1 Fire Alarm System Basics BY STANFORD UNIVERSITY FIRE MARSHAL S OFFICE AT ENVIRONMENT HEALTH & SAFETY DEPT.
2 JOE LEUNG University Fire Marshal Manager, Fire Safety Program AARON MCCARTHY Senior Fire Protection Engineer ROBERT PORTERFIELD Fire Protection Engineer JENNIFER LEE Fire Protection Engineer JARNAIL DHALLA Fire Protection Engineer Assistant University Fire Marshal Building C FRANK GARDNER Fire Systems Lead Technician FRANK MO MIRANDA Fire Systems Supervisor RALPH DURHAM University Fire Inspector Fire Sprinkler Technicians Fire Alarm Technicians Fire Extinguisher Technicians RON MORRISON Senior Fire Sprinkler Technician ARTHUR RICKEY JOHNSON CHRIS FRAZIER RICH WILKINS JOE JACKSON MIKE ARMSTRONG JAMES BAXLEY JASON LOPEZ CARLOS GONZALEZ ZEEB DAVID GUARNEROS RUDY GARAY BRANDON MCCLINTOCK JESSE TORRES
3 Fire Alarm Systems Several main functions: Provide a means to identify a developing fire through automatic methods. They alert building occupants to a fire condition and the need to evacuate. Another common function is the transmission of an alarm notification signal to the fire department or other emergency response organization. Fire alarm systems may also shut down electrical, air handling equipment or special process operations, and they may be used to initiate automatic suppression systems.
4 Fire Alarm Systems Requirements California Code of Regulations has 28 sections/titles. Title 24: California Building Standards Part 2: California Building Code Part 3: California Electric Code Part 9: California Fire Code Chapter 9 lists basic requirements based on occupancy type. Depending on the anticipated fire scenario, building and use type, number and type of occupants and criticality of contents and mission There are 3 common types of systems: Conventional, Addressable, Analog Addressable. Analog addressable type is not commonly used.
5 Fire Alarm System Types Conventional Lower initial equipment costs. Defined location of fire/alarm not provided at the panel or central station Can be easier to program. Limited expansion capability. Addressable Easier to install. More system status information at the panel and central station. Input/Output programming much more flexible. Usually much more room available to expand.
6 Conventional Systems FACP Zone #1 Zone #2 4.7K EOLR NAC #1 4.7K EOLR Wiring must be installed in a supervised manner either Class A, or Class B with an EOLR. Alarm/Trouble conditions are annunciated by zone only. Inspection is required to determine the device in alarm/trouble
7 Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) NAC #1 4.7K EOLR Each point on the SLC loop is given a unique address when installed. Alarm/Trouble conditions are annunciated by a unique message for each device.
8 Fire Alarm System Principles Manual fire detection is the oldest method of detection. In the simplest form, a person yelling can provide fire warning. In buildings, however, a person's voice may not always transmit throughout the structure. For this reason, manual alarm stations are installed. The general design philosophy is to place stations within reach along paths of escape/egress. It is for this reason that they can usually be found near exit doors. The advantage of manual alarm stations is that, upon discovering the fire, they provide occupants with a readily identifiable means to activate the building fire alarm system. The alarm system can then serve in lieu of the shouting person's voice. They are simple devices, and can be highly reliable.
9 Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors Spot type
10 Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors Photoelectric NFPA 72, Light Scattering Smoke Detection. The principle of using a light source and a photosensitive sensor arranged so that the rays from the light source do not normally fall onto the photosensitive sensor. When smoke particles enter the light path, some of the light is scattered by reflection and refraction onto the sensor. The light signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria.
11 Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors Photoelectric In the normal case, the light from the light source on the left shoots straight across and misses the sensor. When smoke enters the chamber, however, the smoke particles scatter the light and some amount of light hits the sensor. A Light Source B Photo Sensor
12 Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors Ionization This type is better at detecting the smaller amounts of smoke produced by flaming fires. An ionization chamber consists of two plates with a voltage across them, along with a radioactive source of ionizing radiation.inside the ionization detector is a small amount (about 1/5000th of a gram) of Americium-241. This radioactive element has a half-life of 432 years, and is a good source of alpha particles. NFPA 72, Ionization Smoke Detection. The principle of using a small amount of radioactive material to ionize the air between two differentially charged electrodes to sense the presence of smoke particles. Smoke Particles entering the ionization volume decrease the conductance of the air by reducing ion mobility. The reduced conductance signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria.
13 Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors Ionization The alpha particles generated by the americium ionize the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the air in the chamber. To "ionize" means to "knock an electron off an atom ending with a free electron (with a negative charge) and an atom missing one electron (with a positive charge). The negative electron is attracted to the plate with a positive voltage, and the positive atom is attracted to the plate with a negative voltage (opposites attract, just like with magnets). The electronics in the smoke detector sense the small amount of electrical current that these electrons and ions moving toward the plates represent. When smoke enters the ionization chamber, it disrupts this current -- the smoke particles attach to the ions and neutralize them. The smoke detector senses the drop in current between the plates and sets off the horn.
14 Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors Combination Combination detectors contain more than one element which responds to fire. These detectors may be designed to respond from either element, or from the combined partial or complete response of both elements. An example of the former is a heat detector that operates on both the rate-of-raise and fixed-temperature principles. Its advantage is that the rate-of-rise element will respond quickly to rapidly developing fire, while the fixed-temperature element will respond to a slowly developing fire when the detecting element reaches its set point temperature. NFPA 72, Combination Detector. A device that either responds to more than one of the fire phenomena or employs more than one operating principle to sense one of these phenomena. Typical examples are a combination of a heat detector with a smoke detector or a combination of rate-of-rise and fixed temperature heat detector. This device has listings for each sensing method employed.
15 Building Notification Notification Appliances NFPA 72, Notification Appliance. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile, or visible outputs, or any combination thereof. NFPA 72, Audible Notification Appliance. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. NFPA 72, Visible Notification Appliance. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.
16 Fire Alarm Circuit Classes NFPA 72, Classes. Initiating device circuits, notification appliance circuits, and signaling line circuits shall be permitted to be designated as either Class A or Class B, depending on their performance during non-simultaneous single circuit fault conditions as specified by the following: (1) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that transmit an alarm or supervisory signal, or notification appliance circuits that allow all connected devices to operate during a single open or a non-simultaneous single ground fault on any circuit conductor, shall be designated as Class A (2) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that do not transmit an alarm or supervisory signal, or notification appliance circuits that do not allow all connected devices to operate beyond the location of a single open on any circuit conductor, shall be designated as Class B
17 Conventional Class B Circuits Class B Initiating Device Circuit 4.7K EOLR FACP Class B Notification Appliance Circuit 4.7K EOLR
18 Conventional System Class B Circuits Class B Initiating Device Circuit 4.7K EOLR FACP 4.7K EOLR Class B Notification Appliance Circuit Single open circuit condition causes a trouble on the panel and renders all devices beyond the fault inoperative.
19 Class A Circuits Class A Initiating Device Circuit FACP Class A Notification Appliance Circuit End of line supervision resistors are not necessary as the loop returns to the panel and is driven from both ends.
20 Class A Circuits Class A Initiating Device Circuit FACP Class A Notification Appliance Circuit Single open circuit condition causes a trouble on the panel. All devices on the loop remain operative.
21 Licensing Requirements Requirements for technicians per NFPA 72 State Certified in Fire/Life Safety or Electrician NICET Certification Fire Alarm Manufacturer Certification
23 3 Types of Fire Alarm Signals 1. TROUBLE Local sounding (beeping) on FACP and Annunciators No horn/strobes sounding or flashing Low battery, smoke detector removed, ground fault, open horn circuit, etc. Alarm Tech responds 2. SUPERVISORY Local sounding (beeping) on FACP and Annunciators No horn/strobes sounding or flashing Sprinkler valve closed, duct detector activated*, low-air on pre-action system Fire Department responds 3. ALARM All horn/strobes sounding and flashing Building occupants to evacuate Smoke detector, manual pull, waterflow, duct detector, or heat detector activated Fire Department responds
25 SUFMO Fire Alarm Techs Preventive Maintenance Semiannual visual inspections Annual testing Annual fire smoke damper testing (with HVAC) There is a smoke detector up there? Quarterly student evacuation drills (with Inspectors & FPEs) Monthly evacuation drills at child day care centers (with Inspectors) Annual elevator recall testing (with Kone A) Construction Projects Initial acceptance testing with FPEs per Stanford FDG and applicable codes Final acceptance testing with FPEs and the Authority Having Jurisdiction (Santa Clara County or Palo Alto) Isolating system components for contractors to work (i.e., SESI) Other Responsibilities Respond to all fire system troubles 24/7 (On-Call) Provide fire department assistance with technical issues or nuisance alarms Program fire alarm systems with laptop and proprietary software Troubleshoot and repair fire alarm systems Maintain the Remote Monitoring Station No smoking please Providing services to University Main Campus Various off campus locations (Hopkins, Boathouse, Porter Drive, and others) Fire smoke damper
26 Remote Monitoring Station Mesh network Licensed FCC Radio Frequency (RF) Antennas and receiving equipment in Building C Dispatcher located at Palo Alto Communications (250 Hamilton) Fire Department contacted by dispatcher directly Over 300 monitored systems ESF BLDG C Remote Alarm Transmitter (RAT) Antennas on Building C Palo Alto Communications Mesh Network Concept
27 Benefits of RF Mesh Network Speed (5-10 seconds) Monthly expenses Reliability Natural disasters All of these are monitored systems ESF Monitoring equipment in Building C
28 Key Changes 2010/2013 Edition Renaming NFPA 72 - Both New Sections on Gas Detection - Both Direction on Intelligibility- Both Low Frequency sounders Emergency Communications Systems (ECS) Chapter Circuits and Pathways Chapter Emergency Control Functions and Interfaces Chapter New Annex System Performance and Design Guide
29 Key Changes 2013 Edition Test Plan A test plan shall be written to clearly establish the scope of testing The test plan and results shall be documented with the testing records. Annex material to explain test plan
30 Key Changes 2010/2013 Edition Section was revised to require signals from CO detectors or CO detection systems to initiate a CO alarm signal (Temporal 4). A new exception to permits supervisory signals where permitted by the building response plan.
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