INTEGRATED RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND

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1 ΕΠιθΕΩΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜιΚΩΝ ΕΠιΣΤΗΜΩΝ - Τε ύχος 1 ο (2 006), INTEGRATED RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND ΤΗΕ MULTIFUNCTIONAL ROLE OF FORESTS: Α THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL STUDY ΟΛΟΚΛΗΡΩΜΕΝΗ ΑΓΡΟΤΙΚΉ ΑΝΑΠΤΥΞΗ ΚΑΙ Ο ΠΟΛΥΛΕΙΤΟΥΡΓΙΚΟΣ ΡΟΛΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΔΑΣΩΝ: ΘΕΩΡΗΤΙΚΉ ΚΑΙ ΕΜΠΕΙΡΙΚΉ ΔΙΕΡΕΥΝΗΣΗ Abstract Rcccιll decadcs ha\'c bcen marked b)' ιhe econon1ic dccl inc of forn1erly ag ri culιura li)' d e νel oped areas. a red ιι c ιi on of ιhc ag ri c ulιural 11 orkforcc and a do11 η 11 ard ιrcnd rcg<1rding ιhe ag ri cu l ιural sccιo r boιh in Greecc and ahroad. H o 1νever. ag ri c u l ιural produc ι i1 c acti\'itics no11 ada)'s only co nsιiιuιe one as p ecι of rural dcl'elop ιnenι. as ιhe count ryside gn1d u a ll ~ pro n1 oιes ίι s n1ulιifιιncιion<li role. Αι ιhc s;ιn1 e ι ime. ιh e mulιil'accιcd fun c ιion s of ιh e fo r es ι s and ι h e ir co nιri l>ιιιion> ιο in ιcg rω cd ru nιl develop n1 c nι l1ave 1ι<1 rι ed ιο beco ιn e 11 idely-kno1vn ιο ιh c ge ι1 era l publi. T11e presc ι11 papcr s ιudi es ιl1e vie11 s of ι l1e pcoplc ο!' Pr e νeza p rc ι cc ιure concer niι1 g ιh c 01 crall ιlc\'clop n 1cnι of ιhcir r cg i o ιι ιh e prioriιi cs ι l 1 aι shuuld bc given ιο lore ι ιηaι1ageιηe ι 11 a ικl ιl1e ιηcη;υω reqιι ircd for ι hc c; ι a bli sh n1enι of ιi e 11 fore. ι s. Thc re carch 11;ι; Ciirried υuι ιhr ough s iιnplc rando ιn ;a nψlin g and lac -ιu - facc 1111erνie 11 s. The non - paramcιric ι cs ι ; ol F ri cd ιn an. Krιιsk al - V alli> and ~Ιίιι1 n \Vhιιπeγ 11 crc ιι;ed for ιhc dωa anal1;i>. ~1 011 of ιhc rcspoι1de ι11 1 bclιe 1 e ιhaι agrίtίι!ιιιre "ιhe prιn1aη ;ecιor sup ρorιing ιhe de\'el up n1enι of ιheir region. closcl)' follo11cd b1 li1esιock. \Vhcn askcd ahuιιι ιl1c ;ccιo rs ιhω n1a\' con ιri l1 ιιι e ιo 11 ard1 ιl1 e fuιιιrc dc\'clopιncnι of tl1e Prciet<ι prcfccιιιrc. ιl1c ιn ajori t) cnψl1<1sized ιh e preνa ilin g role of ιοιιrίςιη Thcy also noιed ιh a ι ι he basic priorit)' aς rcgardς foresι n1a11agcn1cnι should he ιh e crca ιι on of e mρ lov n1 cnι ορpοr ιιιπίι ίc1. <ι nd ιhaι ubsidics sl10 ιιl d bc pro1 idcd for ιh e cs ι a l1ιisl1n 1 e nt of 11e1v forc;ts. Περίληψη Τι: τεί.ευτ αίε; bεzαε τ ίε; ;ταρcιn1 ρείται η οιzονομιzιj 1 cιψικι11j :rρι(j ην γευψι ιz(ι ανεπτυγμrνων ;τεριοzων. η ι ι ειωση τοι γεωργ ιzοίι bι νcιιιιzοι zαι η croί \' Ol'O(I :τορείrι του γ εωργιzοίι τομέα όχι μ<i\'ο mην Είj.άbα αίj.ά zιιι bιεον<δ:. Η Ίεωργιzη παρ(ι γωγι zιj bριιστηριότητ α αποτελεί ;τi.εον ιιιcι μ όνο bι<ίιπrιση n1: ανιιm ;η; ni; ι παίuρου. Στcιbιcιzιί η ιiπαιuρu: αναbειzvυει τον ;τοi.υi.ειτ οι ργ ιz ι\ ni; ροί.ο. 1 Ι<ιρω. Αηi.<ι. οι ;τοί.11πi.ευρε; ί.ειτουργιε; τ ων bασιιjν zαι η uυμβολη το υ; στην οί.οzί.ηρωμενη rινιί.1n ;η n1; υ;τ(ιίljροι αρχι~υυν να γινοντ cιι γνωστε; ιπο ευρυ z υι 1 0. Σn1ν :τιιροωα εργασία διερευνάται η ωοψη των :rοi.ιτων τοι 1 νομοιi Π ρέβεζα; ιrι.ετιzα με τη Ίε νιz ι~ τερη <ινcιm Ξη ni; ;τεριοzη; του;. τι; :τ ροτεριιιι\n1τε; ;ωυ :τιιr:τει ν(ι όοοιιι ν ιπη bιιιzει~1ιιn1 τωl' όιωων zω πι μεψcι :τι!\ ' :rρ ι:τει \'([ i.ηqοουν Ί ια n1 bημιουι_ι'/ιu ν ιων όιωων. 11 ερευνcι :ηyιιy μωο:τοιηίlψr με Π] βοιt Οεια τη; cι1ί.ιj: n zcιίrι: Ο ε ι γμιιτολ ηψία; zιιι ιι ε :τ ροσω:τι z έ; ιrι νf\'!rιi;ει;. Γιrι n1ν ανrίί.υιn1 των bεbομένω\' χρι1σ111<ηοιιjοψrιl' οι μη :τ<ιρrψετριzο ί rί.ε zοι Hll' Friedιn <ιn.!! )\' Kru1kal-\\ all" Zrιt των M ω1n -\Vhiιn c). Οι ;τερισοοπροι ερωτωιιf\'οι Οεωρσι ν οτι η γει ι(ι',' ι<ι r ινω ο zυριιiτερο; τοιι έcι; :τοι 1 <m 1 ρί::ει την αν(ι;ττυε.η τη: :τ ερ ιοzιj: τοι : zω ιιε ιιιzρη διαcrσ()<ι <ιzω.01 Οει ι~ zτηνοτιιαrιcι. Όσον αcrοριί ιπ ι : ηιιιrί: :τοι ιιε/j.ο Ι'! ιzrί ιι;ηιροιίν νrι ΒοηΟησουν ιπην rινrιm Ξη tοι \'Οtιοι Π ρέ(\ε~cι : zυρίιιρzη Οέιn1 zrιτέzει ιπι: cι1όψι: τ ων ερωτωιι ε l'ων ο τοι ριοιι ό;. IΞ,1ιιn1:. :rιmει οι ν οτι Ι cιuιzη ;τροτ ε ραιόn1 τ cι ;του ;τρ έ :τει να οο Οει ιπη ι'>ιιιzrιριm1 των bcιοων ει ναι η bηιιιοι ργ ιcι ει zωριων ιι1ιιιr1,01.ηm~;. ενιiι Ί ιcι τη ι'>ημιοl'ρ'(ίί! νη1ιν bιισων νιι boh01 1 r:τιοοn1οει;. J EL Class ifί c <1tiυ11: Q 18, Q 23, Q 56, 1{ 1 Ι l{5g ke) " ' υrd s : ru r<ιl clcvclop ιn c ι ll. Prc\CZ<I. fιιrc>ιγ)ό >ocio l ogic;ιl r e;e<ιrch ρaπ1111cιric ι c> t >. Garylallos Arabatzis Lectuιer, Oepaήment οι Forestry and Management οι the Enνironment and Natural Resources, Oemocrltus Unlνersity οι Thrace Georgios Tsantopoulos Lecturer, Oeρartment οι Forestry and Management οι the Enνironment and Natural Resources, Oemocritus Uniνersity οι Thrace Stylianos Tampakis Assistant Proιessor, Oeρaήment οι Forestry and Management οι the Enνironment and Natural Resources, Oemocritus Uniνersity οι Thrace οι Konstantinos Soutsas Proιessor, Deρartment Forestry and Management οι the Natural Enνironment, Technological Educational lnstitute οι Larissa Γαρύφαλλος Αραμπατζής Λέκτορας, Τμήμα Δασολοy ίας και Διαχε ί ρισης Περιβάλλοντος και Φυσικών Πόρων, Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θράκης Γεώργιος Τσοντόπουλος Λtκτορος, Τμήμο Δοσολοy ί ος κοι Διαχε ί ρισης Περιβάλλοντος κοι Φυσικών Πόρων, Δημοκρ ί τε ι ο Πανεπιστήμιο Θράκης Στυλιανός Ταμπάκης Επ ί κουρος Καθηyητής, Τμήμα Δασολοy ί αςκαι Δια χείρισης Περιβ άλλοντος και Φυσικών Π όρων, Δημοκρ ίτειο Πανεπιστήμ ι ο θρόκης Κω νστ αν τίν ος Σούτσος Καθηyητής, Τμήμα Δασολοy ί αςκαι Διαχε ί ριση ς Φυσικού Περιβάλλοντο ς, Τεχνολοyικό Εκπο ι δευτικό Ίδρυμο Λάρισα ς 19

2 ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣ ΓΑ., ΤΣΑΝΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ Γ., ΤΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ ΣΤ., ΣΟΥΤΣΑΣ κ. - ΕΠΙθΕΩΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ - Τεύχος 10 (2006), Introduction 20 The early 1950s can be considered as the period that signified the beginning of the development of the Greek economy. During that time, state int e JΎe nti o n not only adapted to the evolving dynamics of the busines class, but also attempted to implement a se ries of measures to facilitate and promote the latter's activities. At the beginning of the same decade, agriculture contributed to the creation of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 30% approximately, followed by the secondary sector with only 20%. Ιπ the early I 960s however, the secondary sector managed to catch up with tl1e agricultural sector, both representing an equal share of 25 %. From 1955 to L970, the GDP increased at an annual rate of 7%, whereas the GDP of the agricultural sector only rose by 3% annually. Consequently, its share in the GDP was ο π a constant decrease and only amounted to 16.2% ίπ (Maravegias, 1992). During the post-war period, great progress was achieved with the modernization of the Greek agricultural sector, which was based ο π updated methods and productio n technologies, the modernization of certain crops and changes made to the compositio n of the agricultural product. At the same time, a structural redistribution of the rural population and workforce was o b se ΙΎ e d, as a consequence of the developments taking place ίπ other branches of the economy (Koutsoumaris, 1987). At the time, agriculture was considered by many as a pl ayer that delayed and slowed down economic development, particularly ίπ the industrial field. Greek agriculture, despite its significant progress, did not keep pace with the development of other productive sectors of the econo my, and thus undermined all efforts for growth (Yergopoulos 1975, Malkidis, 2001). After World War Π (WWII), a basic objective of agriculture was to increase the agricultural yield and ensure that there was food sufficiency, by opting for an intensification of production systems. The entry of Greece into the European Economic Community (EEC) ίπ 1981 and the implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) resulted ίπ an inflow of major financial resources, an improvement of the producers' incon1e, an additional intensification of production, a substantial "agriculturalization" of the countryside, and to phenomena related to territorial and social inequalities (Anthopoulou, 2001, Gousios, 2001 ). Ιπ recent years, the CAP reform, the General Agreement ο π Tariffs and Trade (GΑΠ), the decisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the global orientatio n towards non-protected national markets and th e enl argement of the European Union (EU) have created new standards fo r the agricultural sector and rural areas in general (Zioganas, 1999, Mattas, 2000). Mo re specifically, the policies of the EU promote the countryside as an area devoted to the co n sejύa ti o n, protection and enhancement of the natural environment, cultural va lu es and quality of li fe ; it is therefore considered a space that merits attention and public s up eιύ i s i o n as regards environmental and te rritorial balance (EEC, 1994, Papadopoulos, 1999, Anthopoulou, 2001).

3 ARABATZIS GA., TSANTOPOULOS G., TAMPAKIS ST., SOUTSAS Κ. - REVIEW OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES - Νο 10 (2006), Α va riety of measures linked to agro-environmental issues, early retirement schemes, afforestation, as well as regulations related to organic farming and livestock, have contributed to a conversion, diversification and transformation of the existing production system on a farm level and today highlight the multifunctional role of agriculture and the countryside as a whole (Damianos et al., 1997, Arabatzis, 2003). The multi-functional role of agriculture also involves the integration of environmental concerns within agricultural policy, since agriculture is nowadays not only determined by its productive role, but also incorporates other dimensions related to the conservation, management and exploitation of rural landscapes, and the protection of the environment, thus contributing to the sustainability of rural areas (O ECD, 2001, Potter and Burney, 2002). The multifunctional ιό \ e of the countryside extends beyond its agricultural profile to include other activities (production of non-food products, recreation, environmental protection) and thus comprises a complex group of characteristics, which may even contradict one another. In Europe especially, the countryside is not only loaded with environmental value and interest but also embodies important aspects of culture, history and civilization. In less-favoured regions particularly, the diversification of the local economy and the pluractivity of farmers ίη relationship to the protection and enhancement of the natural environment and agricultural landscape have now become the main levers for development. Pluractivity amongst farmers became an object of study in recent decades, when it was observed that there was a gap ίη the transition of fa rmers ίη modern industrial societies from traditional pluractivity in the rural society to exclusive agricultural activities practiced on a professional and business level (Gasson, 1986, 1988, G idarakou, 1990, Kaffe-Gidarakou, 1999). This phenomenon usually involves the head of the fa rm, and essentially means combining agricultural practice with involvement ίη the industrial and services sector activities that develop in the rural space. Such an occurrence is customary not only in sma \1 and medium-sized fa rms, but also in large, modemized farms; ίt is linked to the type and category of crop and is not dependent on a country's level of development (Gasson, 1988, Damianos et al., 1994). Research into the views of citizens ο η the multifuncti onal role of fo rests in the Greek countryside was initiated as a result of acknowledging their increasing significance fo r the environmental, social and economic developments and changes that have occurred during recent decades. The contribution of fo rests is of primary ίmpo rt a n ce fo r the economy and society, since they do not only offer commodities such as wood, resin and forage, but also a whole range of services related to recreation, hunting, fishing in mountain streams, and also help to increase underground water reserves, protect rare natural monuments, the flora and fa una, and the environment as a whole (Arabatzis, 2000). The multifunctional role of fo rests (environmental, social, economic, developmental, cultural) nowadays constitutes a dominant multi-faceted issue, which holds a relatively unknown potential fo r the broader public, but contributes substantially towards environmental protection and integrated rural development. This essentially means that the impact of fo rests and their 21

4 ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣ ΓΑ., ΤΣΑΝΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ Γ., ΤΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ ΣΤ., ΣΟΥΤΣΑΣ κ. - ΕΠΙθΕΩΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ - Τεύχος 1 ο (2006), prospects for a n1ultiple contribution to the local productive and social system, ίtnd environmental balance, are being gradually promoted (Slee and Snowdon, 1999, Slee and Wiersum, 2001, Kassioumis et al., 2004). The aim of this paper is to study the views of the citizens of Preveza prefecture concerning the development of their region and the role forests can play in that direction. Furthermore, another primary goal is to investigate the priorities that should be given to forest management, and th e measures that are required for th e establishment of new fo rests. 2. Study area 22 The research was carried out in the Preveza prefecture, region of Epirus, which produces 3.5 % of Greek agricultural sector, accounts for 1.5% of the manufacturing sector and 2.5% of the services secto r. Its GDP pe r capita for 2002 was 10.3 thousand euros, which puts ίt in 1 Ί th place, representing 80% of the Greek average. At an EU-25 level, its GDP per capita for 2001 was equal to 59% of the average (Α ΙΙ Media, 2004 ). According to data from the census, the population of the prefecture amo unts to 59,356 people, which is an increase of 799 persons compared to the previous censιιs ίη (NSSG, 2003). Preveza prefecture covcrs a total area of 103,600 hectares (ha), % of which is covered by forests and forested areas, 28.3% by agricultural land and 14.1 % by rangelands (NSSG, 1995). The inhabitants of the prefecture are equal to 0.5 % of thc country's populatio n and it produces 0.4% of its GDP. The GDP per capita ίη 1990 amo unted to 94% of the Greek average, while in 2001 ίt was 76% and 56% of the EU-25 average. This means that, in the couγse of twelve years, the GDP pcr capita has substantia lly decrehsed and now Preveza is in 40th place amongst the country's prefectures. In 1990 the primary sector represented 25% of the GDP, the secondary 24% and the tertiary 51.5%. In 200 1, the percentage of the G DP from the primary sector was gradually reduced to 12.9%, and a similar drop was observed ίη relhtio nship to the secondary sector's share ίη the G DP (18.4%). On the contrary, the tertiary sector witnessed a major increase during the same period, and its share in the GDP rose impressively to 68.7% (Α ΙΙ Media, 2004). Preveza prefecture offers important comparative advantages, such as its climate and natural resources (fertile agricultural land, rangelands, lagoons), which have meant that tl1e primary sector (agriculture, livestock, fishing), but mainly tourism, have managed to develop at a very rapid pace, thus increasing its inhabitants' level of income. The basic economic activities of the prin1ary sector are agriculture, followed by livestock, with fishing also becoming mo re widely practiced. The main agricultural cultivati ons include vegetables, o lives, citrus fruit and cotton. Ι η the livestock sector, there has been an observed recent development ίη pig farming, while sheep and goat farming also maintain a satisfactory performance. Fishing, which is mainly focused ο η Amvrakikos GιιΙΓ Hnd the rcmarkable lagoons ίη the region, is also making a prominent contribution to the income profile of the primary secto r (Alpha Credit Bank,

5 ARABATZIS GA., TSANTOPOULOS G., TAMPAKIS ST., SOUTSAS Κ. - REVIEW OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES - Νο 10 (2006), ). Fina lly, forestry is limited, since th ere is no notewo rthy producti on of fo rest products. and it is simply re tricted to the improvement and development of the already extensive rangelands, and the procurement of aesthetic and other benefits to the local comn1unity (Forest Service of Preveza, 2003). 1 η recent years, the tourism secto r has kn own significant progress, due to the natural beauty ot the lonian coastline, which is a po le of attraction for thousands o f visitors from Greece and abroad. The primary focus is the region of Parga, but tourism inte rest extends along th e whole coastline from Parga to Preveza. 3. Research methodology The realizati o n o f an cmpirical study in soc i <ι l sciences goes through various phases or levels. One o f these pl1 <ιses is data collection, more speci fica lly tl1e personal cι nd social data th <ι t is coll ected through the use of cι questi onnaire ( D ao ut o p o ιιl os, 2002). The questionnaire used in the present research mainly includes closed-type questions. The research was conducted using a structured questionnaire cι nd the method selected was face-to-face interviews. The interview is the best way of coll ecting statisti cal data and is broadly used in sampling research ( Κi oc h os, 1993). Simple random sampling was the sampling me thod selected, due to its simplicity and the fact that it requires a minimal knowl edge o f the populatio n compared to any other method (Kalamati anou, 1997, D amianou, 1999, Mati s, 2001). The "population" under study is th e total number of househo lds in the Preveza pre fecture. Simple random sampling presupposes the existence of a full list (sampling frame) of the populatio n without omissions or repetitions (Filias et al., 1996). The sampling framework used involved lists of consumers of household electricity. These lists were considered the most appropriate choice, since almost 100% of households in the region under research use electricity. Using households is cι classic example of using groups of people as a sampling unit, instead of indivίdu a l persons. This is a preferred solution in certain cases, since it is a mo re convenient and less costly method (Matis, 2001 ). The selection process for the respondents (from a household chosen at random) was organized so that the same family member would not always be chosen (i.e. always the head of the fa mily, his wife, etc.) (Filias et al., 1996). ln orde r to estimate the populatio n propo rtio n that share a specific characteristic, we can proceed with the following cι dn1i ss i o n s. lf ί in the unit sample has this characteristic we then write p ί = 1, if it doesn't then we write Pi = Ο. ln this case, the estimated populatio n proportion which is also the unbiased estimation of tl1e actual population proportion ph is provided by the formula:,_, p =

6 ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣ ΓΑ., ΤΣΑΝΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ Γ., ΤΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ ΣΤ., ΣΟΥΤΣΑΣ κ.. ΕΠΙθΕΟΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ. Τ ε ύχ ο ς 1 ο (2006), The estimation of the variance o f the population proportion s 2 P and the standard error of the population proportion sp, without the correction of the finite population because the sampling fraction is small : s = ~ Ρ ν~ The confidence interval fo r this proportion can be taken from tables or special abacus, and can also be calculated with the help o f the t-student value p=ρ±t Sp where t = the valu e of the STUDE NT distribution fo r probability ( 1- α) = 95 % and η- J degrees of freedom. When planning a sampling research, one decisio n involves the size o f the sample η that will be selected from the population. If we select a larger sample tha 11 is required, then we definitely waste time and money. On the other hand, if we select a sma ller number of units for the sample, this mean that we are "buying" information that does not suffice to estimate the parameter of the population we are interested in. In this case, we are not in a position to support our results as re liable, in the sense that the parameters have been estimated using the predetermined margin error and the required estimation credibility (D ami anou, 1999). The sample size was calculated based on the simple random sampling formulae (Kalamatianou, 1997, Matis, 2001 ). AJthough simple rando n1 sampling without replacement was used, the correction o f a finite population can be ignored because the size of the sample η is small compared to the size of the population Ν (Pagano and G auvreau, 2000). Since the variables re fer to proportions, the determinatio n of the total sample size is provided by the formula: ι 2 p ( 1 - ρ ) η=---- e2 where ρ = the estimation of proportio n t = the value o f the STUDENT distribution for probability ( 1- α) = 95% and n-1 degrees o f freedom. Since the size of the conducted presampling is large ( over 50), the value t is taken from the probability tables of the normal distributio n fo r the desired probability. In practice, for 95% probability the va lue is 1.96 (Matis, 200L ). e = the maximum admitted difference between the sampling mean and the unknown mean of the populatio n. We accept that ίt is 0.05, i.e. 5%. 24 In order to calculate the size of the sample, we were obliged to conduct presampling on a sample size of 50 persons. Thus, the population proportion ( ρ ) was calculated for each variable. The use of a questionnaire is not restricted to estimating only one

7 ARABATZIS GA., TSANTOPOULOS G., TAMPAKIS ST., SOUTSAS Κ. - REVIEW OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES - Νο 1 Ο (2006), population va riable, but more, which is why we need to estimate the sample size fo r each o ne of these va riables. lf the estimated sample sizes are similar, and th e size o f all is within the fin ancial means of the sampling, then the sample size selected is the maximum. In this way, the va riabl e with the greatest va ri ance is estimated with the desired precision, while the rest are estimated with a greater accuracy than was initially defin ed (Matis, ). The va riables "the regio n's current development can be based on agriculture" and "the region's future development can be based on livestock" presented the largest sample size, with a proportion of p = 0.5, therefore 1-p = 0.5, which means that tl1e sample size is: t 2p(l-p) 1,962. 0,5. (1-0,5) 11 = = = 384, 16 e We the refore accepted a sample size of 385 persons, which means that the other vari ables are calcul ated with greater accuracy with th e specific sample size. The households in the samplc were th en precisely identi fied (full name and address) using random numbers that we chose from random number tables. Face-to-face intervi ews were conducted in the selected households, with a member o f the fa mily that was selected at randon1. When the household occupants were not found or refu sed to answer, two more attempts were made to obtain their opinion. When this was not possibl e, we used th e same procedure in o rder to select new sampling units. The data coll ection took pl ace in 2002 and the statistical package SPSS was used to implement the Friedman, Kruskal - Wallis and Mann - Whitney statistical tests. The Friedman statistical test is used to compare the values of three or more va ri abl es. The distribution o f the Friedman criterion is an x2 distribution with κ- 1 degrees of freedom (df), where κ is the number of groups or samples. This criterio n individually classifies the va lues of the variables fo r each subject and calcul ates the mean rank of the classified values for each va riable (Makrakis, 2005). The Kruskal - Wallis statistical test is used in the analysis of va ri ance with one factor, but with three or more groups of an equal or unequal number. The cases are classified and the sum of the ordinal values fo r each group is calculated. These calcul atio ns are then used to arrive at the value of the criterion which approaches thex2 distributio n. The mean rank signifies the sum of the orders divided by the number o f cases. The Mann-Whitney statistical test corresponds to the parametric t-test groups. The applied methodology is simple. The observations are sorted in ascending order from the smallest to the biggest, so that a unified sample is created. We then make a correspondence between each observatio n and its ordinal number, i.e. its position in the order we created. Finally, we add up the ordinal numbers from the observations that correspo nd to each sample and check whether the two sums differ signi ficantly (Halkos, 2000, Makrakis, 2005). 25

8 ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣ ΓΑ., ΤΣΑΝΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ Γ., ΤΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ ΣΤ., ΣΟΥΤΣΑΣ κ. - ΕΠΙθΕΩΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ - Τεύχος 10 (2006) Results 4.1. Development ofthe region Α regio11 's pace a 11d level of develόp111e11t depe11ds 111 a i11ι y 011 its geographical positio11, the ava il ability of 11atura l a 11d huma 11 resources, its i11frastructure, a11d o re ge11eral socio-eco11omic evolutio 11s. The applicatio11 of the Friedma11 stati stical test (χ 2 = , df =6, Asymp. sig=0.000) has show11 that the mai11 topic of the 111ultiple-ite m variable "sectors which support the regio11 's developme11t" is "agriculture", which prese11ted a mea11 ra11k of More specif'ically, 48.5 % of the respo11de11ts believc that agriculture is characterized by a high level of developn1e11t, 4 1.5% by a low level a 11d, fi11hlly, 10.2% believe that there is 110 progress bei11g mhde ί11 Hgriculture. 111 recent yehrs, cha11ges have thke11 place ί11 the rural eco y which Hre rooted ί11 the curre 11t tre 11d for the globh lizht io 11 of the i11te r11 Ht ionh I eco11o mic sce11e, the libe rhlizatio 11 of world trhde, the CAP reforms a11d the re i11fo rceme 11t of the ro le of structural po licies. These chh11ges, combi11ed with the i11te11se diversificatio11 of agriculturhi regio 11s, do 1101 affect all rurhi Hreas ί11 the same way, and co11seque 11tly exercise a positive i11πu e 11 ce 0 11 some a 11d a 11egative 0 11e 011 othe rs (Efstratoglou et al., 2002). Despite its diminishi11g role, Greek agriculture co11ti11ues to producc 7-8% of the GDP and employs approximately Ί5 % of the active population. These pe rce ntages, combined with the fact tha t agricultura l expo rts still constitute 30% of the country's total volume of exports, assign an important position to agriculture witl1in the Greek econo my a nd pa rticul arly within the econo my of rural areas, where agricultural activities predominate due to the concentratio n of o the r economic activities - manufacturing, se rνices - in the la rge urban centers of Athens a nd Thessaloniki. ln the whole of the Greek countryside, agricultural activities produce 20-30% of the local GDP and e mploy about 30-50% of the local active populatio n (Maravegias, 1999). Our research focused o n the existence of a ny re latio nship between the topics included in the sectors which support tl1e region's development a nd age, in come and educatio n with the use of the Κru s k a l - Wa llis statistical test. Following the applicatio n of the statistical test, statist ically significant differences a re obserνed between the various age categories and forestry (χ 2 = 9.226, df = 2, Asymp. sig = 0.010), industry (χ 2 = , df = 2, Asymp. sig = 0.001), trade (χ 2 = , df = 2, Asymp. sig = 0.000) and tourism (χ 2 = 8.478, df = 2, Asymp. sig = 0.014). ln additio n, statistica lly significant differences were also noted between the various in come categories a nd agriculture (χ 2 = , df = 3, Asymp. sig = 0.004) and trade (χ2 = 7.865, df = 3, Asymp. sig = 0.049). Fi11ally, sta tistically significa nt differences were present between the vario us educatio n categories a11d industry (χ 2 = 7.999, df = 2, Asymp. sig = 0.018) and trade (χ2 = , df = 2, Asymp. sig = 0.004). The Ma nn - Whitney statistical test was then used to study the re latio nships between the different variable categories for which the Κru s k a l - W allis statistical test showed statistically significa nt differences.

9 ARABATZIS GA., TSANTOPOULOS G., TAMPAKIS ST., SOUTSAS Κ. - REVIEW OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES - Νο 10 (2006), Thc Mann - Whitney statistical tcst was applied between the age categories (" 18-33", "34-49" and ">49") and the variablcs: "the rcgion's developme nt is based on forestry, industry, trade and tourism. Τhιιs, statistically signi ficant differences exist between the age categories "18-33" and "34-49" and the va ri ables: the region s development is based on fo restry" (U = 2, , Asymp. sig = 0.019), "industry" (U = 2, , Asymp. sig = ), "trade" (U = 2, , Asymp. sig = 0.001) and "tourism" (U = 2, , Asymp. sig = 0.004). More specifically, it is the younger group ('Ί 8-33") who believe that their region's developme nt is based on the above-me ntioned secto rs Γ a th e r than the older age gro ιιp ("34-49"). Furthermore, statist ically significant differences exist between the age categories "18-33" and ">49" and the variables: the region's developme nt is based on industry (U = 1,92.500, Asymp. sig = 0.017) and trade (U = 1, , Asymp. sig = 0.003). Mo re specifically, ίt is the yo un ge Γ age group (' '1 8-33") who bcli eve that their region's development is based on tl1e above-me ntioned sectors rather than the third group (">49"). This indicates that the younger persons believe tl1at the development of their region is based on branches of the te rtiary sector (trade, tourisn1 ) but also on traditional sectors, such as forestry and industry. Finally, statistically significant differences exist between the age categories "34-49" and ">49" and the va riable: the regio n's developme nt is based o n forestry (U = , Asymp. sig = ). More specifically, ίt is the members of the olde r age group (" >49"), several of whom have recently been involved in fo rest-related activities, who believe that forestry is a traditional rural sector that has contributed to their region's development, rathe r than the younger agc group ("34-49"). The Mann - Whitney statistical test was applied between the income categories (in Euros) (" < 6,700", "6,700-12,000", "12,000-19,000" and "> 19,000") and the variables: "the region's developme nt is based on agriculture and trade". Thus, statistically signi ficant differences are observed between the income categories "<6,700" a nd "> 19,000" and the variable, "t he region's development is based on trade" (U = , Asymp. sig = 0.02). More specifically, it is the highest-income group ("> 19,000") who believe that the development of their region is based o n trade, rathe r than the lowest-income group ("<6,700"). Statistical differences also cxist between the income categories "6,700-12,000" and "12, ,000" a nd the va ri able, "t he region's development is based ο η agriculture" (U = , Asymp. sig = 0.012). More specifically, it is those in the third income group (" 12,000-19,000") who believe that the ir region's developme nt is based on agriculture, rathe r than those in the second income group ("6, ,000"). The respondents with the highest income believe that trade has contributed to their regio n's developme nt, whilc those ίη the mid-level income groups bel ieve that the basic pillar fo r rιιra l developme nt has been agriculture together with the high-level of subsidies provided by the EU. The Mann - Whitney statistical test was applied betwecn the education categories ("primary", "secondary" and "tertiary") and the va ri ables: the region's 27

10 ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣ ΓΑ., ΤΣΑΝΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ Γ., ΤΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ ΣΤ., ΣΟΥΤΣΑΣ κ. - ΕΠΙΒΕΩΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ - Τε ύχος 10 (2006), developme nt is based on "industry" and "trade". Thus, statistically significant diffe re nces exist between the education categories "primary" and "te rtiary" and the variable, the region's development is based on "trade" (U = , Asymp. sig = 0.001). More specifically, it. j ς the t eι- ti ary education graduates who be lieve that their region's developme nt is based on trade, rather than those who are primary educatio 11 graduates. Statistically significant d if feι-ence s are also noted between the "primary" and "secondary" education categories and the variables, "the regio 11 's developme nt is based on industry" (U = 2, , Asymp. sig = 0.006) and "trade" (U = 2, , Asymp. sig = 0.009). lt is the secondary educatio 11 graduates who be lieve that their regio 11's developme nt is based 0 11 the above-me ntio 11ed sectors, rathe r than those who are primary education graduates. The respo 11de11ts with the highest educatio 11al level believe that the te rtiary sector, a11d trade ί11 particular, have co11tributed to the ir region's growth. Those in the mid-level educatio 11al group believe that both i11dustry and trade have played this role. Anothe r issue u11de r study was the basis for tl1e future developme11t of the regio 11. Followi11g the applicatio11 of the Friedma 11 statistical test (χ2 = , df = 6, Asymp. sig = 0.000), the main topic of the multiple-item va ri able "sectors that can support the regio n's future developme nt" is that the latter is based 0 11 "tourism", that prese11ted a mean rank of More specifica lly, % hope that the re will be a great level o f development ί11 the tourism sector, 15.6% that the re will be little developme 11t a 11d, fi11ally, 6.8% do 11ot expect any developme nt ί11 tourism. The lo 11g pe riod of stagna11cy ί11 Greek agriculture, the deterio ration of the agricultural professio 11 a 11d the i11te nse de-industria lization have resulted in you11g people from rural areas tur11i11g to professio 11s belonging to the te rtiary sector, a11d particularly to jobs related to tourism. Duri11g the post-war pe riod, and mainly afte r 1970, tourism has constituted 0 11e of the most dy11amic and rapidly evolvi11g fields of the Greek eco11omy, with its contribution to the GDP amounting to 8-10%. Tourism has helped in creati11g 11ew sources of i11come and 11ew positio ns of employme nt; ίt has also played a majo r role in sta lli11g the demographic crisis, ί11 the inflow of foreig11 curre ncy and ί11 improving the balance on curre nt accounts. lt also broade ns the productive base of the regions in which it is developed, and affects the developme nt of othe r sectors in the local economy as we ll (Briassoulis, 1993, Tsitouras, 1998, Pavlopoulos, 1999, Coccosis a11d T sartas, 2001 ). The developme 11t of tourism has largely affected the productive structures a11d way of li fe with its characte ristics o f urbanizatio 11 a11d mode rnization, beari11g with it significant changes to social relatio 11ships, customs, traditio 11s, fam ily standards and the land-owning standards of the local people, particul arly in rural communities situated on the coast (Kousis, 1989, Coccosis a nd Tsartas, 2001). Our research focused o n the existence of any relationships between the topics included in the sectors on which the region's future developme 11t is based

11 ARABATZIS GA.. TSANTOPOULOS G., TAMPAKIS sτ.. SOUTSAS κ. - REVIEW OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES - Ν ο 1 ο (2006), and age, income and educa tion, with the use of the Κru s k a l - Wallis statistical test. Following the application of the statistical test, statistically significant differe nces are o b se ιve d between the various income categories and livestock (χ 2 = 8.736, df = 3, Asymp. sig = 0.033), forestry (χ 2 = , df = 3, Asymp. sig = 0.014), cottage industry (χ 2 = , df = 3, Asymp. sig = 0.008), industry (χ 2 = , df = 3, Asymp. sig = 0.001), trade (χ 2 = , df = 3, Asymp. sig = ) and tourism (χ 2 = , df = 3, Asymp. sig = 0.005). Fina lly, statistically signi ficant diffe rences we re noted between the va rious education categories and cottage industry (χ2 = 6.430, df = 2, Asymp. sig = 0.04). The Mann - Whitney statistical test was the n used to study the relationships between the di ffe re nt va ri able categories for which the Κru s k a l - Wallis statistical test showed statistically significant diffe re nces. The Mann - Whitney statistical test was applied between the income categories ( ίη Euros) (" < 6,700", "6,700-12,000", "12, ,000" and ">1 9,000") and the va ri ables: the region's future developme nt is based ο η ''livestock", "forestry", "cottage industry", "industry", "trade" and "tourism". Thus, stati stically signi ficant di ffe re nces exist between the income categories "6,700-12,000" and "12,000-19,000" and the va ri ables, the regio n's future developme nt will be based ο η "industry" ( U = , Asymp. sig = 0.048), "trade" (U = , A sy nψ. sig = 0.029) and " t o uγi sm " (U = , Asymp. sig = ). Mo re specifically, it ί the second income group ("6,700-12,000") who be lieve that their region's future developme nt will be based ο η the above-me ntioned sectors, rathe r than those with a highe r income (" 12,000-19,000"). Furthe rmore, statistica lly signi ficant diffe re nces exist between the income categories "< 6,700" and "12, ,000" and the variabl es, the region's future developme nt will be based ο η "fore try" (U = 1, , Asymp. sig = 0.002), "cottage in dustry" (U = 1, , Asymp. sig = 0.026), "industry" (U = 1, , Α ymp. sig = 0.000), "trade" (U = 1, , Asymp. sig = ) and "tourism" (U = 1, , Asymp. sig = 0.002). More specifically, it is the responde nts with the lowest income ("< 6,700") who be lieve that their region's future developme nt will be based ο η the above-me ntioned sectors, rathe r than those with the highest income (" 12, ,000"). The respondents ίη the mid-level income group believe that the region's future developme nt should be based ο η a combin ation of the secondary (industry) and te rtiary secto r (trade, tourism). At the same time, however, they express the actual situatio n which is prevale nt ίη the pre fecture as regards the contribution o f the various economic sectors ίη its developme nt. The responde nts ίη the lowest income group are of the opinio n that their region's develo pn1 e nt should be based ο η a combinati on of va rious sectors a nd branches of the economy (forestry, cottage industry, industry, trade, tourism). The Mann - Whitney sta tistical test was applied between the education categories ("primary", "secondary" and "te rtia ry") and the va ri able: the region's future developme nt will be based ο η cottage industry. Thus, statistically signi ficant di ffe re nces exist between the education categories "prin1ary" and "te rtiary" and the va ri able, the region's future developme nt will be based ο η 29

12 ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣ ΓΑ. ΤΣΑΝΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ Γ. ΤΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ ΣΤ. ΣΟΥΤΣΑΣ κ.. ΕΠΙθΕΩΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ. Τ εύχος 1 ο (2006) cottage indu s tιγ (U = , A synψ sig = 0.03 l). M ore specifically, ίt is the tertiary education g ι a duat es who believe th at tl1 e iγ region 's future deve lopment will be based on coωιge industry, rather th an the prίιη a ιγ ed ιι catio n gγί1dιι a t es. AccoΓding to th e tertiary cduca tion graduates, the cottagc industry sector, wl1ich comprises small family-type businesses, seems to be a potential co ntγi butory factoγ to ιh e future d eve l o pm e nι of the Γ eg i o n Forest management 30 FoΓe st mana gc m e nι pγactice s should ι ake into account tl1c fo llowi11g pγioγiti es: rccrca tio11 fοι ιh c local p o pιιl at i o n. tl1c CΓeaι i o11 of e m ploy ιη e n t opportu11irics. th c p ro tccιion of 11 a rιιr c, th c!ό rnhιti o11 of an ί11 ν ίιί11 g. a ttγ act i vc landscapc. a11d thc protcctio 11 of rhe air. soil and watcr. Following ιl1 e application of tl1 c Fried n1an sta ti. ιί α ιl test (χ2 = , df = 4. Asymp. sig = 0.000). ιh c mai11 topic of ιh c n1ultipl e -iι e m v<ιr i alιlc " foγcst ma11 agcn1c 11t pγ i oγiti cs" is " ιh c c Γ ca ιi o 11 of c 111 ployn1 c11t oppo Γllιniιi c s". \vl1icl1 ρr cscn t cd a n1ca11 ra11k of This sho\vs th <ι ι <ιpprox im <ιtcly thγ ce ο ιι ι of fο ιι Γ peoplc bcl ievc tl1 aι ιh i s m eas ιιγ e s l1 o ιιl d bc co nsiclcred <ι ιορ prioγit) '. ι prcscnt. ιl1 c lιasic forms of fo rest usc foc ιι s 0 11 th c produc ι i o 11 of Γaw rη<tt cri<ιl. c11cγgy co 11 se ινa ti o11. ι ι 11 d ιh e ιι sc of botl1 fογ soc i ι ιl a11d c ιιltιι r-al ρ ιιrρ scs. Eve11 ί11 our d<ιy <ι η d age, <ι l<ιrgc paγt of t l1c pop ιι la ti o 11. p <Ht i c ιι laγl y ί11 th c ThiΓd WoΓld. wl1olly ιlepc11ιls 011 wood for h e<ιt in g cι 11 d cooking. Wood. \VHler-. rcsin, fonιgc and g<ιrη c rη cιkc ιι ρ ιhe basic list of con1m odities \vhich ιοι l cιy cο11s tίιιιι e <111 0L1jcct of ccono rηi c cιc t ί νίιχ for G Γ cek ΙΌr-cs ιrγ ( Ga ι zogicι11 11i s. Ι 996 ). For-cst s cιrc ΗΙ1 i11ψ orth 11 t so ιιr cc of Ι cιbο ιι Γ for 111οιι11ι a ί11 ο ιι s populaι i o 11 s <1 11d cο 11ιrί bιιιc ι ιhc co ιι11 tr-y's socicιl l1a la11cc. Fιιnh c r cx pl o iι a ιi o 11 a11cl ra ιί ο11ιι l rηa11 agcrηc11 t of Hii Γor-cst Γcsoιιrccs ccι 11 l1clp ιο inαe <1se ι l1 c levcl ot c n1 ploy r11c 11ι. Lιο ι h \Vithi11 Γorcst ccosγ ι c n1. (\VOO pr-od uctio11. co 11 st Γιι c ti o 11 of fo r cs ι projccts. lci s ιιr c pωjccιs c ι c.) ιι η d \Vi thin thc c h ι1 i11 s Fo rc sι- W ood-f ιιrί1iιιιrc <111d FoΓest-Wood-Pίlpcr ( Ρ <ιp<1 s t <ινγοu <111d Makr-is. 19 '6 ). Οιιr r-cschrcl1 focιιscd 011 ιhc cx istcncc of <1 11y rcl <1tio 11. l1ip Lιct,vcc11 tl1 c ιopics i11 cl ιιd ccl ί11 ιor-csι r11 <1 11Hgc n1 c 11t pγ i o riti c cι 11 cl <1gc. i11comc a11d cd uc<1t io11 wίιh ιl1 c ιι sc ot tl1e Knιskal - WHiiis sιcι ιi s ti e<ι l tcst. Follo,vi ng tl1c <1ppliαιtio11 of tl1 e sιa ιi sticcιl ιcsι. sιat i st i ca ll sιgn ili α1 11t difγcγcnces cx i sι lιc t\v cc 11 tl1 e vcιr i o u s <ιgc c<ιtcgor-ics. ancl tl1 c νίc \~' ιh a ι ιh c p ri o riιi cs lh<1t sl1oιιld bc gi c11 ιο ιόrcsι 111 a r1 cιgcme11ι ί11νοl c tl1c crca ιι on οι c r11pl oy ιη c11ι ορροrιιιηί ιί cs μ- 2 = 5.ΨΝ. clf' = 2. sy πψ. sig = 0.049). l.;- ιιrιh c rίη o r c. s t <1t i s ιi cally s ί gπ i ιϊc<ι πι dilϊcγc11ccs wcr olιscrvcd bct\vcc11 ιhe VίΗiο ιι s incon1c ccιιcgo ri cs <ιηd ιhc ν ί c 'ν ιl1 aι ιh c pr-ioriιics tlί< ι t sho ιιl d lιc givc11 ιο Γorcs ι n1<1nagemc11ι <ιrc r-ccrcaι i oπ ιοr ιl1c loc<tl ροριιl a ιί ο11 (χ 2 = l-t.15 '. df = 3. sy rη p. sig = 0.003) a π d th proιcc ιi on of tl1c cιir. soil a 11 ιl \VateΓ (χ 2 = df = 3. symp. sig = Ο.Ο 11 ). Fin<ι ll ) '. s t <ι t isti ca ll y s ig 11i Γic<111t ιliftcγcnccs wcrc Γοιιι1 cl bcιwccπ thc νηriοιιs c du ccιιion ca ι ego Γi cs <1 11d ιl1c vicw ιl1 aι thc pr-ior iti c~ ιl1 aι s l1 o ιιl d Lιc givc11 ιο for-csι r11 a11agcmc11t <1Γc ιhc CΓC<1tion οι c mpl oymc πι ορροη ιι πίι ι cs (χ 2 = cιγ = 2.

13 ARABATZIS GA., TSANTOPOULOS G., TAMPAKIS ST., SOUTSAS Κ. - REVIEW OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES - Νο 10 (2006) Asymp. sig = 0.036), the piόt ec ti o n of ncιturc (χ 2 = 6.664, df = 2, Asymp. sig = 0.036) and the fo rn1 ation o f an inviting, attractive l a nd sccι pe (χ 2 = , df = 2, A symp. sig = ). T he Μ CΙ ηη - Wl1itncy s t a ti s ti ccι I test W CΙS tl1e 11 used to study the relationships bctwcen tl1e diff'erent va rί CΙ bl e ca ι ego ri es for ν. 1 hi c h the Κru s k a l - W allis s t CΙ tί s ιί ccι I tcst showed s tati s tί ccι ll y s i g nifi canι differenccs. Thc Μ CΙ ηη - Wl1itney s ι a ιi s ti ca l tc s ι was applied between ιh e CΙgc ccι tc go ι i e s (" 18-33", "34-49" and ">49") and tl1e va riab lc: ' Ίhe priorit-y th CΙ t should be given ιο foι c s ι m ι111<1 ge 111 e n t s h o ιι ld bc recrcation for thc local populcιtion ". Τhιι s. Ί<ι ti s ti ca ll y significa nt diffcrenccs e x i s ι bctwecn th c age caregorics 'Ί 8-33" CΙ n d "34-49" ιω d tl1 e variablc: " ιh e priority ιh aι sl1ould be given ιο forest 111 ancι gc n1 e n t sl1ould bc rc c r e CΙ tί on!"or tl1e loc<ιl population" (U = 2, , As y nψ. sig = 0.045). Ιι is the rcspondents in tl1 c seconcl agc gιό ιι p ("34-49") who bclievc tlhιt ιh c priority thaι s l1 o ιιl d bc givcn to forcsι 111 a n agcιη e n t ίη tl1 c Γuιιιre sh o ιιld bc r ccre CΙti o n for thc Ιοcιι l po p ul aι i on, ratl1cr tlhιn ιl1 e )'O ιιn gc r gro ιιp (" 1 '-33 "). Wc tl1 c Γ cfo Γc o b sc ινe th a ι. ucco rding ιο ιl1 c most p ιόd ιι c ιί ν c CΙg c g ιό ιιp s. r e CΓe uιi o n fογ ιh e loca l ρ ο ριιlωί ο η s l1 o ιιld ljc a top p Γi o r it y for fo Γcs ι ιηhn agc 111 c n t. T11 csc g ro u ρs l1 avc a strong dcsirc for rccγcaιi o n. pcι rti c ιιl a ι J y clιι c ιο ιι1 c ί Γ dιιil y piόγcss i o n a l \VO Γk and pγobl c ιη s and also dιι c to ι l1c d c gnιd cd CΙn d oftcn ιι11!1 ca ltl1y cnviro 11111cnt in \Vl1i ch they livc ίωd wo ι k. Thc Μ <ι n η - WJ1itnc)' s ι aι i st i cιιl tcst \Vas ιιρp li c d bct\vccn tl1e in co ιη c c<1 t cg0 Γi cs ( ίη Ε ιι ωs) ("<6.700". " ". " ,000" <111d "> ") <ι η d th c v <oι Γ i H bl cs: " ιl1 c fιιιιιr c prioritics tl1ht l1 o ιιlcl bc givc 11 ιο foγcst ιη ι111<1 gc m c ηι sl1 ould l1c r ccγca ti o11 ΓοΓ tl1c Ιοcι1Ι ρορ ιιl a tί ο η C1 11d ιh c pγo t cc ιi o 11 ογ th c air. sυ i l Η π d \Va ter". Τ11 ω. stίtt ί s ti αι l ly significh 11 t ιli ftcι c11 c c s cx i. ι bc t\ν c c 11 tl1 c ίη cο ιη c c<1tcgo rics " " and " " 311 cl th ' ν<1 rί <ι l1 Ι c: tl1 c Γuιιιr c prioritics th ίlt s l1 o ιιl d be givcn ιο forcst 111H1i< ι gc 111 c n t s l1 o ιιl d l1c tl1c ρro tc c t ion of tl1c air. so il <1 11d w<ι t cr ( = Asy nψ. sig = 0.039). Ι ι is tl1 c r cs ρ oncl c nι s wiιh ίι I O \VCΓ ίη cο ιη c (" ") w l10 bclicvc tl1 <ι t tl1 c Γ utur c pr i or iι ics tl1 aι sl1ould ljc givcn ιο fo Γ cst 11Η11Ηιg cιη c n ι s h o ιι ld bc ιl1 c protcction ογ ιh c Η ι r. soil and \Va t cγ. ιή th cr th <1 11 tl1osc \Vith <1 l1igl1cr inco n1c ('Ί CJ"). Thc sccond-lcvcl i 11 co1η c g 1Ό ιι p (" ") cιrc ρr ίιη <ιr ίl y fh πη c r. \vho cιrc cιlso fcιccd w ίι l1 proljlc 111s \vl1c11 c ιιlιi va t i 11 g tl1cir Ιuπι l (cl ΓOug h ι. scι linit y. cιυs ί οπ ancl do,ν n grad i πg of tl1c so il ) ί:l n d co11scqιιcnιl~ prcscnt <ΙΠ in αcascd J cνc l ol CΠV i JΌll Ιη C ill ί:ιi ί:iwίlγc ll CS.. T11c Μ< Wl1 iι11 cy sιcι ιi s ti cιιl ιcst \V<ι. Hpplicd l1cιν.c c11 ιl1 c cιlιιcωί οπ c<ιtegor i cs ("ρr ίιη<ιrγ ". " scconcl<ιr) "' cιπd " ιcrticιry" ) a π ιl tl1c vuricιl1ιcs: tl1c fιιtιιr c p Γi oι i ιi cs ι h cι t sl1 o ιιl d bc givcn ιο fon:st 111<1 11 <1gc111cnl sl1oιιlcl l1c " ιhc CΓC ί Ιti o1 1 ογ cmploymc π t ορpογtιιη ί ιίc;. ", "ιl1c pγotccιi o n of 11 aιιι1-c" <ιnιl " ιl1 c Γοπηίl!ίοπ 11 <111 <1 ttπιcιivc lnπdscaρc ". Thus. sι <ιt ί;.ιί α1 ΙI) ' sig11ifica11l ιliflcrcικcs c χί;.ι l1et\\cc11 ιl1 c cduc::ιιio 11 ccιt cgoι i cs " pr i 111a ιγ" H1d "ιcηiω ~ " Hnd ιl1 c v<ιrinhlcs: ιl1c f ulιι Γc JX i Or i t~ ' t l1 at sj1 o ιι lcl bc g ί νc11!ο foγcsi JllίlllίΙgcm cnt ~hoιιld hc tllc CΓCH t ion ο! cn1ploymc111 οpροrιιιηίιίcs ( = Αs~ πψ. sig = 0.026) <1nd thc fοιίηίlt ί ο ι1 of <111 at!γactivc IH n dsc a ρc ( = 77 ι.000. s~ nip. sig = 0.000). T11 c tc Γt i < ιι )' cd ιι α ιιί ο η g r <1ιl ιι atcs l1c licvc ιl1 aι th c Ι'ιιtuΓ c pγioγit~ ιl1 <ιι s l1 o ιιl d l1c 31

14 ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣ ΓΑ., ΤΣΑΝΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ Γ., ΤΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ ΣΤ., ΣΟΥΤΣΑΣ κ. - ΕΠΙθΕΩΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ - Τεύχο ς 1 ο (2 006), give n to forest ma nageme 11t ί11 future sho uld be the formatio11 of an attractive la ndscape, while those who are primary educatio n graduates chose recreatio n for the local po pulatio n. The primary educatio n graduates a re usually farmers who rarely travel far fron1 their place of residence, and are therefore very interested in the provisio n of opportunities for recreatio n in the ir local forests. Furthermore, sta tistically significant differences exist between the educatio n categories "secondary" and "tertiary" and the variables: the future prio rities that sho uld be give n to fo rest manageme nt sho uld be "the protection of nature" (U = 1, , Asymp. sig = Ο.ΟΙ L) a nd "tl1e formation of a n a ttractive landscape" (U = 1, , Asymp. sig = 0.007). More specifica lly, ίt is the tertiary educatio n graduates who believe that the future priorities that s h o ιιld be given to forest ma nageme nt sho uld be the protectio n of nature and the formation of an attractive la ndscape, rather than the secondary educatio n graduates. W e the refore no te that the highe r tl1e educa tio na l level of the responde nts, the highe r up o n the scale of prio rities they place the immaterial value of forests Measures for the establίshment of new forests 32 The measures for the establishme nt of new forests may involve: subsidies for forestry activities, planting forest trees o n fe rtile and pr od ιι c ti ve agricultural land, and planting fo rest trees 0 11 barren agricultural la nd. The procedures fo r the approval of s ιιb s idi es for fo restry activities are qιιit e complex a11d timeconsuming, a11d the re a re numerous regιιl a ti o n s governi11g the pl a nting of land with forest trees a nd forest ma 11agement in gene ral. Following the applicatio n of the Friedman statist ical test (χ2 = , df = 5, Asymp. sig = 0.000), the main topic of the multiple-ite m variable "measures for the es t <ιb li s hn1 c nt of new forests" is "s ubsidy provisio n for forestry activities" which presented a mean r <ι nk of Mo re specifically, 94. L % of the respondents agree witl1 the aboveme ntio ned view, o nly l.0% disagrees a11d 4.9% do 1101 h ι ι νe a view 0 11 this issue. One of the main aims of a ny forest po licy is ιο i11 cre<ιse tόrest productio n, particularly the productio n of wood. During the post-war period, significantly increased funds were provided <ι nd m ajoγ efforts were n1 ade ιο improve the conditio n of degraded Greek forests, to e 11sure the ir ratio na l m a n<ι ge m e nt <ι 11d explo ithti o n Hnd to s ub s t <ι 11ti H ll y i11crehse wood productio n. With the accessio n of Greece i11 to the εεc in Η Πd within the framework of the CAP reform, subsidies were also directed towards the forest sector. The CAP reforms in 1992 ιι nd 1999 Γe s ult e d in increased subsidies for the afforestatio n of agriculturhi la nd for the pιιrposes of wood productio n a nd e nviro nme nta l protectio n (Arabatzis, 2006). Ouring the last 25 years, a la rge p <ι rt of the agricultural income has bee11 bhscd o n con1n1uni ty funding. FHrmers, and people living ίη ruγ<ιl areas in ge11eral, h Hνe become Hccustomed to increhsing their i11come through s ιιb s idi es, a nd conseque ntly <ι n y activity they und e rt<ιkc p ar ticιιl ar l y ίη the prin1ary secto r, h cι to be inextricably linked with the provisio n of fina ncia l ince ntives.

15 ARABATZIS GA., TSANTOPOULOS G., TAMPAKIS ST., SOUTSAS Κ. - REVIEW OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES - Νο 1 Ο (2006), Our research focused on the existence of any relationship between the topics included in the measures for the establishment of new fo rests in the region and age, income and education by using the Κru s k a l - Wallis statistical test. Following the application of the statistical test, statistically significant differences were found ιο exist between the va rious income categories and the view that regarding the measures for the establishment of new forests in the region, "the procedures for subsidy approval for forestry activities are quite complex and time-consuming" (χ 2 = 8.736, df = 3, Asymp. sig = 0.033). Finally, statistically significant differences were observed between the various education categories and the view tl1at the measures for the establishment of new fo rests in the region should involve "subsidy provision for forestry activities" (χ 2 = , df = 2, Asynψ sig = 0.006). The Mann - Whitney statistical test was then used to study the relationships between the different variable categories for which the Κru s k a l - Wallis statistical test showed statistically significant differences. The Mann - Whitney statistical test was applied between the income categories (in Euros) (" < 6,700", "6,700-12,000", "12,000-19,000" and "> 19,000") and the variable: "the procedures for subsidy approval for forestry activities are quite complex and time-consuming". Thus, statistically significant differences exist between the income categories "<6,700" και ">19,000" and the variable: "the procedures fo r subsidy approval fo r forestry activities are quite complex and time-consuming" (U = , Asymp. sig = 0.049). It is the respondents in the highest income group ("> 19,000") who believe that the procedures for subsidy approval for forestry activities are quite complex and time-consuming, rather than those in the lowest income group ("<6,700"). The highest inco me category ("> 19,000") includes citizens who come into contact with public services on a very frequent basis, and therefore observe their weaknesses and malfunctio ns. The Mann - Whitney statistical test was applied between the education categories ("primary", "secondary" και "tertiary") and the variable: "subsidy provision fo r forestry activities". Thus, statistica Lly significant dίffe re nces exist between the education categories "primary" and "tertiary" and the va.riable: "subsidy provision for forestry activities" (U = 1, , Asymp. sig = ). The tertiary education graduates be Lieve that the procedures for the estab Lishment of new forests in the region should be based on subsidy provision for forestry activities. The European regulations 2080/92 and 1257/99 article 31 have accelerated and greatly supported the implementation of afforestation progra.mme in agricultural land, particularly in relationship to broad\eaved species. 5. Conclusions - Proposals The research has shown that the main concern of the people of Preveza prefecture is the lack o f employment opportunities. The cohstant reduction of the agricultural sector's share in the GDP and in employment in the prefecture, are negatively affecting the whole of the rural economy. 33

16 ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣ ΓΑ., ΤΣΑΝΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ Γ., ΤΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ ΣΤ., ΣΟΥΤΣΑΣ Κ. - ΕΠΙθΕΩΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ - Τεύχος 1 Ο (2006), The respondents believe th at the sector 0 11 which their region's development is primarily based is agriculture, very closely followed by livestock, and with tourism lagging quite far behind. The remaining sectors do not make a significant contribution to regional development according to the respondents, and the smallest impact is n1 ade by forestry and cottage indιι s try activities. Their expectations concerning the future contribution of the va ri ous economic sectors in th e region's developn1ent seem to di ffer, when compared to their views about the current situatio n. Under this light, tourism is given a dominant position, since it is considered to be the core of future development, along with the o th e Γ sectors which could also present qιιit e an improved performance. The respondents believe that forests, through their n1ultifunctional role, should assist in providing opportunities fo r employment, thus din1inishing the problem of unemployment. Finally, their main concern regarding the establishment of new forests is related to the provision of financial incentives and subsidies, obviously as a consequence of the general subsidy climate tl1at has prevailed in rural areas over the last twenty-five years. From the above-mentioned conclusions, ίt can be understood th at a basic strategic cho ice must be to ensure sustainable and integrated rural development, which should not be exclusively dependent on the agricultural sector. More specifically, since agriculture is fo llowing a downward trend, relevant measures should focus on: an intensification of cultivations restructuring, the promotion of alternative cιιltivat i o n s fo r the production of more competitive, high-qua li ty products, the implementation of modern marketing techniques for a more effective trade in agricultural products, the modernization of the relevant techniques and human resources, the promotion of agro-tourism through European and national programmes and a reinforcement of the role of agricultural extensio ns fo r the dissemination of info rm ation and innovation amongst the rural population. The measures to be taken in the field of fo restry should be related to improving degraded forests, accelerating the rate of afforestation so as to increase wood production, ensuring a betteγ, more effective protection of fo rests for the improvement of the environment, constructing forest projects for the protection of the soil and water production, improving rangelands in order to increase forage production, and fina lly, implementing forest extensions programmes in order to promote the significance of forests for the local economy and community. As for tourism, the impo rtance of which is becoming increasingly clear in the minds of people, the relevant measures required are a qualitative upgrading of the services provided in order to attract quality tourism, a diversification of the tourism product through the promotion of specia lized, alternative forms of tourism, a connection of tourism consumption and domestic production that will boost employment and the local p o pιιl at i o n 's income, and the conservation and promotion of local cultural elements, traditions and the natural environment.

17 ARABATZIS GA., TSANTOPOULOS G., TAMPAKIS ST., SOUTSAS Κ. - REVIEW OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES - Ν ο 10 (2006), References ΑΙΙ Medi a, 2004, Tl1 e Economic and Social Profile of the 52 prefectuι es and 13 Regions. Athens. (in Greek). AJpha Credit Bank, 2000, The Prefec ιures of Greece. Athens. (in Greek). Anthopo ujou, Th. 2001, "Geographical di ffe rentiations, terri tori al and social restructuring of rural areas". ln: FΙ"On1 R ιιrα/ sρace to the Co untιys ide. Anthopoulou Th. and Moysidis Α. (eds.), Gutenberg Publications. Athens. pp (in G reek). Arabatzis, G. 2000, "The European Union strategy in the sector of fo rest production (Mainly in Greece)". Envίω n111 enι and L αι-1 1, 2/2000. pp (in Greek). Arabatzis, G., 2003, "The pe rsonal and social characteristics of investors-black locust cultiva tors, and the factors that affect the size of bl ack locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L) pl antations according to regul atio n EEC/2080/92", Geotechnical Scientific lssues, 14( 11) 1: 5-14, ( ίη Greek). Arabatzis, G. 2006, ''European Union, Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the afforestation of agricultural land ίη Greece". New Medit, Medit eπa n ea n Jo uι-nal of Eco n oι11ics, Agrίcu lture and Envi1"0n111ent, 1/2006 ( ίη press). Briassoulis, Η "Tourism in Greece". ln: Τοιπίs ι11 ίη Ειπορ e: Stru c tuι e.~ and Deve loρ111. ent s. W. Pompl and Ρ. Lavey (eds), Wallingford, UΚ. CAB lnternational. pp Coccosis, Η and Tsartas, Ρ Sustainab/e To uris ιη. Develop111ent and En vίronm ent. Athens. Κrtiki Publications. ( ίη Greek). Damianos, Ο, Dimara, Ε. and Skouras, Ο. 1997, "Alternative production activities ίη less developed rural regio ns", Revίew of Social Res earch, 92: Dami anos, Ο, Kasimis, Ch, Moysidis, Α and Demousis, Α. 1994, Plιιra c ti vίty in the Agι ίc ultuι al Secto Γ and the G ι eek Developniental Policy. Foundation of Mediterannean Studies. Athens. (in Greek). Damianou, Ch. 1999, Saι11plίng Methodology: Techniques and Apρ lίca tion s. 3rd print. Aithra Publicatio ns. ( ίη Greek). Daoutopoulos, G. 2002, Social Reseaι ch Me t/10ιlo logy. 3rd edition. Zygos Publications. Thessaloniki. ( ίη Greek). Efstratoglou, S, Papadopoulos, Α and Efstratoglou, Α. 2002, "Development dynamics of rural areas and influencing factors". PΙ"Oceeιlings of 7th PanHe llen ίc Confeι-en ce 0 11 Rural Economy. A.U.A., November. Athens. pp (i n Greek). European Commission, 1994, Euroρ e Collaboration fο ι Planning ίn Europe. Brussels. (in Greek). 35

18 ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣ ΓΑ., ΤΣΑΝΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ Γ., ΤΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ ΣΤ., ΣΟΥΤΣΑΣ Κ. - ΕΠΙθΕΩΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ - Τεύχος 1 Ο (2006), Filias V, Pappas Ρ, Antonopoulou Μ, Z arn ari Ο, Magganara 1, Meimaris Μ., Nikolakopoulos 1., Papachristou Ε., Perantzaki 1., Sampson Ε. and Psychogios, Ε. 1996, 1nt l'o dιιc tion to the Metlioclology and Tech n ίqu es of Social Research, G utenberg Social Library. Athens. ( ίη G reek). Forest Service of Preveza, 2003, Final Revίew of Projects and Ac tiv itί es. Preveza. ( ίη Greek). Gatzogiannis, S. 1996, "The fo rest resources of the country". Ιη : T/1e Environ ιnent ίη Greece Bodosaki Foundation. Athens. pp ( ίη Greek). Gasson, R., 1986, "Part-time fa rming strategy for surviva l?" Soc ίo logίa Ru. ra lίs XXVI, 3/4: Gasson, R., 1988, "Farm diversification and rural development". Jοιπη α! Agricιιltuι e Econ omίcs. 39: of Gidarakou, , "Part-time farming and fa rm reproduction: The case of two communities ίη Central Greece", Soc ίo logίa Ruω lίs ΧΧΧ (3/4): Gousios, D. 2001, "Territorial approach of the organization and development o f the countryside. Spatial systems ίη small towns". Ιη : From Rural Space to the Count ιys ide. Anthopoulou Th. and Moysidis Α. (eds.), Gutenberg Publications. A thens. pp ( ίη Greek). Halkos, G. 2000, S tatis t ίcs. Theoιy, A pplic atίon s and Use of S ta tis tίca l PΙ"Ogramm e5 on th.e coιnp ιιt eι-. Typothito Publications - Giorgos Dardanos. Athens. ( ίη Greek). Kaffe-Gidarakou, , "Pluractivity ίη the agricultural sector. An integrated approach of the phenomenon around the world and ίη our country". Ιη : Crίtica l Approaches towards Rural Development and Environmental Pro tec tίon. Louloudis, L. and Beopoulos, Ν. (eds.), Stochastis Publications. Athens. pp ( ίη Greek). Kalamatianou, Α. 1997, Socίal Statίs tics, Unίdim en s ίonal A n a lysίs Methods. Το Oikonomiko Publications. Athens. ( ίη Greek). Kassioumis, Κ, Papageorgiou, Κ, Christodoulou, Α, Blioumis, V, Stamou, Ν and Karameris, Α. 2004, "Rural development by afforestation ίη predominantly agricultural areas: issues and challenges from two areas ίη Greece", Forest Po lίcy and Econom ίcs, 6: l(jochos, Ρ. 1993, Statistics. lnterbooks Publications. Athens. ( ίη Greek). Kousis, Μ. 1989, "Tourism and the family ίη a rural Cretan community". A nnals of To urίsn1 Research, 16 (3): Koutsoumaris, G. 1987, Agricultural Development and Agrίc ultural Po lίcy The Case of Greece. Papazisis Publications. Athens. ( ίη Greek). Eco n oιn ίc

19 ARABATZIS GA., TSANTOPOULOS G., TAMPAKIS sτ., SOUTSAS κ.. REVIEW OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES Νο 1 ο (2006), Makrakis, V. 2005, Data Analysis ίn Sc ίentίfic Research w ίth the Use of SPSS. Gutenberg Publications, Athens. (in Greek). Malkidis, F. 2001, Th e Adaptatioη and Composition of the Agricιιltuι al Coιnmunity in Greece. Gordios Publications. Athens. (in Greek). Maravegias, Ν. 1992, Ruι a / f:jolicy and Econoιnic Deνeloρm ent ίη Gι eece. Nea Synora Publications, Α. Livani. Athens. (in Greek). Maravegias, Ν. 1999, Geek Agι i cιιltιιre towards Papazisis Publications. Athens. (in Greek). Matis, Κ , Fo ι es t Sαηψ/ίηg. Assets Exploitation and Management Society, Democritus University ofthrace. Xanthi. (in Greek). Mattas, Κ. 2000, Tl1e Policy of ιh e Eιιropea n Union αιιd Otl1e1 lnt e ιnational Oιganizaιίons. Aristotl e U 11i ve Γ s ity PΓ ess. Thessalo11iki. ( ί11 Greek). NSSG, 1995, Dis tι ibιιtio ιι of Lanc/ a cco ι c/iιιg ιο Bω i c Cat ego ι"i e.s of Us e. Athens. (ίn Greck) SSG, 2003, R es ιιlιs of Popιιlation Cenn ι s'. Athe11s. (i11 Greek). OECD, Multίfιιn c ιio nalίty : Towaι c/.1 αη analytical fι amewoι k. Paris. Paga 110, Μ a11d Gauvreau, Κ. 2000, Pι in c iples of Biω tati.s tia. Elli11 Publicatio 11s. Athe 11s. (in Greek). Papadopoul os, Α. 1999, 'Ά gr i c ultur a l restructuring a11d fcι r111i11 g: Towards a political eco11omy of ag ri c ultιιr a l space". ln: Cι iιica l A ppωa c: l1 es ιowa ι ds Ruωl D e 11e /oρ 111 e rιt and En νi e ntal Pω tec tion, Louloudis, L. cιnd Beopoul os, Ν. (eds.), Stochastis Publications. Athens. pp (in Greck). P cι p as t av ro u, Α, and Makris, Κ. 1986, Foι es t f:jo/icy (f:ja ni c ulaι /y in Gι eece). Vol Β '. T11essaloniki. ( ίη Greek). Pavlopoul os, Ρ. 1999, Tl1 e Size anc/ f:jo tenιial of tl1e Toιιris 111 Sec ιoι -. I 11stitute of Tourism Research and Forecasts. Athens. ( ίη Greek). Potter, C and Burney, J. 2002, 'Άg ri c ultιιr a l 111ultifuncti onality in th e WTO Legitimate trade concern or disguised protectionism". Jο ιιπια/ of Rιπα/ Stιιdies, 18: Slee, Β and Wiersum, Κ.F , "New opportu11ities for forest-re lated rural development". Fores t Policy and Econo111ia, 3: 1-4 Slee, Β and Snowdon, Ρ. 1999, "Rural d e vel o pm e ιlt fo restry ίη the United Kingdom". Foι es tιy, 72: Tsitouras, Α. 1998, T/1.e Seasonality of Το ιπis ιn in Gι eece αιιd in Oth. eι- Rίνα / Coιιntι i es. lnstitute of Tourism Resecι r c h cι 11d Foreccιsts. Athens. (in Greek). 37

20 ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣΓΑ., ΤΣΑΝΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣΓ., ΤΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ ΣΤ., ΣΟΥΤΣΑΣΚ. - ΕΠΙθΕΩΡΗΣΗ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ - Τεύχο ς 1 Ο (2006), Zioganas, Ch. 1999, "Structure of the supply of agricultural products until 2010". ln : G ι eek Αgι ί c ιι!tιιre towards Ν. Maravegias (editor), Papazisis Publications. Athens. pp (in Greek). Vergopoulos, Κ. 1975, T/1e Agrίcultιιral lss ιι e ίn Gι eece. Social lntegωtion of Agriculture. Exantas Publications. Athens. (in Greek). 38

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