Guidance note on developing the UN Business Operations Strategy

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1 Guidance note on developing the UN Business Operations Strategy The Business Operations Strategy (BoS) aims to enhance the cost effectiveness and quality of operations back office processes such as procurement, ICT, HR, Logistics and Admin and Finance in support of the UNDAF. It is a voluntary framework focusing on Joint Business Operations (Incl. Common Services) allowing UN Country Teams to take a strategic, results oriented approach to planning, management and implementation of Harmonized Business Operations at the country level. The BoS is largely based on existing guidance, simplified and integrated in a single, coherent framework. This is supplemented with a limited number of instruments facilitating quantified cost benefit analysis, reinforced results-based planning and monitoring and evaluation of Common Business Operations. The BoS model allows for flexibility to scope the BoS to country needs and capacity, allowing for a localized approach that matches specific country capacity, needs and requirements. The BoS also includes a component aimed to reinforce the links between UN programmes and operational support needs. The primary audiences for this guidance note are UN Country teams, Operations Management Teams, Resident Coordinator s Offices as well as Business Operations practitioners. 1 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

2 Table of Contents 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND CONTEXT THE BUSINESS OPERATIONS STRATEGY Principles of the Business Operations Strategy Why develop the Business Operations Strategy? What is the Business Operations Strategy? DESIGNING THE BUSINESS OPERATIONS STRATEGY Chapter 1: Introduction Background Principles of implementation Chapter 2: Business Operations Operations Analysis Baseline Analysis Needs Analysis Requirement Analysis Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) Simplified Transaction Cost Analysis - Prioritization of Business Solutions Chapter 3: Strategic Planning: Results Framework and Results Narrative Results Matrix Business Operations (log frame) Results Narrative Business Operations Chapter 4: Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting on Business Operations Chapter 5: Management and Accountability Business Operations Chapter 6: Budgetary Framework Business Operations Chapter 7: Operationalising the Business Operations Strategy APPENDIX A: RESULTS BASED MANAGEMENT: DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS APPENDIX B: TEMPLATES UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

3 1. Executive Summary The General Assembly and various ECOSOC resolutions 1 have consistently requested the UN System to harmonise Business Operations with the aim to reduce operational transaction cost and duplication of the operational support to programme delivery. In addition, the latest assessments executed in preparation for the QCPR and the Secretary General's Report in preparation for the QCPR, call for enhanced strategic planning and analytical processes to strengthen strategic focus and prioritization of harmonization efforts with a focus on the highest value added harmonization efforts, while improving Monitoring and Evaluation and Reporting mechanisms to demonstrate results achieved in the area of Business Operations harmonization. The UNDG strategic priorities focus on the development of operational models to facilitate the harmonisation agenda at country level. The Business Operations Strategy (BoS) is the UNDG response to the results requested by the GA. The BoS is a voluntary framework focusing on Joint Business Operations developed in close cooperation with country teams, allowing UN Country Teams to take a strategic, results oriented approach to planning, management and implementation of Harmonized Business Operations at the country level. The BoS is largely based on existing guidance 3, simplified and integrated in a single, coherent framework, supplemented with a limited number of instruments facilitating quantified cost benefit analysis and reinforced results-based planning and monitoring and evaluation of Common Business Operations. The BoS model allows for flexibility to scope the BoS to country needs and capacity, allowing for a localized approach matching specific country needs and requirements. The BoS also includes a component aimed to reinforce the links between UN programmes and operational support needs. More specifically the BoS framework includes the following components: Country level Operations Analysis including: - Baselines Assessment existing services; - Needs and Requirement Analysis deriving from programme needs (UNDAF) and non-programmatic regular operations; - Quantitative and Qualitative Cost Benefit Analysis; - Prioritization instrument based on the Cost Benefit Analysis. Results frame, including indicators, targets and baselines; Resourcing and Governance framework of Business Operations Operationalisation instruments aimed to ensure strong links between the strategy and the development and day-to-day management of Business Operations, including Common Services. Successful development and implementation of the Business Operations Strategy requires a minimum level of capacity and skills in the OMTs. Apart from technical operations skills, some degree of business analysis skills and RBM related skills are useful. In most cases, the work required is in addition to agency-specific responsibilities. Therefore, it is highly recommended for UNCTs/OMTs to consider the capacity and skills available to the OMT in terms of skills, 1 ECOSOC resolution E/2011/L.35, sections 11 and 12; ECOSOC resolution E/2011/L.35, sections 4 2 Ref DESA Business Operations Assessment (2012) and the SG Report in anticipation of the QCPR UNDG Common Services frameworks and the Process Approach Model to Business Operations 3 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

4 competencies and time before deciding to engage in the BoS development. The gains in terms of efficiency and (cost) effectiveness associated with the design of Common Operations solutions should ensure a positive rate of return on this investment in staff and financial resources. The UNDG Joint Funding and Business Operations Network, envisions the following global capacity development efforts in support of the roll-out of the BoS at the country level (subsequent to UNDG approval of the BoS framework): 1. Initial pilot support to 5 countries including technical support for BoS development; 2. Direct capacity development through (existing) training in Basic Business Operations and Advanced Business Operations courses, in cooperation with UNSSC; 3. On site and off site support mechanism through (existing) Business Operations resource pools managed through the UNDG support roster; 4. Help Desk function for Business Operations, based in DOCO (subject to availability of capacity in DOCO to manage this function) for direct questions of UNCTs/OMTs; 5. The JFBO anticipates a shared ownership of the BoS framework with the UNDG regional structures and anticipates further consultations with the HLCM and UNDG regional teams with regards to the roll-out in each respective region. 4 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

5 2. Background The TCPR 2007 and the subsequent ECOSOC resolution on Operational activities of the United Nations for international development cooperation (2011) call for identification and acceleration of the implementation of those business processes that promise the highest return from simplification and harmonization and encourages United Nations system organizations within their existing planning, budget and evaluation systems to report on their cost savings resulting from improvement of their business operations 4. Business Operations is a critical enabler for effective delivery of UN development programmes. Enhancing the link between UN programming efforts and the operational implications deriving from that programme effort enhances efficient and effective programme delivery. In addition, the ECOSOC resolution requests the UN to explore further ways to enhance cooperation, collaboration and coordination, including through the greater harmonization of strategic frameworks, instruments, modalities and partnership arrangements, emphasizing the importance of ensuring, greater consistency between the strategic frameworks developed by the United Nations agencies, funds and programmes 5. Along similar lines, the Secretary Generals 5 year Plan of Action (2012) called for a Second Generation of DaO, providing continued focus on reduction of transaction costs and increasingly efficient business operations. This Plan of Action was supplemented by the Secretary General's Report in anticipation of the QCPR , which urged for enhanced analysis and strategic planning and reporting of the Harmonization of Business Operations at the country level 6. Business Operations harmonization offers significant potential for transaction cost reductions. The results of harmonization, simplification or integration into common approaches include monetary gains such as cost reductions or non-monetary gains such as staff time cost reductions 1, enhanced reputation and quality of processes. The UNDG strategic priorities seek to operationalise these mandates by emphasizing the need for efficient business operations through simplification and harmonization where it adds value in order to provide better support to development effectiveness and impact of programmes. The UNDG Joint Funding and Business Operations Network 7 developed guidance and instruments in 2012 to operationalise the resolution with the aim to reinforce the linkages between the UN Programme (UNDAF) and UN Operations, enhance operational monitoring, evaluation and reporting efforts of said harmonization initiatives and advance the harmonization of Business Operations at the country level. 4 ECOSOC resolution E/2011/L.35, sections 11 and 12 5 ECOSOC resolution E/2011/L.35, sections 4 66 Ref DESA Business Operations Assessment (2012) and the SG Report in anticipation of the QCPR The Joint Funding and Business Operations Network (JFBO) was previously known as Country Office Business Operations Network (COBO) 5 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

6 3. Context The primary audiences for this guidance note are UN Country teams, Operations Management Teams, Resident Coordinator s Offices as well as Business operations practitioners. This Business Operations Strategy (BoS) is part of the UNDG framework for enhanced functioning of the UN System at the country level 8, guiding the harmonization effort in one its work streams "Common Services and Harmonised Business Practices". The BoS structures the development and management of business solution aiming to harmonise process and procedures at the country level (ex. HACT, harmonization of DSA rates) as well as common business solutions for operational support services (Common Services). Common Services include joint services in the areas of Procurement, ICT, HR, Logistics, Security etc. For further details regarding the framework and the supporting toolkit, kindly refer to This guidance note supports the UNCT in developing the Business Operations Strategy, which includes a medium term Operations Results Matrix and the M&E matrix reflecting the anticipated strategic outcomes of business operations at the country level for the coming UNDAF cycle. The medium term strategy is the basis for the annual work planning process undertaken by the OMT which operationalizes the strategy. The Business Operations Strategy follows the same cycle as the UNDAF. The Business Operations Strategy is a voluntary framework, meaning that the UN Country team can decide to undertake all or just some of the activities involved in this strategic planning exercise. It is however highly recommended to engage in the development of this medium term operational strategy given the potential added value it provides for reduced cost or enhanced quality and impact of UN operations, and ultimately, programme delivery at the country level. In addition, it is highly recommended to initiate the BoS process in conjunction with the development of the UN programme strategy at the country level (UNDAF). The BoS approach draws from the existing UNDG Common Services methodology (Process Approach Model- PAM), in particular PAM step 2: Operations Analysis and PAM Step 3: Strategic Planning. 8 From here onwards, this shall be referred to as the UNDG approach 6 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

7 4. The Business Operations Strategy 4.1 Principles of the Business Operations Strategy The Business Operations Strategy is based on the following principles: 1. The Business Operations Strategy is a voluntary instrument to be used at the country level by UNCTs/OMTs, to be developed in conjunction with the UNDAF; 2. The Business Operations Strategy covers Joint Business Operations initiatives only; 3. The Business Operations Strategy provides strategic, medium term focus and prioritization based on quantitative and qualitative Cost Benefit Analysis; 4. The Business Operations Strategy provides the basis for Monitoring and Reporting on progress and results of BO initiatives ; 5. The Business Operations Strategy provides the basis for Evaluation of implemented practices for further optimization if needed and for purposes of knowledge sharing; 6. The Business Operations Strategy provides the basis for Resource Mobilization (financial and human resources) in support of harmonization of Business Operations at the country level. 4.2 Why develop the Business Operations Strategy? The development of the Business Operations Strategy supports the development of harmonised Business Operations to achieve the following results: Enhanced linkages Programmes and Operations: The BoS has two components of operational support services - those deriving from UNDAF/programme and ongoing operations that do not derive directly from the programme. By analyzing the programme strategy through an operational lens and identifying the operations required to deliver the programme, the linkages between programme and operations are established. As both the UN Programme Strategy (UNDAF) and the Business Operations Strategy are on the same cycle, the development of the Business Operations Strategy enhances the linkages between the UNDAF and UN operations support to that programme strategy; Reduced Costs: The BoS provides a strategic focus on operational support services and initiatives aimed at harmonizing and/or simplifying business operations. It allows for multi-year planning of operations and facilitates strategic planning of the operational effort. The suite of operational instruments it comes with allow for enhanced identification of cost benefits of different initiatives, allowing facts based decision making and prioritization. It also facilitates monitoring and evaluation of the operational effort at the country level. It focuses on reduced lead times to execute processes through streamlining operational process, and reduced direct monetary cost for example by 7 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

8 leveraging UN System wide bargaining position when procuring goods and services. Anticipated cost reductions include: - Reduction of duplication of work processes at the agency level by providing the service through a single channel, rather than decentralized at the agency level (example ICT, Travel and building maintenance); - Reduction of transaction costs (time spent on activities) for the UN and partners, including the host government, due to harmonized operational procedures and standing agreements with vendors (e.g. VISA processes and Joint Long Term Agreements); - Enhanced leverage of UN bargaining position when procuring goods in larger quantities (ex. Office bulk goods, printing services). Enhanced Quality: By jointly procuring services in larger volumes, the UN increases it bargaining power with the service provider and enhances its ability to monitor and evaluate overall quality of service delivery of that service provider. Enhanced Operational Focus and prioritization: Instruments like Cost Benefit Analysis, Transaction Cost Analysis and Business Process Analysis provide light, easy to use tools to identify and prioritize high impact harmonization initiatives and facilitating monitoring and evaluation of harmonization initiatives against pre-established baselines. 4.3 What is the Business Operations Strategy? The Business Operations Strategy outlines the medium term strategic focus of UN Business Operations at the country level in one or more of the above mentioned categories in support of UNDAF implementation. It reflects high level outcomes of joint Business Operations 9 (not the agency level operations) that identify the intended result, and provides a breakdown of these high level results into lower level outputs. The Business Operations strategy provides the basis for annual work planning of the Operations Management Team and facilitates monitoring and evaluation, division of labor, accountabilities and resource mobilization in support of more strategic, cost effective business operations. The Business Operations Strategy has three components: A. Business Operations Results Framework, reflecting medium term outcomes and outputs in line with the UNDAF cycle; B. Monitoring and Evaluation Framework, reflecting outcome and output level indicators allowing for progress monitoring and evaluation of impact of business operations; C. Management Arrangements of UN Business Operations outlining the way the UN organizes itself in order to deliver cost effective operational support that meets UN Programme requirements; 9 Joint Business operations are Business Operations shared by one or more UN agencies. 8 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

9 For the purpose of the Business Operations Strategy, Business Operations are defined as jointly executed back-office support processes that support UN programme implementation at the country level 10. Examples of Business Operations include 11 : Examples of Common Services and Harmonized Business Practices Common ICT Services ICT Support Desk, Common VSAT, Joint VoIP infrastructure Radio and Telecommunications Common Domain & Website Common Procurement Services Office Supplies Fleet & Fuel Management (Light Vehicle) LTA s for workshop and conference facilities, standard business supplies etc Joint Review Board Procurement Common Human Resources Services Common Administration Services Common Finance Services Common Logistics and Transport Services Common Premises Common Security Services Common Protocol Services HACT Ref guidelines on 'Common UN Procurement at the Country Level' Staff Counseling and Training DSA harmonization for national staff Harmonized post descriptions Interagency recruitment Common UN Consultant Rosters, Common Learning Systems Mail services Translation services Common field housing and hotel/hostel arrangements Protocol services, Joint reception/registry, Pouch & express mail services, Maintenance Banking Travel Services Domestic Freight forwarding and Transit Storage Warehousing and distribution Air charter services Common Light Vehicle Fleet & Fleet Management Agency co-location (UN Common Premises/UN House) Common joint/field and provincial offices Building maintenance LTA s for security services Joint protocol staff for UN agencies 10 The Business Operations strategy does not include individual agencies business operations, it only reflects those business operations processes that are jointly executed. 11 Note that the exact types of Business Operations the UN Country Team prefers to engage in can and should be adjusted in accordance with country level requirements. 9 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

10 Annual Work Planning BoS Feedback Loop 5. Designing the Business Operations Strategy The Business Operations Strategy resembles the UNDAF in more than one way: it follows a similar - if lighter- process of analysis, results framework and M&E framework reflecting the Key Performance Indicators against which Business Operations are measured. The BOS also covers the same period and part of the content of the Business Operations Strategy derived directly from the UNDAF. The following graph provides an overview of the BOS process: Operations Analysis: 1. Baseline Analysis 2. Needs Analysis 3. Requirement Analysis 4. Cost Benefit Analysis (incl. BPM) Prioritization Harmonized Business Operations Medium Term Results Framework (incl. costing) Monitoring and Evaluation Framework OMT Work Plans 10 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

11 Template Business Operations Strategy The Business Operations Strategy reflects the following chapters: Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Principles of implementation Signatory Page Chapter 2: Operations Analysis 2.1 Baseline Analysis 2.2 Needs Analysis 2.3 Requirements Analysis 2.4 Cost Benefit Analysis 2.5 Prioritization Chapter 3: Business Operations Results Framework (narratives) Chapter 4: Business Operations Monitoring, Evaluation and reporting Chapter 5: Business Operations Governance Mechanisms Chapter 6: Business Operations Budgetary Framework Chapter 7: Operationalising the Business Operations Strategy Chapter 1 sets the context of the Business Operations Strategy; Chapter 2 defines the results focus (referred to as "business solutions"), and prioritizes the results areas according to the outcome of costs and benefits for each suggested business solution. Chapter 3 translates the business solutions in specific result statements (outcomes, outputs) and adds a short narrative for each results area, drawing from chapter 2. It also adds a required budget per outcome/output; Chapter 4 defines outcome and output level indicators, targets and baselines, drawing from chapter 2; Chapter 5 outlines the Business Operations Governance mechanisms; Chapter 6 describes the resource requirements, including a resource map of existing resources, the resource gap and a resource mobilization strategy; Chapter 7outlines the operationalisation of the Business Operation Strategy focusing on how to leverage the BoS to focus work planning and develop and implement solutions, including the concepts of integrated (OMT) work plan and the use of the standardized MoU for Common Services. The BoS guidance document outlines the approaches for each of these chapters. 11 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

12 Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Background The background includes a short, general introduction to the national context and the role the UN System at the country level has vis-à-vis the national development environment. Note that this is only a high level summary of the national context. As the UNDAF has a more in depth analysis of the national development situation, it may be useful to refer to the UNDAF for details. The background also reflects a short statement on the purpose of the UN Business Strategy (ref section 3.2) and its links to the UN Programme Strategy. 1.2 Principles of implementation This section outlines a limited number of key principles underpinning the UN Business Operations Strategy. Examples of these principles include: The Business operations Strategy focuses on Common UN operations, e.g. operational processes that add value to the UN System as a whole. In addition to these system wide services, agencies may decide to continue agency-specific operational support services. The UN Business Operations supplement these agency level operations; The UNs commitment to harmonisation of Business Operations where this yields added value to the UN System and its partners, where added value is defined as reduction of costs (either direct monetary cost or time cost) or enhancement of quality of services provided; UN Business Operations Strategy reflects direct links to the UNDAF programme strategy outlining the way the UN plans to deliver its operational support to the programme; The UNs commitment to the principles of the Paris Declaration, including the use of national systems for operational services where possible; Chapter 2: Business Operations Operations Analysis The Operations Analysis is a critical analysis aimed to identify which harmonization initiatives add value to the country offices and prioritize the different initiatives that are identified as adding value to country level Business Operations. The Operations Analysis includes the following analysis: 12 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

13 Business Operations Analysis 1. Baseline Analysis: Current Service Offering (Supply) o Existing Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (incl. Common Services) Baseline analysis 2. Needs Analysis (Demand) o Programme related Needs (deducted from the UNDAF) o Non-programme related Needs (corporate requirements) 3. Requirements Analysis; 4. Cost Benefit Analysis (based on a Simplified Transaction Cost Analysis) for potential Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services); 5. Last, the OMT prioritizes the added value harmonization initiatives; Based on the results of the Operations Analysis, the UNCT/OMT prepares the Results Matrix and the M&E framework, which guide Business Operations harmonization for the coming programme cycle. 2.1 Baseline Analysis Baseline Analysis includes a stock-taking and assessment of the current Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services). The baseline analysis aims to provide an overview of the current status of existing Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services). It identifies a few categories of basic information: Type of existing Common Service/ Harmonization effort Managing Entity (Service Manager) Clients (Agencies using service) Key Performance Indicators (KPI s) Performance Ranking against KPI s Modality (Outsourced/In House) Recommended Action (ref below) Table 1: Template Baseline Assessment 13 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

14 For the full template for the Baseline Analysis, please refer to Appendix B1 or to the UNDG Toolkit. Based on the performance of each Common Service, the Operations Management Team assesses the added value of the Common Service to the UN System, which will form the basis for the results framework and any recommended actions. Performance is measured against the agreed Key Performance Indicators (for more on Key Performance Indicators- ref the next section 2.3 Needs assessment): Recommended for expansion? If the CS is meeting or exceeding expectations, should other agencies be invited to participate? Should additional services be added to the service package? Recommended for Downscaling? Are there some areas of the CS that are not going as planned while others are? Recommended for Discontinuation? Are there unanticipated events or challenges that have prevented this CS from being established? Giving these challenges, should the CS be discontinued altogether? Recommended for adjustment/modification? Based on the performance it may be that the original design does not accommodate reality and leaves room for improvement. If this is the case, can the Common Service Design be modified to address any bottlenecks? Thus, while the assessment is fundamentally a review of what is in place; it will also be clear that as a part of these queries, there will be an initial opinion of the quality and necessity of the services in addition to a vision of where the services might be expanded or changed. These, along with any difficulties in achieving previous operational work plans (at both high and detailed levels) should be noted as a part of the initial assessment so as to provide a basis for further discussion and potential change. 2.2 Needs Analysis The Needs and Requirements Analysis identifies the need for operational support at the country level (demand). There may be a need for a specific process to be harmonised to reduce associated costs or enhance quality (for example, harmonising DSA rates for partners) or there may be benefit to delivering a service as a Common Service, rather than an agency based service. The Needs Analysis identifies and describes the need for existing and desired (new) joint operational support services. It takes the form of a short Needs Statement (narrative) for each suggested common business operation. The Needs Analysis focusses on the the need, not how the need ultimately is met, e.g. it focusses on the What andn When, not the How. The need needs for Business Operations derives from the baseline assessment of the existing common services and the need for new common services. Needs are determined keeping the following elements in mind: 14 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

15 (1) basic operational support (e.g. new staff requirements, potential new offices, etc.); (2) strategic operational support (professionalization and improvement of operational services as well as alignment with programmatic goals). Needs statements need to describe clearly what the service must deliver and by when it must be ready to deliver, in a measurable way The Needs Analysis uses the following template (note the template is the same as used for the Requirements analysis- the next step in the Operations Analysis): Name Business Operation/Ser vice Common Premises Sub- Office - Common ICT Needs Analysis Narrative Background: Utopia UNCT will include in its UNDAF a joint HIV/AIDS programme in Felurian Province. The inter-agency task team developing the programme concept has determined that because of the strong inter-linkage between the agency components of the programme, it will be desirable that the staff members are co-located in the UNAIDS office. The team would like to start working from the same location by month 6 in year To facilitate such a co-location certain support needs are identified: Need 1: In order to reap efficiency gains, the sub-office should take advantage of the new corporate inter-agency agreement with one VSAT connectivity provider and consolidate the agency internet connectivity arrangements into one shared connectivity arrangement with one VSAT and one ISP. The purpose of the arrangement will be to ensure sufficient bandwidth for all agencies at the best price possible and to facilitate increased use of VOIP telephony and internet based video conferencing. Need 1 description: Soonest possible and if necessary on a scaled basis, to have an ICT arrangement which will (1) rationalize the agency connectivity arrangements to one shared arrangement making use of fewest possible VSATs in accordance with the corporate inter-agency agreement and one ISP only; (2) ensure that all agencies have the necessary bandwidth available; (3) Facilitate widest possible use of VOIP telephony particularly for international phone calls (4) Facilitate widest possible usage of low cost internet video conferencing. Requirements Analysis & KPI's For the template for the Needs Analysis, kindly refer to Appendix B.2 or download it from the UNDG Toolkit. The Needs Analysis involves both programme and operations staff, as needs are derived from taking into account programmatic as well as operational needs. Some Business Operations derive directly from the Programme/UNDAF (Programme related Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services)), while other business operations will be required, regardless of the programme size or design (Corporate Requirements). 15 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

16 Note that the needs and requirements analysis includes both existing and new Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services). A. Programme related Needs for Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services) The UNDAF will define a significant part of the operational back-office requirements for that cycle. As the Business Operations Strategy and the UNDAF Programme strategy are on the same cycle, it provides a good entreepoint to link the two closer together by deriving the back-office support requirements from the UNDAF results matrix. Note that this focuses on the identification of the back-office support service needs that will be provided as a Common Service (e.g. Joint Business Operations), not individual agencies' services 12. Examples include the HACT initiative or common procurement of commodities directly linked to the programme. In the UNDAF, each outcome is broken down into lower level outputs. The Figure 1: Relation UNDAF and BoS combinations of the outputs ensure the UN is able to deliver on the outcome. These outcomes and outputs are the basis for the analysis 13 : Approach: Business Operations Strategy Programme Related Business Operations (UNDAF) Common Premises needs for sub-office Common HR arrangements for a joint programme or sub-office Joint Procurement support for a particular programme 1. Select the UNDAF outcome for which the needs analysis is executed; Example: UNDAF Outcome: By 2025, malaria infection is reduced from 29% to 20 % in the three most malaria prone regions of Utopia. 2. Identify the outputs under the UNDAF outcome that are likely to impact the operational support requirements 14. HACT Ongoing Business Operations Common Procurement of bulk office goods, fuel, General ICT support Common Travel Desk Country level UN HQ /Common Premises 12 Depending on the preferences of the UN Country team, the Business Operations Strategies can include agency level back-office support, provided a complete operations strategy in support of the UNDAF, reflecting both Common Services as well as agency services. 13 For further details on the UNDAF RBM methodology kindly refer to UNDG RBM Handbook on 14 It is recommended to start the analysis of operational needs from the output level of the UNDAF, as the outcome level is likely not to provide enough detail. 16 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

17 Example: UNDAF Output 1: By 2025, 80% of the most vulnerable groups in the three most vulnerable provinces will have access to malaria prevention instruments, including bed nets and preventative chemical solutions. The targets and indicators in the log frame (results framework) and M&E framework of the UNDAF may further specify the interventions. 3. For each of the selected outputs in step 2, the Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services) requirements are analysed for each Common Service Categories: Common Procurement Common Human Resources Common ICT Common Logistics and Transport Common Administration Common Finance Common Security The exact categories vary per country, based on the services that are in place or to be developed. The categories are an indication to guide the OMT thinking. The analysis should take into account direct programme needs (ex. Procurement needs) as well as general programme needs such as whether the UN requires additional sub offices or project offices, which would have a significant ICT, logistical and other operational support implications. The key point here is that the need is directly tied to a specific programme. Note that this focuses on the identification of the back-office support service needs that will be provided as a Common Service (e.g. Joint Business Operations), not individual agencies' services 15. The figure below illustrates this approach: 15 Depending on the preferences of the UN Country team, the Business Operations Strategies can include agency level back-office support, provided a complete operations strategy in support of the UNDAF, reflecting both Common Services as well as agency services. 17 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

18 Business Operations Strategy (BoS) UNDAF Operational Analysis Common Country Analysis Results Framework (Outcomes-Outputs) Results Framework (Outcomes-Outputs) Monitoring and Evaluation (Indicators) Monitoring and Evaluation (Indicators) Budgetary Framework Budgetary Framework Management Arrangements (including funding) Management Arrangements (including funding) Joint Funding Arrangements Figure 2: Relation between UNDAF and BoS This category includes services that currently are executed on an agency basis, but due to scaling up the programme or involvement of additional agencies, it may be more effective or cost efficient if it s provided through Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services) at the UN System level instead. B. Other Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services) In addition to programme related Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services), there usually is scope for additional Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services), which do not necessarily derive directly from the UNDAF. Examples include procurement of Generic Office supplies or fuel (Joint procurement), establishment of a Common Reception or Registry (Logistics), Joint recruitment processes and learning (Joint Human Resources). These operational processes support programme implementation but do not necessarily derive directly from individual programme needs. This category includes services that currently are executed on an agency basis, but due to scaling up the programme or involvement of additional agencies, it may be more effective or cost efficient if it s provided through Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services) at the UN System level instead. Approach 1. Identify the other related needs (not directly deriving from the UNDAF) that the Common Service or harmonization effort is supposed to cover; Example: Common Reception, Maintenance, Office Bulk Goods, Fuel, Transport. 18 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

19 2. For each of needs in step 1, the Business Operations Harmonization initiatives (including Common Services) requirements are analysed for each Common Service Category: Procurement Human Resources Information and Communication Technology Logistics and Administration Finance Security Below is an example of a non-programmatic results chain, in this case focussing on Procurement. Note: the BoS usually would only cover the outcomes (specifies "What" the UNCT/OMT plans to realize in the coming cycle) and outputs (specifies "How" the UNCT/OMT plans to realise the outcome). The Annual Deliverable would be something you would see in the integrated Annual Work Plan of the OMT. However, in order to demonstrate what the full results chain would look like, the example below includes Annual Deliverables. Outcome 1: By 2015, the UN in Utopia has realized a reduction of UN Operating Costs by an average of 5% per year Output 1: By 2015, the UN System in Utopia has reduced cost of procurement by 4% through the development and implementation of Common Procurement initiatives o Annual Deliverable 2012: In year 1, cost reduced by 2% of baseline year 2012 through the establishment of three additional LTAs (established baseline Jan 2012: 5 LTAs in place, target Dec 2012: 8 LTAs in place) o Annual Deliverable 2013: In year 2, cost reduced by 1% of baseline year 2012 through the establishment of seven additional LTA s (established baseline Jan 2012: 5 LTAs in place, target Dec 2013: 12 LTAs in place) o Annual Deliverable 2014: In year 3, cost reduced by 1% of baseline year 2012 through the establishment of ten additional LTAs (established baseline Jan 2012: 5 LTAs in place, target Dec 2014: 15 LTA s in place) Output 2: By 2015, the UN System in Utopia has reduced operating cost by 2% through the development and implementation of Voice over IP o o Annual Deliverable 1: Annual Deliverable 2: For the full template for the Needs and Requirements Analysis, please refer to Appendix B2 or to the UNDG Toolkit. 2.3 Requirement Analysis The requirements Analysis identifies and describes requirements for existing and desired (new) joint operational support services. The requirements outline the parameters which the service 19 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

20 needs to meet in terms of quality, timeliness, or cost effectiveness, often expressed in the form of Kep performance Indicators (KPI s). The Requirements analysis yields a Requirement Statement for each service. Requirement statements need to be written in a measurable way that enables the direct development of relevant compliance measurements and other performance indicators. This ensures that expectations are clearly set. The requirements Analysis uses the same table as the Needs Analysis, and completes this table by completing the Requirements Analysis and KPI s column. For the template Needs and Requirements analysis please refer to Appendix B2. Name Business Operation/Ser vice Common Premises Sub- Office - Common ICT Needs Analysis Narrative Background: Utopia UNCT will include in its UNDAF a joint HIV/AIDS programme in Felurian Province. The inter-agency task team developing the programme concept has determined that because of the strong inter-linkage between the agency components of the programme, it will be desirable that the staff members are co-located in the UNAIDS office. The team would like to start working from the same location by month 6 in year To facilitate such a co-location certain support needs are identified: Need 1: In order to reap efficiency gains, the sub-office should take advantage of the new corporate inter-agency agreement with one VSAT connectivity provider and consolidate the agency internet connectivity arrangements into one shared connectivity arrangement with one VSAT and one ISP. The purpose of the arrangement will be to ensure sufficient bandwidth for all agencies at the best price possible and to facilitate increased use of VOIP telephony and internet based video conferencing. Need 1 description: Soonest possible and if necessary on a scaled basis, to have an ICT arrangement which will (1) rationalize the agency connectivity arrangements to one shared arrangement making use of fewest possible VSATs in accordance with the corporate inter-agency agreement and one ISP only; (2) ensure that all agencies have the necessary bandwidth available; (3) Facilitate widest possible use of VOIP telephony particularly for international phone calls (4) Facilitate widest possible usage of low cost internet video conferencing. Cost Effectiveness Indicator: Requirements Analysis & KPI's 1. Total operational cost of VSAT connectivity reduced by 8% 2. Total operations cost of telephone use reduced by 85% Service Quality Indicator: 1. Response time from ICT helpdesk on a request for connectivity support <3hours; 2. Uptime link min. 90% of time 3. Link speed meets agency requirements 90% of the time 4. Video conferencing capability available to agencies Efficiency indicator Number a VSAT arrangements reduced from 6 (1 per agency) to 1 (84% reduction in contract management cost) For each of the needs identified above, both programmatic and non-programmatic the OMT needs to describe the following in a short narrative: Requirement statements need to be written in a measurable way that enables the direct development of relevant compliance measurements and other performance indicators. This ensures that expectations are clearly set. Examples of Requirement Statements as follows: By a certain date (end of BoS cycle), each agency procuring the Common ICT Helpdesk services has access to timely and quality ICT Help Desk Support Services; By a certain date (end of BoS cycle), each agency procuring joint cleaning services for the shared premises has access to quality cleaning services; By a certain date (end of BoS cycle), each participating agencies' travel cost is reduced by X%; 20 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

21 By a certain date, all UN staff members will have access to a comprehensive and well structure M&E training programme. Key Performance Indicators: For each of the requirement statements you will have a set of indicators called Key Performance Indicators that sets the expectation of the exact level of service What should be a common required. As such KPI's specify the level of service instead of an agency expectations for harmonization initiatives and/or the service? expectations of participating agencies procuring services through a Common Service system. KPI's More than one agency are a powerful tool for monitoring the continued needs the service; added value and adherence to intended quality standards over time, especially if the performance is compared to previous years (trend analysis). KPI's establish a generic standard for each of the selected needs; KPI's help describe what function the service is required to perform to meet the identified need at the end of the Business Operation Strategy (medium term). Once the OMT establishes the Annual Work Plan each year, it can have incremental annual targets/kpi's that, at the end of the BoS cycle achieve, realise the intended result; The monetary and nonmonetary benefits of having the service jointly outweigh the cost of developing and delivering the service; There is a Quality Benefit in having the Service jointly. Keep things simple. No more than 2-3 KPI's are required unless specifically agreed to include more. Note: the cost of monitoring goes up with each KPI; When developing the Key Performance Indicators, it should be ensured that they can be measured in the first place, and that the cost of measurement and data collection are acceptable. If the cost is (too) high or expensive, one may chose to opt for a "proxy indicator". A proxy indicator is an indicator that doesn't directly measure the exact performance, but can be used as an approximate indication of performance. Using the example Requirement Statements above, examples of KPI's include: Time indicators for service quality such as timeliness of a service delivered: "Response time from ICT helpdesk on a request for support = <X hours>"; Perceived quality of a service to be delivered: "Positive response rate on cleanliness of office premises as per annual survey >75%"; Anticipated cost savings resulting from a joint service: "Travel cost reduction of 10% of total annual travel volume"; Access to a specified service: "X number of staff received basic M&E training through the Common Learning Programme". 21 UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

22 2.4 Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) This last step before developing the result matrix provides the analytical basis for the OMT/UNCT to make informed decisions which initiatives are prioritized, based on either cost savings, or enhanced quality of the business operations process and/or product/service. As some harmonization initiatives may require investment up front in order to implement the initiative, the cost benefit analysis provides details on the level of the required investment cost (both time and financial cost) which may influence the prioritization of each initiative. As such, the cost benefit analysis aims to assess the cost effectiveness of a proposed solution 16 : Cost-effectiveness is the extent to which the business solution has achieved or is expected to achieve its results at a lower cost compared with alternatives. Shortcomings in costeffectiveness occur when the program is not the least-cost alternative or approach to achieving the same or similar outputs and outcomes 17. Cost savings are results that increase cost effectiveness, and therefore increase the appeal of a suggested business solution. may be monetary (direct cost savings, for example in joint procurement initiatives) or non-monetary in nature (for example quality enhancements of services or reduced lead times for processes - resulting in less staff time involved in executing the process). The Cost Benefit Analysis aims to provide sufficient, rather than exhaustive, overview of the main cost elements that are involved in any process: direct cost of the process ($ value) and the labor cost, or time spent on executing the different actions that make up a process. The CBA therefore analyses three types of costs and benefits associated with each suggested Business Operations harmonization initiative (incl. Common Services): 1. Monetary Costs & Benefits- Direct Cost ($ value) 2. Labor costs (Non-Monetary Cost- time spent) 3. Other costs/benefits "...The Cost Benefit Analysis aims to provide a sufficient, rather than exhaustive, overview of the main cost elements associated with a process..." Cost Benefit analysis is a mandatory step of the BoS. However, not all Business Operations harmonization initiatives require the same level of detailed analysis. It is highly recommended that the higher the perceived complexity or investment cost, the more detailed the cost benefit analysis needs to be. The BoS uses two specific tools to assess these three (monetary, non-monetary and other) cost types: Business Process Mapping and Simplified Transaction Cost Analysis. 16 Within the UN System this is often (erroneously) referred to as efficient solutions, which is incorrect. Efficiency is the extent to which the business solution has converted or is expected to convert its resources/inputs (such as funds, expertise, time, etc.) economically into results in order to achieve the maximum possible outputs, outcomes, and impacts with the minimum possible inputs UN Business Operations Strategy (BOS) - Guidelines August 2012 _Final Draft

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