infrastructure in Rwanda comprises:- 1. Road Transport, with a network of 14,000km, corresponding to a road density of 0.53km/km² 2. Air Transport, with two international airports and five aerodromes spread across the country. Work has begun on the eighth airport, Bugesera International Airport which would complement services from Kigali International Airport. 3. Lake Transport, which is limited to Lake Kivu. Other fluvial forms of transport are non-existent due to the more convenient 4. Rail Transport, which currently is not found in Rwanda. There are plans to build a railway between Rwanda and the port of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania The transport services in Rwanda are provided by both the public and private sector, and includes bus, taxi and airline services. The transport sector contributes considerably towards poverty reduction and economic growth, and serves as support to other economic sectors. It plays a fundamental role in the economy of Rwanda as it contributes about 7% to the GDP, and represents about 15% of total service delivery. There has been a steady increase in the allocation of resources to the transport sector both from internal and external sources of finance, which is a clear demonstration of the importance that the Government of Rwanda places in the development of the sector. 7

22 2.2.1 Road Transport in Rwanda Road Transport in Rwanda comprises a road network of 14,000km, giving a road density of 0.53km/km². As shown in Figure 2.5 the road network extends into the neighbouring countries, namely Uganda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Tanzania. Much of the traffic using these National Roads are commuters, however due to the lack of rail network in Rwanda, freight traffic forms a large proportion of traffic on these routes. The national roads (shown in yellow) continues and links into national roads in these adjacent countries. Several major cities are located where these roads meet: for example, towards the Democratic Republic of Congo, the roads join onto each other at Goma and Bukavu. Traffic going from DRC to Tanzania to the east would travel from either Goma and Bukavu, through Kigali and towards Bwamagana before splitting north or south. These national roads are paved and provide a permeable network through Rwanda, although much of the traffic would travel through Kigali when travelling in an eastwest direction. Figure 2.5 Primary Road Network in Rwanda (Google Maps, 2012) 8

23 2.2.2 Air Transport in Rwanda Rwanda has two international airports and five aerodromes spread across the country. Work has begun on the eighth airport, Bugesera International Airport which would complement services from Kigali International Airport Water Transport in Rwanda Water Transport in Rwanda is limited to lakes, in particular in Lake Kivu. Due to the more prominent road network, water transport in Rwanda has not been developed further. Figure 2.6 Air Transport in Rwanda The two International Airports in Rwanda are Kigali International Airport (also known as Kanombe International Airport) and Kamembe International Airport. The remaining airports are small aerodromes, which are in deplorable states, and would require rehabilitation and expansion of their basic infrastructure and navigational equipment. Kigali International Airport is currently running at almost full capacity. The proposed Bugesera International Airport, which is located approximately 30km to the south of the City, is intended to supplement the Kigali International Airport. Construction of the Bugesera Airport has begun, with an estimated completion date for the first Phase in

24 2.2.4 Rail Transport in Rwanda There are currently no railways in Rwanda. The mountainous nature of the terrain in Rwanda makes the implementation of rail very challenging and potentially expensive. Recent studies show that railway in Rwanda may be a means to stimulate trade of goods with partner countries of the East African Community. Several schemes and initiatives have been proposed for Rwanda. Rwanda National Land Use Master Plan (RNLUMP) This plan sets out extensive provision of rail for the entire country. The proposed rail alignment has connections to Tanzania, Uganda and Lake Kivu. The alignment being proposed is based on that proposed in the Feasibility Study project. However, it extends the rail alignment further north beyond Kigali. The alignment passes directly through Kigali City. This is clearly a concept as much of the terrain the alignment crosses is unsuitable for rail. 10 East African Rail Master Plan As a member of The East African Community, Rwanda is part of the plans to connect to the East African region via rail. The East African Railway Master Plan is a proposal for rejuvenating the existing railways serving Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and extending them into Rwanda and Burundi and ultimately to South Sudan, Ethiopia and beyond. This plan (see Figure 2.7) has been carried out in cooperation with the Governments of Tanzania and Burundi. This is a comprehensive plan that goes as far as proposing stations at Kigali, Bugesera, Isaka and Gitega. The capital cost to implement the plan is estimated at US$3.7 billion. Funding will be through the African Development Bank (AfDB). Strategic Transport Master Plan for Rwanda This is a comprehensive transport master plan for the entire country. The section of rail to the north of Kigali is described as being a concept subject to the successful implementation of the southern section of rail. The northern section of rail links Kigali to Gisyeni. Figure 2.7 Extract of the Map of the Existing and Proposed Rail Network Links (East African Railways Master Plan, 2009)

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