Electrophoretic Gold Nanoparticles Depostion On Carbon Nanotubes For NO 2 Sensors

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1 European Network on New Sensing Technologies for Air Pollution Control and Environmental Sustainability - EuNetAir COST Action TD nd International Workshop EuNetAir on New Sensing Technologies for Indoor and Outdoor Air Quality Control ENEA - Brindisi Research Center, Brindisi, Italy, March 2014 Electrophoretic Gold Nanoparticles Depostion On Carbon Nanotubes For NO 2 Sensors Elena Dilonardo 1*, Michele Penza 2, Marco Alvisi 2, Domenico Suriano 2, Riccardo Rossi 2, Cinzia di Franco 3, Francesco Palmisano 1, Luisa Torsi 1, Nicola Cioffi 1 1 Department of Chemistry, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via E. Orabona , Bari, Italy. 2 ENEA, Technical Unit for Materials Technologies - Brindisi Research Center, PO Box 51 Br4; I Brindisi, Italy. 3 Dip. Interuniversitario Fisica M. Merlin Università degli Studi Di Bari Aldo Moro Via Amendola, 173, Bari, Italy. COST is supported by the EU Framework Programme ESF provides the COST Office through a European Commission contract

2 Source and Effects of NO 2 : Why NO 2 Monitoring? Industrial/ Commercial/ Residential 19% Other 9% Sources Utilities 27% Ground-level Ozone (Smog)- formed when NO 2 react in the Acid Rain NO 2 react with other substances in air to Visibility NO 2 blocks light reducing visibility presence of sunlight. form acids Global Warning NO 2 is a grrenhouse gas Motor Vehicles 49% EURO 6 limits NOx emissions: g/km (entry into force in Sept. 2014) NO 2 NO 2 useful detection limits*: 10 ppb (EPA- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency March 2013) Particles NO 2 reacts to form acid vapor and particles Strict emission standards and the increasing awareness have induced the growth of sensor market. LIMITATIONS: Sensitivity/Detection Limit Selectivity Kinetic response Mobile- NO 2 transported long distances on prevailing winds Respiratory problems: inflammation of the lining of the lungs, and it can reduce immunity to lung infections. Current gas sensors address only a minimal set of sensing needs. Temperature range Stability and Reproducibility Life Time 2

3 Material Selection for Gas Sensing: CNTs Advantages and Disadvantages of Existing Gas Sensors SENSOR SIZE POWER SELECTIVITY SENSITIVITY STABILITY Analytical equipment Electrochemical sensors Catalytic bead sensors Metal oxide semiconductors Conductive polymer sensors CARBON NANOTUBE as sensing material Nanostructured material: high surface area High selective High adsorption capacity Stable physically and chemically Large change in electrical properties FUNCTIONALIZATION WITH METAL NPs TO IMPROVE GAS SENSING PROPERTIES FUNCTIONALIZED CNTs (p-type): MODEL OF CATALYTICALY-INDUCED CHARGE TRANSFER Interaction with gas molecules results in an electronic charge transfer between the molecule and the CNT-NP sensor, which affects the position of the Fermi energy and, hence, the conductivity of the detection unit. Electron acceptor gases (NO 2, O 2 ) -Resistance -Conductivity Electron donating gases (NH 3, CO) -Resistance -Conductivity 3

4 Absorbance (a.u.) Experimental Set-Up CNTs synthesis CNTs GROWTH By CVD TECHNOLOGY 100 nm Substrate: film cobalt (Co) nanoclusters, 6 nm thick 1 st step: H 2 plasma 550 C 2 nd step: H 2 + C 2 H 550 C Au-NPs electrochemical synthesis Sacrificial Anode Electrolysis (SAE) Electrolytic solution : 0.05 M TOAC in THF/ACN=3:1 Electrolysis potential: 1 V Electrolysis charge: 300 C M. Penza et al., Sens. Actuators B 144 (2010) Au NP SPR nm Electrophoretic deposition of Au NPs on CNTs-based gas sensor device Cathodic process E(V) = -0.5 V (ocp: -0.3 V) N 2 Process parameters: t deposition : 90 s t deposition : 300 s t deposition : 600 s i = A Q = C i = A Q = C i = A Q = C Wavelength (nm) Stabilized spherical Au NPs with diameter of 12 nm Au NPs 4 CNTs device Electrophoretic solution:[au NPs]= 10 mm [TOAC] = 5 mm V sol. = 5 ml in THF/ACN = 3/1

5 Counts (s) Characterization Au4f t process - Surface Chemical Analysis + AuNPs/CNTs_t:90s AuNPs/CNTs_t:300s AuNPs/CNTs_t:600s 83.4 ev C1s(%) Au4f (%) O1s(%) 87.1 ev Au4f 7/2 Au4f 5/ ev 86.9 ev Morphology Binding Energy (ev) CNTs as received 95.0 ± 0.5 / 5.0 ± 0.5 Au NPs/CNTs t:90s 94.4 ± ± ± 0.5 Au NPs/CNTs t:300s 92.0 ± ± ± 0.5 Au NPs/CNTs t:600s 91.2± ± ± 0.5 Deposition of Au NPs on CNTs : Au NPs decorate CNTs. The content of deposited Au NPs increases increasing the process time. Shift of Au4f B.E. to higher ev increasing the deposition process time (increase of NPs cluster dimension) AuNPs/CNTs t:90s AuNPs/CNTs t:300s AuNPs/CNTs t:600s 200 nm 100 nm 200 nm 100 nm 200 nm 200 nm 100 nm 5

6 GAS SENSING FUNCTIONAL TESTS RS-232 USB-GPIB Card 34401A Multimeter Controller Unit RS-485 RS- 485 Low-Current Scanner Card 617 Electrometer Dry air Check-valve 7001 Switch System Inlet-gas CHEMIRESISTOR Exhaust-air Sensor-Cell 6644A System DC Power Supply M. Penza et al., Sens. Actuators B 135 (2008)

7 NO 2 GAS SENSING Resistance change (Rf - Ri) (k ) Sensitivity (%/ppm) NO 2 Mean Gas: NO 2 - Carrier Gas: Air t exposure : 10 min t recovery : 60 min (in Air) NO 2 concentration effect [range: ppm] T process effect [range C] 0, , ,000-0, ,24-0, min <t response < [NO 2 ] 5 ppm t response < 8 2 ] 5 ppm 10ppm 8ppm 7pp 9ppm m 2ppm 5ppm 4ppm 3ppm 6ppm 1ppm T=150 C 0.3ppm 0.2ppm 0.1ppm 0.4ppm 0.5ppm CNTs CNTs_0.3% Au CNTs_0.5% Au CNTs_1.1% Au time (min) 1.1 1,1 CNTs CNTs/AuNPs_t=90s CNTs_0.3% 1.0 1,0 CNTs/AuNPs_t=300s CNTs_0.5% CNTs/AuNPs_t=600s CNTs_1.1% 0.9 0,9 0, , , , , , Temperature ( C) NO 2 MEAN SESNITIVITY IS HIGHER FOR Au NPs DECORATED CNTs AT ALL INVESTIGATED T AuNPs DECORATED CNTs ARE STABLE IN THE INVESTIGATED RANGE OF T MAXIMUM NO 2 MEAN T= 150 C 7

8 Resistance change (R f -R i ) (k ) Resistance change (R f -R i ) (k ) Resistance change (R f -R i ) (k ) INTERFERING GASES SO 2 T =150 C VERY LOW RESPONSE: R/R i (%) < 0.5 % CO ( T =150 C VERY LOW RESPONSE: R/R i (%) < 0.2 % Mix NO 2 + [CO] = 1000 T=150 C 0,2 0,0 CNTs CNTs_0.3% Au CNTs_0.5% Au CNTs_1.1% Au CH 4 T =150 C VERY LOW RESPONSE: R/R i (%) < 0.5 % NH 3 T =150 C VERY LOW RESPONSE: R/R i (%) < 0.5 % 0,0 Mix NO 2 + [NH 3 ] = 25 T=150 C CNTs CNTs_0.3% Au CNTs_0.5% Au CNTs_1.1% Au -0,2-0,4 8ppm 5ppm 1ppm 0.2ppm 0.5ppm -0,5 8 ppm 5 ppm 1 ppm 0.5 ppm 0.2 ppm time (min) 0,25 0,00 Mix NO 2 + [CO] = 25 T=150 C CNTs CNTs_0.3% Au CNTs_0.5% Au CNTs_1.1% Au -1, times (min) High sensitivity for NO 2 also in contemporary presence of intering gases -0,25 1ppm 0.5ppm 0.2ppm HIGH SELECTIVITY FOR NO 2-0,50 8ppm 5ppm time (min) 8

9 CONCLUSION A tunable loading of Au NPs with uniform dimension is efficiently deposited directly on the surface of CNTs-based sensor device by electrophoretic process. Au NPs functionalized CNTs-based gas sensor have an higher thermal stability than un-functionalized one. Au NPs functionalized CNTs-based gas sensor have an higher NO 2 sensitivity and selectivity than un-functionalized one, revealing [NO 2 ] in sub-ppm range. 9

10 FUTURE PROSPECTIVES Investigation of other interfering gases. Optimization of electrophoretic deposition conditions. Electrophoretic functionalization of CNTs-based gas sensor devices with other metals and/or metal oxides nanoparticles. 10

11 THANK YOU! 11

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