1 Assessment of Scientific and Artistic Research at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture Self assessment report, part II Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademis Skoler for Arkitektur, Design og Konservering
3 C The purpose of section C is to present a selection of examples of scientific and artistic research from the period to the external Assessment Panel. The examples have been selected by the four Heads of Institute based on feedback from the individual institute staff, centres and action areas. The ambition has been to gather and present a representative selection of scientific and artistic research works carried out at the four institutes during the period The presentation therefore includes dissertations, peer review contributions, articles, conference papers, reports, anthologies, monographs and working papers as well as teaching materials. The selection of examples thereby reflects both KA's and the researchers' publication and dissemination practice during the period and the desire to communicate widely to the degree programme, the profession and the public. Furthermore, the selection of examples reflects the fact that during the period, works have been carried out of both scientific character and within artistic research, which stresses the fact that during this period, KA and its researchers have acted on the basis of the understanding that both types of research were possible and desirable. The presentation of examples is divided by institutes, and wherever possible also according to centres / action areas (not all institutes had centres during this period). Contents, Section C Section C 1 Examples of Works from the Institute of Building Culture Section C 2 Examples of Works from the Institute of Architectural Technology Section C 3 Examples of Works from the Institute of Planning Section C 4 Examples of Works from the Institute of Design and Communication
7 C/1 Institute of Building Culture #1 Title The Architecture of Space: the Space of Architecture Author Marcussen, Lars Type Book, The Danish Architectural Press, 2008, 570 pages Description A narrative about man's perception of space and about spatial ideas' historical development from the earliest ages to the present day. A development that has manifested itself in a multiplicity of cultural productions from painting and construction to geometry and astronomy. The book gives a wide description of the cultural history of space, and based on this context, it describes the history of architecture. In this revised 2 nd edition, four chapters have been added, which take history and the theoretical debate up to the turn of the millennium. Here, the issues about history and culture are compared to relevant aspects of Gilles Deleuze's philosophy, which has played an immense role in the humanities and social studies since the 1990s as well as in important movements within architecture and art. Content: From prehistoric times to the Renaissance: origin of structure (Group structure: Psychology of the space; Space in visual arts; The phenomenology of space: Architecture and world image; Cosmic architectures: Hellenic and Jewish; The cosmic synthesis; Circular cultures and ancient Egypt; Doric and Ionic Hellas; Rome from paganism to Christianity; Christian antiquity and the middle ages; The metamorphosis of the Gothic era and Italian renaissance); From the baroque to postmodernism: The fold in history (Cosmology in the extreme phase of secularisation; Philosophical schools of thought; The image and the word; Difference and repetition; Nomadology and cognitive knowledge; Elliptical and linear baroque; England: romance and cubism; France and Germany: Monument and structure; German and French postmodernism: Architecture's linguistic turn; The new paradigm; Beyond the paradigm: three spirals; The rehabilitation of the space). The author was awarded the Høyen medal for his contribution to the understanding of the architectural universe in 2004 and received his doctorate on the basis of this book in #2 Title Arkitekturen som tidsmaskine (Architecture as a Time Machine) Author Thau, Carsten Type Book, School of Architecture Publishers, 2010, 560 pages Description A collection of essays, articles and lecture manuscripts dealing with central themes in modern architecture and its relation to the modern tradition from which it has grown. The common basis for the chapters is that architecture is crucial to our perception of the time in which we live and of time in general. The chapters can be read individually, but the themes are grouped thematically. The book deals with the city and architecture's influence on our experience of time, individually and collectively, centred on the following topics: the age of the monument the ruin time's plunder of things the dwelling in the perspective of time the home as an organisation of memory the collector's passions and strategies the robot as a mechanical clockwork the early avant-garde's idea of an open sluice through which the future flows into the present the labyrinth as a seductive folding of time and space film scenography and the end of history future as a museum. The presentation involves visual arts, film architecture, urban development and building design from the Age of Enlightenment till now, from Piranesi via the Bauhaus masters to Olafur Eliasson and contemporary Danish architects who make modernism their point of departure. #3 Title Places in Utzon's Architecture Author Asgaard Andersen, Michael
8 Type PhD dissertation, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, 2006, 232 pages Description The dissertation deals with places in Jørn Utzon's architecture. It analyses and discusses select projects and themes, which are of relevance to the understanding of the issue of place in his works. It also discusses a number of different concepts of place related to Utzon's works. The objective of the dissertation is to unfold an understanding of several different places in his architecture. The thesis of the dissertation is that aspects of many time-related and geographical places are combined in Utzon's architecture and that this diversity makes it possible for abundant new places to emerge in each of his projects. The three central elements are the places that come together, their architectural manifestation and the emergence of new places. The dissertation is divided into three main sections: The first consists of three chapters, which introduce different aspects of the research field. The second consists of five articles, each containing an analysis of a project or a theme in Utzon's architecture. The third part consists of two conversations and the conclusion. Finally, the dissertation includes a bibliography and a summary in Danish. The five articles have been published as follows: Beboede Landskaber (Inhabited Landscapes) in Louisiana Revy 2 (2004), Drømmehus i Australien (Fantasy Home in Australia) in Utzons Egne Huse (Utzon's Own Houses), The Danish Architectural Press (2004), Revisiting Utzon s Bagsværd Church in Nordic Journal of Architectural Research 2 (2005), Embedded Emancipation in Fabrications 2 (2005), Articulated Convergences in PTAH 1 (2006). #4 Title Ort: Unsentimentaler Kontextualismus / Place: Cool Contextualism In: Von der Stadt zum Haus: eine Entwurfslehre / From City to House: a Design Theory. Dietmar Eberle; Pia Simmendinger (eds.) Author Thule Kristensen, Peter Type Contribution to anthology, GTA Verlag, Zürich, 2007, pp Description The article is included as a chapter in an anthology that describes Professor Dietmar Eberle's design method, including the phenomena of place, structure, programme, enveloping and materiality, in said order, as central design parameters at both city and building level. In this context, the article deals with the theme of place and shows how Colin Rowe and Aldo Rossi, among others, developed the concept of context in the 60s, and how modern day architects such as Diener & Diener, Lacaton & Vassal and Segison Bates address urban, landscape and suburban contexts, respectively, in concrete terms. Funding ETH, Zürich #5 Title The Complexity of the Ordinary: Context as Key to Architectural Strategies Authors Thule Kristensen, Peter (ed.); Lotz, Katrine (ed.); Jerl Jensen, Mette (ed.) Type Papers, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, 2006 Description 31 papers presented at the conference The Complexity of the Ordinary: context as key to architectural strategies. Held at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture in The topic of the conference was contextual strategies in contemporary architecture. It was aimed at practising architects and architecture researchers, and it focused on a contemporary architecture that has artistic intentions as well as the ability to relate to contexts that are often quite ordinary and everyday like. The starting point for the conference was puzzlement at Danish contemporary architecture's lacking ability to reflect on the building's many diverse contexts and preference for spectacular one-liners. The conference featured contributions from Danish and international architectural firms, including Segison Bates Architects, UK, Grafton Architects, Ireland, Tegnestuen Vandkunsten and Lundberg and Tranberg, DK, and from Danish and international schools of architecture,
9 including the London Metropolitan University, the University of Cambridge, ETH Zürich and the Technical University of Denmark. Funding The conference was held with funding from the Velux Foundation, among others. #6 Title Ind under huden på Hansen og Koch: et bidrag til forståelsen af C.F. Hansens arkitektur/ Beneath the Skin of Hansen and Koch: a Contribution to the Understanding of C. F. Hansen Architecture Authors Larsen, Lene Gerd and Bredal-Jørgensen, Jørn Type Journal article, in: Architectura, No. 28, 2006, pp Description Architect C. F. Hansen was the most significant and influential Danish architect in the 19 th century during the period designated classicism. His works have left distinctive footprints in the cityscape of central Copenhagen. Not least through the preserved works of the Church of Our Lady cathedral, the Metropolitan School and the Copenhagen Court House, which was originally designed to accommodate the Copenhagen City Hall as well as the court. The mentioned works feature one immediate common trait: their rendered facades in a characteristic reddish brown colour. Over the years it has been assumed that the reddish brown facade rendering was an innovation on the part of C. F. Hansen, and the numerous restoration works that have been carried out over time have all attempted to remain faithful to this perception. The article summarises archival studies and building archaeological surveys that provide new information on the works' original appearance, and thus the research project contributes to a more varied understanding of C. F. Hansen's architecture. The research project was carried out in collaboration between The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture and Conservation. #7 Title A New Nature: 9 Architectural Conditions between Liquid and Solid Author Abraham, Anders Type Book, School of Architecture Publishers, 2009, 576 pages Description Architecture is the organisation of matter. A New Nature is about this form of organisation. The book summarises artistic research that includes reflected physical, material studies, partial structures, proposals and realised projects. The point of departure is an observation and an experience of the city and the cultural landscape as being series of conditions undergoing change. The primary characteristic of these conditions is not form, but the degree of organisation of their connections in a field between order and chaos. The city and the cultural landscape do not have a fixed form, but are rather perceived as a physical mass, where areas change over time, densify or disperse, are extended or demolished. In this project, the phenomenon appears to be without clear objectives, in a condition of continual physical transformation. It is this condition that is described as a new nature in the project. The objective of the project is to contribute to the development of architecture that relates to this context not as a form with a fixed content, but as architecture that, due to the fact that it is a condition itself, can form part of and intervene in the continual transformation process that it and we are a part of. The basic idea of the work was developed during a long research visit to the Cranbook Academy of Art in Detroit, Michigan, USA, and parts of the project have been exhibited, including at the International Architecture Biennale in Venice.
10 #8 Title Spacebody Actual Virtual Authors Brabrand, Helle (producer); Kjøbek, Jytte (other) and Sørensen, Gert (other) Type Sound and image production (digital), The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, 2005 Description The project was developed as a film. The material was presented to the public in the form of a DVD and until 2011 via the website which contains films and comments. The film compares three layers a series of drawn figures that serve as routes; a body that acts according to the routes, and a space that is built around the body and the movements. The work's focus is the relation between body and space, and the research work thus addresses a number of foundational architectural conditions. Spacebody presents a spatial perception located somewhere between a space and a product of the body and its functions, and a space that dictates how the body can act. In this way, the project develops new possible architectural organisations and spatial courses. The work consists partly of film recordings of a dancer and partly of computer animations. The project unfolds a creation process of special perception images in a medium that connects the concrete to the virtual. Funding The project was developed with funding from The Danish Arts Foundation. #9 Title Paradoxes of Appearing Authors Andersen, Michael Asgaard (ed.) and Oxvig, Henrik (ed.) Type Bog, Lars Müller Publishers, Baden (2009) Lars Müller Publishers, Baden, 2009 Description The anthology is the result of PhD teaching courses, which culminated with an international conference. The book's individual chapters are well-researched conference contributions. The anthology is a comprehensive discussion of the dialogue between art, architecture and philosophy/phenomenology. The central objective of the doctoral school work was to contribute to the dialogue between artistic research and scientific research in order to promote the possibility of the PhD student working both artistically and scientifically in his/her dissertation. Thus, the anthology is an offshoot of PhD courses with an emphasis on the study of phenomenology's and poststructuralism's current possibilities of contributing to qualified, scientific work through questions that would seem to be central to aspects of artistic research today. Introductions to the anthology's individual contributions were presented at a PhD symposium in Copenhagen and later on reviewed so that the anthology stands as a significant scientific contribution in its own right and with the potential to interest a wide readership. A couple of the contributions to the anthology have later been published supplemented with other Scandinavian contributions in Scandinavian languages at Aarhus University as number 31 of the peer-reviewed journal Passepartout under the title of Tilsynekomster i kunst og arkitektur (Appearances in Art and Architecture), Funding The project was realised with funding from the doctoral school consortium Danish Architecture and Design Research Schools. #10 Title Nordic Architects Write: A Documentary Anthology Author Andersen, Michael Asgaard (ed.) Type Contribution to anthology, Routledge, NY, 2008, pp 1-7
11 Description The anthology gathers a selection of influential texts from four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The texts are written by some of the most outstanding architects in the Nordic countries, who have practised and expressed their ideas about architecture from 1925 until today. The anthology is divided by country and organised chronologically. Despite the many differences, the four nations have clear, common characteristics, which appear as a theme with variations in several of the texts. This is seen particularly in connection with the modern movement's original sociocultural maxims and in reflections on the content of the concepts of place, space and matter.
15 C/2 Institute of Architectural Technology #1 CLIMATE Title Klima og arkitektur (Climate and Architecture) Authors Dahl, Torben (ed.) and Friis Møller, Winnie The book's authors are employees at the Institute of Architectural Technology's climate subjects: Torben Dahl, Eva Tind Kristensen, Nanet Mathiasen, Winnie Friis Møller, Georg Rotne, Peter Sørensen, Nina Voltelen, Ola Wedebrunn and Nanna Albjerg. Type Book, School of Architecture Publishers, Copenhagen, 2008 Funding The book came into being and was published with funding from a number of private foundations and the Danish Ministry of Culture in addition to the participants' own research time. Description The book deals with the architectural challenge inherent in the design of buildings and in particular their facades or building envelopes with specific consideration for local climate conditions. It also addresses ways of integrating a regulation of climate impacts into the architectural expression, so that the resulting indoor climate becomes both comfortable and eventful, while at the same time the architecture is enhanced. It also aims to show some of the many possibilities of regulating buildings' climate that a more detailed study of local climate conditions and local building traditions facilitate. #2 Title Denmark Authors Dahl, Torben, KADK; Friis Møller, Winnie, KADK; Elle, Morten, DTU and Quitzau, Maj-Britt, DTU, Type Article in:european Carbon Atlas, Low Carbon Urban Built Environment, eds. Jones, Phil; Pinho, Paolo; Patterson, Jo and Tweed, Chris, Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University, Wales, UK Funding The publication was supported by COST. Description The article is the national Danish contribution to a publication that summarises the activities of the COST C23 Action entitled Strategies for a Low Carbon Urban Built Environment (LCUBE), which took place over the period The main objective of the COST C23 was to investigate, through a network of 19 countries across Europe how carbon reductions can be achieved through appropriate design and management of the urban built environment. The article describes how the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) has been implemented in Denmark. Three case studies at single building level, urban level and city level illustrate how Danish national energy legislation, Danish local energy planning and strategies impact the built environment. #3 CINARK Title Forming Core Elements for Strategic Design Management How to Define and Direct Architectural Value in an Industrialised Context Authors Beim, Anne and Vibæk Jensen, Kasper Type
16 Peer-reviewed article, in: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, CIB Loughborough University, UK, 2007 Description The paper is about empowering the architect and helping to improve architectural quality. The thrust of the paper is the defining and directing of architectural value within industrialised buildings in Denmark. This philosophical, yet pragmatic, attention to core elements of strategic design management helps to outline an approach for achieving architectural quality within an industrialised context. The paper presents a way to analyse how and to what degree design processes are formed strategically according to specific architectural intentions (values). Through detailed interviews with professional architects, the way in which they manage the design process and how the architectural potentials are realised when dealing with modern industrial processes are examined. For the analysis and structuring of the empirical data, a model was developed consisting of four approaches for action. The approaches are categorised along different dichotomies in order to point out different ways in which the offices can direct their design process (strategies) and reach particular end-results (goals). Two examples from the analysis are discussed in accordance with the dichotomies and subsequently developed into a general classification focusing on strategy. Subsequently, the model was tested in the architectural degree programme at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. The overall research project had two aims to help architectural offices identify the characteristics and specific working methods for industrialised architecture, and to generate a common debate about quality in industrialised architecture. #4 Title Robust arkitektur Arkitekturen som en aktiv del af organisationers identitetsskabelsesproces (Robust Architecture Architecture as an Active Part of Organisations' Identity-Creating Process) Author Madsen, Ulrik Stylsvig Type PhD dissertation, School of Architecture Publishers, Copenhagen, 2009 Funding The dissertation is the result of collaboration between The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture (KA) and Copenhagen Business School (CBS). The two institutions each funded half of the fellowship, and the project was therefore anchored in two research environments from the outset. At KA, the project was associated with the Centre for Industrial Architecture (CINARK), and at CBS, it was associated with the Center for Management Studies of the Building Process. The fellow was enrolled at KA and therefore followed the School of Architecture's Doctoral School programme. Description The dissertation's themes can be summarised in the following key question: How do you ensure that a building can actively form part of new situations that you were not able to foresee at the time the building was created? The dissertation points to the concept of robust architecture as the answer to this question. In order to create architecture that is robust to changes, architecture must be able to renew itself. A building and its significance thus become a continual development process, in which architecture is created in the encounter with the different contexts that it will form part of over time. The dissertation is based on two primary cases, which analyse based on three main themes: anchoring, territory and transparency different aspects of architecture's capacity to form an active part in organisations' identity-creating process. It is on the basis of these analyses that the robustness concept is developed as an overall concept that gathers the project's empirical material and puts it into perspective. #5 Title Three Ways of Assembling a House Authors Beim, Anne; Nielsen, Jesper and Sánchez Vibæk, Kasper Type Book, School of Architecture Publishers, Copenhagen, 2009 Funding
17 PUCA French Governmental secretariat for Planning, Urbanism, Construction and Architecture. Within the framework of the European ERABUILD research programme. Description Communicates the international research project AUMIB Architectural Quality, User Involvement and Mass Customization in Building Construction. A collaboration project between KA, IPRAUS and CHALMERS. The objective of the research project is to develop knowledge about highly industrialised construction methods seen in connection with requirements for architectural quality and user-driven construction processes. The project focuses on multi-storey housing via a series of analyses. Within industrial construction, experts are continually searching for ways of simplifying and rationalising processes (e.g. systems delivery, configuration and design platforms). At the same time, potential house buyers want homes of architectural quality, and they want to exert influence on the design. These contrasting approaches to both process and product are not always compatible. The project examines different strategies for industrialisation of multi-storey housing through concrete case studies, comparing these and weighing them against each other in order to point out possible action areas. The project consists of three parts: state-of-the-art (design strategies in industrial processes appropriate for construction), case studies (analyses of buildings, building systems and processes), and finally, a synthesis of the two (how far have we come, and where is it all leading). The project was a Danish-Swedish-French collaboration funded via ERABUILD under the French government. #6 APPLIED CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY Title Blokmurværkets arkitektoniske potentiale (The Architectural Potential of Blockwork) Author Leimand, Nini Type Industrial PhD dissertation, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, 2009 Description The research project focuses on giving blockwork as a construction principle new significance and new architectural application by lifting it from being just a pragmatic construction system to being an architectural system of concepts. One important hypothesis in the project is that by carefully studying buildings mainly those that are constructed of massive blocks, including natural stone, lightweight concrete, LECA, blocks of bricks etc. it will be possible to derive an architectural and experience-related affinity between the buildings with the purpose of improving the quality of the design and the use of homogenous blocks in future. The research project uses the Porotherm brick block as its case. The assumption here is that blockwork facilitates a far more elastic and dynamic space formation than the predominant construction systems. The project's hypothesis is that the brick block in addition to its obvious economic, indoor climatic and design-related advantages conceals an architectural, aesthetic and space-creating potential, which it would be worth developing. The dissertation's studies are based on the issues that generally pop up at the drawing table. The studies are presented in three parts, divided accordingly into three booklets. Booklet one lists a number of tools in the form of theoretical and factual/practical background material for zeroing in on the specific characteristics of blockwork. Booklet two is primarily aimed at the project planner who wishes to gain an overview of existing block types. Booklet three serves as a sort of architectural reflection on the dissertation's research-related observations, and its objective is to set an example for a blockwork practice by means of a systematic series of central details. Funding The Industrial PhD Scheme under the Danish Council for Technology and Innovation and the companies Wienerberger A/S and Maxit A/S #7 Title P. V. Jensen-Klint Author Jensen, Thomas Bo Type Monograph, School of Architecture Publishers, Copenhagen, DK 2006, UK 2009 Description
18 The research project / monograph about P. V. Jensen-Klint serves a dual purpose: First, to create a general interpreted overview of the engineer, architect and multi-artist P. V. Jensen-Klint's architecture and design production. Second, to study, describe and analyse Jensen-Klint's impact on Danish architecture and design tradition in the 20 th century. The book's main point is that P. V. Jensen-Klint is an unavoidable key person if you want to understand the foundational motives behind Danish architecture and design in the 20 th century. #8 STRUCTURES Title Reciprocal Frame Architecture Author Popovic Larsen, Olga Type Book, Elsivier, the Netherlands, 2008 Description In structural terms, reciprocal frame structures are three-dimensional assemblies of mutually supporting beams. But behind this definition lie some breathtakingly beautiful and complex structures at the heart of buildings both ancient and modern. This new book explores the principles of these apparently simple structures and demonstrates how they can be used in the context of a modern building. The book is a result of an investigation into both structural and architectural aspects of the system, particularly: the structural morphology of reciprocal frames, geometry definition, structural behaviour, materiality, architectural space formation, building traditions and historical/contextual aspects. The book has had several reviews and was listed for the RIBA international book awards. It is the first major publication (book) that defines reciprocal frames. As such, it has led to and has generated a new field of research internationally. Funding Financially, the book was supported by the Japan Sasakawa Association. #9 Title Connection Systems in Reciprocal Frames and Mutually Supported Elements Space Structure Networks Author Popovic Larsen, Olga Type Journal publication refereed, in: International Journal of Space Structures, Volume 25, Number 4 (2010), Multi-Science Publishing Co. Ltd. UK by J. P. Rizzuuto, Principle Lecturer, University of Greenwich and Professor, 2010 Description This is a journal publication presenting research focusing on reciprocal frame joints and connections. The paper gives an overview of complex reciprocal frames and types of connection used. The aim of the research is to define the structural behaviour of bolted connection systems for complex reciprocal frames. Studies were conducted using both full-scale physical models and FE analysis. The two approaches and the results are compared to provide an understanding of the behaviour of this type of connection. #10 LIGHT Title Lysets rytme som belysningsarkitektonisk element (The Rhythm of Light as a Lighting- Architectural Element) Author Bülow, Katja
19 Type PhD dissertation, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, 2007 Description This project asks how the rhythmic functionality of navigational marking at sea can be used as a lightingarchitectural quality in complex visual environments on dry land. In urban environments in particular, the concrete perception of place and time may have a tendency to appear somewhat indistinct. Not because of lacking visual reference points, as found at sea, but rather as a result of an opposite situation: in the form of an overload of many visual elements and interrupted, experienced contexts. The dissertation takes its starting point in the hypothesis that notable rhythmic themes can reinforce the relation to a place in concrete terms in the form of metric relations between the observer and the light from a light source (just as the relation to the nautical indicator), but also in the form of an experienced phenomenology, where the rhythm from a light source makes sense in relation to the place's location, function and how or when and during which stretch of time it is taken in physically. Eight cases combine to form a catalogue of ways to establish rhythmic structures and to indicate a territorial way in which to mark a place. The territorial aspect should be understood here to mean deleuzian, in the sense that a territory does not close in on itself; instead it is created on the basis of the surrounding conditions. The surrounding light sources thereby play a significant role as to how a luminous rhythmic theme makes itself heard and contributes to the establishment of an experienced place and its elapsed time. Funding Fully funded PhD at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture