Durham/York Residual Waste Study. Draft Interim Report on Ambient Air Monitoring At the Courtice Road Site

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1 Durham/York Residual Waste Study Draft Interim Report on At the Courtice Road Site October 1, 2008

2 Draft Interim Report on At the Courtice Road Site October 1, 2008 prepared by: GENIVAR Ontario Inc. 600 Cochrane Drive, Suite 500 Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R 5K3 Jacques Whitford Limited 3430 South Service Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7N 3T9 This report has been prepared for the sole benefit of the Regions of Durham and York, and may not be used by any third party without the express written consent of GENIVAR/ Jacques Whitford Limited and Durham and York Regions. Any use that a third party makes of this report is the responsibility of that third party.

3 Executive Summary Durham and York Regions (the Regions) have partnered to undertake a joint Residual Waste Planning Study. Both municipalities are in need of a solution to manage the solid waste that remains for disposal after diversion (residual or post-diversion waste). The Regions are working together to address the social, economic, and environmental concerns of residents through an Environmental Assessment (EA) Study process to examine potential long-term residual waste management alternatives. Thermal treatment has been identified as the preferred technology to manage residual waste, and studies have been conducted to identify a preferred site for development of the preferred Durham/York residual waste processing system (i.e. a new thermal treatment facility). After various screening studies, four short-list sites were identified. Ambient air quality monitoring was initiated by Jacques Whitford Limited in the vicinity of the Courtice Road short-list locations to quantify ambient levels of selected criteria air contaminants in September This report summarizes the results of the ambient monitoring conducted during the period from mid September 2007 to August The monitoring at this site has been conducted to develop a long-term ambient data set at the preferred site, which is required to develop suitable background ambient concentrations for use in the Environmental Assessment, Air Quality permitting, and Human Health Risk Assessment. Since mid-september 2007, the Courtice Road monitoring station has measured the following Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs), which are common air pollutants with known human health and environmental effects: Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ); Nitrogen Oxides (NOx); Carbon Monoxide (CO); Ozone (O 3 ); and, Particulate Matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ). A 10 metre meteorological tower at the station measures wind speed, wind direction, and temperature. On December 26, 2007, hi-volume air samplers were installed at the Courtice Road monitoring station to measure: Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) matter and metals; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs); and, Dioxins and Furans. i

4 This interim report provides a summary of the ambient data collected at this station for the period September 2007 to August The main results and conclusions of this report were: 1. Measured levels of SO 2, CO, and O 3 were below their applicable MOE criteria. 2. The maximum measured hourly and daily average NO 2 concentrations exceeded their respective AAQCs. The hourly NO 2 criteria was exceeded for 20 hours in the May to July period. Hourly exceedances occurred for winds blowing from westerly or south westerly directions in all instances. 3. Since the Canada Wide Standard (CWS) for PM 2.5 is based on a 98th percentile level over 3 years, whereas the PM 2.5 measurement period at the station was about 10-months, there was only a marginal amount of data collected to determine if exceedances of the CWS would occur. Therefore no comparison of the measured P M2.5 data to the CWS was conducted for this report. Once a full year of PM 2.5 data is collected, the potential for exceedances will be assessed. 4. The maximum measured concentrations of TSP and all metals with MOE air quality criteria were below their applicable criteria. 5. The maximum measured concentrations of all PAHs with MOE air quality criteria were well below their applicable criteria. 6. The maximum measured toxic equivalent dioxin and furan concentration was well below the applicable criteria. ii

5 Table of Contents Transmittal Letter Executive Summary Table of Contents 1. Introduction Background Previous Studies Ambient Monitoring Station Location Key Components Assessed Meteorology Air Quality Contaminants of Concern Nitrogen Oxides Sulphur Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Fine and Respirable Particulate Matter Ozone Metals PAHs Dioxins and Furans Air Quality Criteria Instrumentation Summary Instrumentation and Data Collection Instrumentation Issues Instrumentation Recovery Rates Summary of Ambient Measurements Meteorological Data CAC Ambient Air Quality Measurements Comparison of Measurements to Ambient Air Quality Criteria Sulphur Dioxide Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Nitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Particulate Matter Ozone Carbon Monoxide Ambient TSP/Metals Concentrations Ambient PAH Concentrations Ambient Dioxin and Furan Concentrations Conclusions iii

6 List of Tables Table 2-1 Summary of Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria for CACs Table 2-2 Summary of Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria for Metals Table 2-3 Summary of Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria for PAHs and D/Fs Table 3-1 Summary of Instrument Issues Table 3-2 Summary of Data Recovery Rates for Courtice Road Site (Sept to August 2008) Table 4-1 Summary of Hourly Meteorological Measurements at the Courtice Monitoring Station Table 4-2 Summary of Ambient CAC Monitoring Data (Sept 2007 to August 2008) Table 4-3 Summary of Measured Ambient TSP/Metals Concentrations Table 4-4 Summary of Measured Ambient PAH Concentrations Table 4-5 Summary of Measured Ambient Dioxin and Furan Concentrations List of Figures Figure 1-1 Courtice Road Monitoring Site Location Figure 1-2 View of Courtice Road Monitoring Station (Looking South-West) Figure 4-1 Comparison of NOx, SO 2 and O 3 Ambient Monitoring Data to AAQCs Figure 4-2 Comparison of CO Ambient Monitoring Data to AAQCs Figure 4-3 Time Histories of Ambient SO 2 Concentrations Courtice Road Figure 4-4 Diurnal Variations in Hourly SO 2 Concentrations 4-11 Figure 4-5 Time Histories of Ambient NO 2 Concentrations Courtice Road Figure 4-6 Diurnal Variations in Hourly NO 2 Concentrations 4-13 Figure 4-7 Time Histories of Ambient NO Concentrations Courtice Road Figure 4-8 Diurnal Variations in Hourly NO Concentrations at Courtice Road Figure 4-9 Time Histories of Ambient NOx Concentrations Courtice Road Figure 4-10 Diurnal Variations in Hourly NOx Concentrations Figure 4-11 Time Histories of Ambient PM 2.5 Concentrations Courtice Road Figure 4-12 Diurnal Variations in Hourly PM 2.5 Concentrations Figure 4-13 Time Histories of Ambient O 3 Concentrations Courtice Road Figure 4-14 Diurnal Variations in Hourly Ozone Concentrations Figure 4-15 Time Histories of Ambient CO Concentrations Courtice Road Figure 4-16 Diurnal Variations in Hourly CO Concentrations Appendices Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I Appendix J SO 2 Data Summary NO 2 Data Summary NO Data Summary NOx Data Summary PM 2.5 Data Summary Ozone Data Summary CO Data Summary Metals Data Summary PAH Data Summary D/F Data Summary iv

7 1. Introduction 1.1 Background Durham and York Regions (the Regions) have partnered to undertake a joint Residual Waste Planning Study. Both municipalities are in need of a solution to manage the solid waste that remains for disposal after diversion (residual or post-diversion waste). The Regions are working together to address the social, economic, and environmental concerns of residents through an Environmental Assessment (EA) Study process to examine potential long-term residual waste management alternatives. Thermal treatment has been identified as the preferred technology to manage residual waste, and studies have been conducted to identify a preferred site for development of the preferred Durham/York residual waste processing system (i.e. a new thermal treatment facility). After various screening studies, four short-list sites were identified. 1.2 Previous Studies Ambient air quality monitoring was initiated by Jacques Whitford Limited in the vicinity of the short-list locations to quantify ambient levels of selected criteria air contaminants in September 2007 and continued until early January The results of the monitoring in the vicinity of the four short list sites are presented in the February 2008 report entitled, Draft Report on Ambient Air Monitoring in the Vicinity of the Short-List Sites. The preferred site (Clarington 01) was chosen in January Ambient monitoring at the other short-list sites was discontinued in January 2008 and only the Courtice Road monitoring station, which is in the vicinity of the Clarington 01 site was kept operational. The monitoring at this site has been continued in order to develop a long-term ambient data set at the preferred site, which is required to develop suitable background ambient concentrations for use in the Environmental Assessment, Air Quality permitting, and Human Health Risk Assessment. 1.3 Ambient Monitoring Station Location Proper siting of monitoring stations requires a precise specification of the monitoring objective, which usually includes a desired spatial scale of representativeness. The spatial scale of representativeness is described in terms of the physical dimensions of the air parcel nearest to a monitoring station through which the pollutant concentration is reasonably uniform. The goal in siting monitoring stations is to correctly match the spatial scale represented by the sample of monitored air with the monitoring objective of the station. The scales of representativeness of most interest for local air monitoring networks are: Microscale defines concentrations in air volumes associated with area dimensions ranging from several metres up to about 100 metres. Middle Scale defines the concentration typical of areas ranging in size from about 100 m to 0.5 km. 1-1

8 Neighbourhood Scale defines concentrations within extended areas with relatively uniform land use with dimensions on 0.5 to 4.0 km. Urban Scale defines overall city-wide conditions with dimensions on the order of 4 to 50 kilometres. US EPA 40CFR Part 58 provides guidelines on the scales of representativeness required for specific monitoring objectives. The objective of monitoring source impact is associated with micro, middle and neighbourhood scales. Monitoring for background concentrations requires neighbourhood or regional scales of representativeness. The selection of site for the monitoring station was done in consultation with Durham/York representatives. The setting of the Courtice Road monitoring station attempted to be representative of neighbourhood scales, which is appropriate for monitoring of background concentration levels. The final location of the monitoring station was influenced by the availability of electrical power, accessibility of each location, and security. The location of the Courtice Road monitoring station is within the fenced area of the project office for the new water pollution control plant to the south-west of the short-list sites. Figures 1-1 and 1-2 show the location and a photo of the monitoring station. The ambient monitoring station was located approximately 10-m to the south of the project office. The surrounding terrain was generally flat and relatively open with a few trees. There was however, a small copse of trees located to the west of the project office (to the north of the monitoring site) within about 10-m of the station. The monitoring station is located about 1.5 km to the south of Highway 401 and about 2 km from the Clarington 01 preferred site. 1-2

9 Figure 1-1 Courtice Road Monitoring Site Location Clarington 01 Preferred Site N Monitoring Station Location Project Office Building Monitoring Station Location 1-3

10 Figure 1-2 View of Courtice Road Monitoring Station (Looking South-West) 1-4

11 2. Key Components Assessed 2.1 Meteorology Knowledge of the meteorology and climatology of a region are useful in assessing the potential emissions sources that may impact ambient air quality. Parameters that directly influence the dispersion of pollutants include; wind speeds and direction, atmospheric stability and mixing layer depths. 2.2 Air Quality Contaminants of Concern Air quality contaminants of concern measured for this study were determined in consultation with the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) team. The ambient monitoring program at the Courtice Road site includes the following contaminants: Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) - common air pollutants with known human health and environmental effects. Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) matter and metals; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs); and, Dioxins and Furans (D/Fs). Monitoring for CACs has been conducted since September Monitors for TSP/metals, PAHs and D/Fs were installed in December 2007 once the preferred site had been identified. The following sections provide additional description of the air quality contaminants measured at the Courtice road monitoring station Nitrogen Oxides Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are produced in most combustion processes, and are almost entirely made up of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). Together, they are often referred to as NOx. NO 2 is an orange to reddish gas that is corrosive and irritating. Most NO 2 in the atmosphere is formed by the oxidation of NO, which is emitted directly by combustion processes, particularly those at high temperature and pressure. NO is a colourless gas with no direct effects on health or vegetation at ambient levels and with no regulatory criteria. NO 2 is the regulated form of NO X. The levels of NO and NO 2, and the ratio of the two gases, together with the presence of hydrocarbons and sunlight, are the most important factors in the formation of ground-level ozone. Further oxidation and combination with water in the atmosphere forms what is known as acid rain. Nitrogen oxides are emitted from a variety of combustion sources including vehicles, industrial heaters and boilers, and residential gas-fired furnaces and hot water boilers. Generally for combustion, 5 to 10% of the initial total emissions of NOx are NO 2 with the remaining 90-95% being NO. The conversion of the majority of NO occurs after emission to the atmosphere. The rate of conversion depends on the oxidizing potential of the atmosphere at the time of release. 2-5

12 For example, if the ambient concentration of O 3 is high at the time of release, the conversion might be expected to be higher than if the ambient concentration of O 3 was low Sulphur Dioxide Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) is a colourless gas with a distinctive pungent sulphur odour. It is produced in combustion processes by the oxidation of sulphur in the fuel. The presence of SO 2 can, at high enough concentrations, cause damage to vegetation and health effects to animals through the respiratory system. The SO 2 can also be further oxidized and combines with water to form the sulphuric acid component of acid rain. Sulphur dioxide is emitted mainly from industrial sources utilising coal, coke or oil fired heaters and boilers Carbon Monoxide Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless gas that is produced by the incomplete combustion of fuel sources. Carbon monoxide is emitted from a variety of combustion sources including vehicles, industrial heaters and boilers, and residential gas-fired furnaces and hot water boilers Fine and Respirable Particulate Matter Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) is a measure of the particles in the atmosphere that are too small to settle out quickly, but remain suspended for significant periods of time. Generally, this means particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 44 µm. TSP is produced by a variety of emissions sources including wind erosion of agricultural fields and other open areas, abrasion of vehicle tires on paved and unpaved roads, agricultural activities, and combustion processes (e.g. industrial boilers and heaters, power generation, vehicle emissions, etc). Although total suspended particulate matter is an excellent measure of the loading of particulate matter in the air, it does not necessarily reflect the health risks of the particulate matter. The larger aerodynamic particles (PM 10 ) are trapped by the upper airways, and do not enter the lungs. Smaller diameter particles (PM 2.5 ) can make their way deep into the lungs, and may become lodged there. Over the past few years, greater concern with regard to these fine particles has led to research resulting in new sampling methods and criteria Ozone Ground level ozone is not emitted directly to the atmosphere. Enhanced ground level ozone can result from chemical reactions involving VOCs, NOx, as well as many other species in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight. The chemical transformation in the atmosphere follows a complex process in which NO 2 is transformed into NO plus O 3 in the presence of oxygen. In the vicinity of combustion sources, which emit a significant portion of their NOx emissions as NO, an opposite chemical reaction (which occurs faster than the ozone formation reaction during periods of enhanced ozone) can occur in which ozone is used up in the chemical transformation of NO to NO 2. Due to this atmospheric reaction, decreased ground level ozone concentrations are often seen within the vicinity of power generation facilities during regional ozone episodes. 2-6

13 2.2.6 Metals Metals may exist in elemental form or in a variety of inorganic or organic compounds. Most environmental regulators do not make distinctions between metal species, and refer to them as metals and their compounds. Both natural (biogenic) and man-made (anthropogenic) processes and sources may emit metals and their compounds into the air. The processing of minerals, fuel combustion, and the wearing out of motor vehicle tyres and brake pads result in the emission of metals associated with particulate matter. Metals occur naturally in soil and rock - weathering of the rocks, mining/construction activities, etc can release metals into air as particulate matter. The ambient particulate data collected at the Courtice site was analysed for the following metals: Antimony (Sb) Bismuth (Bi) Boron (B) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Silicon (Si) Sodium (Na) Strontium (Sr) Thallium (Tl) PAHs Uranium (U) Zirconium (Zr) Aluminum (Al) Arsenic (As) Barium (Ba) Beryllium (Be) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Cobalt (Co) Copper (Cu) Iron (Fe) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Molybdenum (Mo) Nickel (Ni) Selenium (Se) Silver (Ag) Tin (Sn) Titanium (Ti) Vanadium (V) Zinc (Zn) Sulphur (S) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds with two or more fused aromatic rings. PAHs are formed mainly as a result of pyrolytic processes, especially the incomplete combustion of organic materials during industrial and other human activities, such as processing of coal and crude oil, combustion of natural gas, vehicle traffic, cooking and tobacco smoking. The following PAHs were monitored at the Courtice site: 1-Methylnaphthalene 1-Methylphenanthrene 2-Chloronaphthalene 2-Methylanthracene 2-Methylnaphthalene 3-Methylcholanthrene 7,12-Dimethylbenzo(a) anthracene 9,10- Dimethylanthracene Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene Anthracene Benzo(a)anthracene Benzo(a)fluorene 2-7

14 Benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(b)fluoranthene Benzo(b)fluorene Benzo(e)pyrene Benzo(g,h,i)perylene Benzo(k)fluoranthene Biphenyl Chrysene Coronene Dibenz(a,h)anthracene Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene Fluoranthene Fluorene Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene m-terphenyl Naphthalene o-terphenyl Perylene Phenanthrene p-terphenyl Pyrene Quinoline Tetralin Total PAH Dioxins and Furans Dioxins and furans refer to a family of toxic substances that all share a similar chemical structure. Dioxins and furans all contain chlorine and can occur in different configurations, called congeners. Most dioxins and furans are not man-made or produced intentionally, but are created when other chemicals or products are manufactured. Of all of the dioxins and furans, one cogener 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzo-dioxin (2,3,7,8 Tetra CDD) is considered the most toxic. International toxicity equivalency factors (I-TEFs) are applied to 17 dioxin and furan isomers to convert them into an equivalent 2,3,7,8 Tetra CDD concentration (I-TEQ) for comparison to ambient air quality criteria. The following dioxins and furans were monitored at the Courtice site: 2,3,7,8-Tetra CDD 1,2,3,7,8-Penta CDD 1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexa CDD 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexa CDD 1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexa CDD 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Hepta CDD Octa CDD Total Tetra CDD Total Penta CDD Total Hexa CDD Total Hepta CDD 2,3,7,8-Tetra CDF 1,2,3,7,8-Penta CDF 2,3,4,7,8-Penta CDF 1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexa CDF 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexa CDF 2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexa CDF 1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexa CDF 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Hepta CDF 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Hepta CDF Octa CDF Total Tetra CDF Total Penta CDF Total Hexa CDF Total Hepta CDF Total toxic equivalency (I-TEQ) 2-2

15 2.3 Air Quality Criteria Ambient air quality concentration limits relevant to the Project are prescribed in O. Reg. 419/05. As the Project will be a new facility, O. Reg. 419/05 Schedule 3 standards will apply. A summary of the relevant air quality criteria is presented in Tables 2-1 to 2-3 for CACs, metals and PAHs/dioxins and furans respectively. Table 2-1 Summary of Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria for CACs O. Reg 419/05 Schedule 3 Contaminant CAS 1-Hour (µg/m 3 ) 24-Hour (µg/m 3 ) Other time Period (µg/m 3 ) Sulphur dioxide Nitrogen oxides Carbon monoxide ; 8-hr Ozone PM 2.5 N/A 30 A Notes: A CCME (2000), Canada-Wide Standards for Respirable Particulate Matter and Ozone, effective by The Respirable Particulate Matter Objective is referenced to the 98 th percentile over 3 consecutive years, Table 2-2 Summary of Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria for Metals O. Reg 419/05 Schedule 3 Contaminant CAS 1-Hour (µg/m 3 ) 24-Hour (µg/m 3 ) Other time Period (µg/m 3 ) Total Particulate NA 120 Antimony Boron Magnesium Strontium Zirconium Aluminum Arsenic NA 0.3 Barium Beryllium Cadmium ; annual Cobalt NA 0.1 Copper NA 50 Iron Lead ; 30-day Nickel Silver Tin Titanium

16 Contaminant CAS O. Reg 419/05 Schedule 3 1-Hour (µg/m 3 ) 24-Hour (µg/m 3 ) Vanadium Zinc Sulphur Other time Period (µg/m 3 ) Table 2-3 Summary of Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria for PAHs and D/Fs O. Reg 419/05 Schedule 3 Contaminant CAS 1-Hour (µg/m 3 ) 24-Hour (µg/m 3 ) Other time Period (µg/m 3 ) Acenaphthylene Anthracene Benzo(a)pyrene Naphthalene Perylene Pyrene Quinoline Dioxins and Furans Total Toxic Equivalency NA 5 (pg/m 3 ) 3. Instrumentation Summary 3.1 Instrumentation and Data Collection Continuous air quality monitors were located in a heated/air conditioned enclosure at the site to measure the following parameters: Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ); Nitrogen Oxides (NOx); Carbon Monoxide (CO); Ozone (O 3 ); and, Particulate Matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ). 3-2

17 A 10 metre meteorological tower was used to measure wind speed, wind direction, and temperature. An automated data acquisition system was used to record all data. In December 2007, two manually operated, hi-volume air samplers were installed at the station to collect metals, PAHs and D/F ambient concentration data. For metals analysis, ambient air total suspended particulate matter was collected onto glass fibre filters for a 24-hour period using one of the high volume air samplers. The particulate on the filter was subsequently analysed for metals content. The metals sampling was conducted at sixday intervals scheduled to correspond with the Ontario MOE province-wide ambient sampling schedule. PAHs and D/Fs were collected with the second high volume air sampler which was equipped with a dual chambered sampling module to contain a glass fibre filter and a Poly-Urethane Foam (PUF) cartridge. PAHs were collected at 12-day intervals and D/Fs were collected at monthly intervals. The hi-volume air samplers were calibrated as per the requirements in MOE A Guide to Air Filter Sampling and Submission and US EPA 40 CFR Part 58 Appendix A. 3.2 Instrumentation Issues Some issues with zero drift were encountered with the SO 2, NOx and CO analysers. These were corrected during the data QA/QC process by applying additional linear corrections to the raw data (based on a review of the trend of each analyser s measurements) beyond the normal zero/span corrections. A summary of operational issues for each measurement parameter during the monitoring period is presented in Table 3-1. Table 3-1 Summary of Instrument Issues (April to August 2008) Parameter Issues Remedial Action SO 2 Replaced cal gas/ perm tube. Span correction to Cal gas depleted/ perm tube data interpolated over the period from the last depleted available span until replacements made NOx N/A N/A CO Zero drifts (positive and negative) Correction applied during the data QA/QC process O 3 Instrument Failure Instrument on wrong scale PM 2.5 BAM tape error - out of tape Replaced tape TSP/Metals Hi-Vol. N/A. N/A PAH/ D/F Hi-Vol N/A N/A Monitor replaced Rest, Data flagged as bad in QA process 3-3

18 3.3 Instrumentation Recovery Rates Data recovery rates for the continuous monitors at the Courtice Road monitoring station during the period September 2007 to August 2008 are presented in Table 3-2. Table 3-2 Summary of Data Recovery Rates for Courtice Road Site (Sept to Aug. 2008) Parameter Valid Measurement Hours Data Recovery Rate (%) SO NOx CO O PM Wind Speed/Direction Temperature Summary of Ambient Measurements 4.1 Meteorological Data A summary of the maximum, minimum, median (50th percentile) and standard deviation of the hourly average meteorological parameters measured at the Courtice Road station for the period September 2007 to August 2008 is presented in Table 4-1. Table 4-1 Summary of Hourly Meteorological Measurements at the Courtice Monitoring Station Parameter Courtice Units Temperature Max C Min C Median 6.85 C Standard Deviation 9.72 C Wind Speed Max km/hr Min 0 km/hr Median 8.12 km/hr Standard Deviation 7.24 km/hr Wind speed and direction were measured using sensors mounted on a 10-m tower. A wind rose showing the directionality and speed at the site is presented in Figure 4-1. The length of the radial barbs gives the total percent frequency of winds from the indicated direction, while portions of the barbs of different widths indicate the frequency associated with each wind speed category. At the Courtice site (located near Lake Ontario) winds over the eleven-month period (September 2007 to August 2008) occurred predominantly from the west to north, with winds from east to south easterly directions also being important. 4-4

19 Figure 4-1 Wind Rose for the Courtice Monitoring Station for the Period mid-sept 2007 to August CAC Ambient Air Quality Measurements A summary of the maximum, minimum, median (50th percentile, from September 2007 to August 2008 average), 90th percentile and standard deviation of the pollutant concentrations measured at each station is presented in Table 4-2. Also presented in this table is the number of exceedances of the relevant Ontario ambient air quality criteria for each contaminant. The Ministry of Environment (MOE) typically requires that 90th percentile ambient monitoring data be added to dispersion model predictions to conservatively account for existing ambient concentrations when assessing the impact of a project plus background. The 90th percentile was therefore considered an appropriate level on which to judge the existing air quality of each region (as this is the level that would be used in a site specific assessment). 4-5

20 Table 4-2 Summary of Ambient CAC Monitoring Data (Sept 2007 to August 2008) Pollutant Averaging Period AAQC Courtice Units SO PM A NO 2 NO NA 24 NA Maximum Minimum 0 Median th Percentile 26.6 Standard Deviation 13.7 # of Exceedances 0 Maximum 51.1 Minimum 0 Median th Percentile 21.8 Standard Deviation 10.0 # of Exceedances 0 Maximum 40.4 Minimum 0 Median th Percentile 21.5 Standard Deviation 6.8 # of Exceedances N/A Maximum Minimum 0 Median th Percentile 58.4 Standard Deviation 45.0 # of Exceedances 20 Maximum Minimum 1.7 Median th Percentile 49.7 Standard Deviation 37.0 # of Exceedances 4 Maximum Minimum 0 Median th Percentile 24.4 Standard Deviation 17.5 # of Exceedances NA Maximum 73.7 Minimum 0 Median th Percentile 20.5 Standard Deviation 10.2 ug/m 3 ug/m 3 ug/m 3 ug/m 3 4-6

21 Pollutant Averaging Period AAQC Courtice Units NOx 1 NA 24 NA O CO Note: A Canada-Wide Standards for Respirable Particulate Matter # of Exceedances NA Maximum Minimum 0 Median th Percentile Standard Deviation 73.2 # of Exceedances N/A Maximum Minimum 0 Median th Percentile 78.5 Standard Deviation 56.6 # of Exceedances N/A Maximum Minimum 0 Median th Percentile 58.8 Standard Deviation 20.3 # of Exceedances 0 Maximum 6.8 Minimum 0 Median th Percentile 1.1 Standard Deviation 0.4 # of Exceedances 0 Maximum 2.0 Minimum 0 Median th Percentile 1.1 Standard Deviation 0.4 # of Exceedances 0 ug/m 3 ug/m 3 mg/m Comparison of Measurements to Ambient Air Quality Criteria The maximum measured hourly and daily average SO 2 and daily average ozone concentrations were well below the applicable MOE air quality criteria. The maximum measured hourly and daily average NO 2 concentration exceeded their respective AAQCs. The hourly NO 2 criteria was exceeded for 20 hours in the May to July period. Hourly 4-7

22 excedances occurred for winds blowing from westerly or south westerly direction in all instances. Since the Canada Wide Standard (CWS) for PM 2.5 is based on a 98th percentile level over 3 years, whereas the PM 2.5 measurement period at the station was about 10-months, there was only a marginal amount of data collected to determine if exceedances of the CWS would occur. Therefore no comparison of the measured PM 2.5 data to the CWS was conducted for this report. A measurement of the potential for CWS PM2.5 excedencas will be made once full year of PM2.5 data has been collected. A comparison of the maximum measured data to their respective air quality criteria is presented graphically in Figures 4-1 and 4-2 below. Figure 4-1 Comparison of NOx, SO 2 and O 3 Ambient Monitoring Data to AAQCs Figure 4-2 Comparison of CO Ambient Monitoring Data to AAQCs 4-8

23 Discussion and plots for each measured contaminant are presented in the following sections Sulphur Dioxide Time history plots of the hourly and daily average SO 2 concentrations measured at the Courtice Road station are presented in Figure 4-3. For the hourly and daily averages, the Ontario AAQCs of 690 ug/m 3 and 275 ug/m 3 are shown as red lines on each plot. As shown in the following figures, measured ambient SO 2 concentrations at the Courtice station were well below the criteria. A data summary is presented in Appendix A for sulphur dioxide. Diurnal variations of maximum, minimum and average SO 2 concentrations are presented in Figure 4-4. There is no apparent daily trend in the average ambient SO 2 concentrations. At Courtice Road, higher maximum ambient concentrations were measured during late afternoon and night-time relative to other times of day. 4-9

24 Figure 4-3 Time Histories of Ambient SO 2 Concentrations Courtice Road 4-10

25 Figure 4-4 Diurnal Variations in Hourly SO 2 Concentrations Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) A data summary for measured nitrogen dioxide ambient concentrations at the monitoring station is presented in Appendix B. Time history plots of the hourly and daily average NO 2 concentrations are presented in Figure 4-5. For the hourly and daily averages, the Ontario AAQCs of 400 and 200 ug/m 3 are shown as red lines on each plot. In May and July 2008 measured NO 2 concentrations exceeded the hourly and daily AAQCs on several occasions. Diurnal variations of maximum, minimum and average NO 2 concentrations are presented in Figure 4-6. Average NO 2 concentrations are relatively constant with time of day, while maximum concentration occur during night-time. 4-11

26 Figure 4-5 Time Histories of Ambient NO 2 Concentrations Courtice Road 4-12

27 Figure 4-6 Diurnal Variations in Hourly NO 2 Concentrations Nitric Oxide (NO) Data summaries are presented in Appendix C for nitric oxide. Time history plots of the hourly and daily average NO concentrations at the Courtice station are presented in Figure 4-7. Diurnal variations of maximum, minimum and average NO concentrations for each monitoring site are presented in Figure 4-8. A slight decrease in average NO concentration is seen in the afternoon at Courtice Road. 4-13

28 Figure 4-7 Time Histories of Ambient NO Concentrations Courtice Road 4-14

29 Figure 4-8 Diurnal Variations in Hourly NO Concentrations at Courtice Road Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) A summary of the data for the Courtice road monitoring station is presented in Appendix D for nitrogen oxides. Time history plots of the hourly and daily average NOx concentrations are presented in Figure 4-9. Diurnal variations of maximum, minimum and average NOx concentrations are presented in Figure Similar to NO 2 concentrations, increases in the maximum NOx concentrations are seen at Courtice Road in the evening and night. 4-15

30 Figure 4-9 Time Histories of Ambient NOx Concentrations Courtice Road 4-16

31 Figure 4-10 Diurnal Variations in Hourly NOx Concentrations Particulate Matter Time history plots of the hourly and daily average PM 2.5 concentrations are presented in Figure For the daily averages, the Canada Wide Standard (CWS) of 30 ug/m 3 is shown as a red line on each daily plot. It should be noted that since the CWS for PM 2.5 is based on a 98 th percentile level exceeded each year over a 3 year period, whereas the PM 2.5 measurement period at the station was about 10 months (end of September 2007 to August 2008), there was a marginal amount of data collected to determine with any certainty if exceedances of the CWS would occur. As noted in Table 4-2, the 90 th percentile concentration at Courtice Road over the data collected to date was 21.5ug/m 3. Diurnal variations of maximum, minimum and average hourly PM 2.5 concentrations are presented in Figure Average PM 2.5 levels are relatively consistent with time of day. The highest maximum PM 2.5 concentrations were measured during the early afternoon at Courtice Road. A summary of the measured PM 2.5 concentrations at the Courtice road monitoring station is presented in Appendix E. 4-17

32 Figure 4-11 Time Histories of Ambient PM 2.5 Concentrations Courtice Road 4-18

33 Figure 4-12 Diurnal Variations in Hourly PM 2.5 Concentrations Ozone A data summary is presented in Appendix F for ambient ozone measurements and time history plots of the hourly and daily average O 3 concentrations is presented in Figure For hourly averages, the Ontario AAQC of 165 ug/m 3 is shown as a red line on the plot. Diurnal variations of maximum, minimum and hourly average O 3 concentrations are presented in Figure Ambient ozone levels on average increase during the afternoon, which is likely due to increased vehicle traffic, industrial emissions and increased photodissociation of NO 2 as a result of increased solar radiation (required for the atmospheric reactions that produce ground level ozone). 4-19

34 Figure 4-13 Time Histories of Ambient O 3 Concentrations Courtice Road 4-20

35 Figure 4-14 Diurnal Variations in Hourly Ozone Concentrations Carbon Monoxide Time history plots of the daily average CO concentrations measured at Courtice Road are presented in Figure For hourly and eight-hour averages, the Ontario AAQCs of 36.2 and 15.7 mg/m 3 are shown as red lines on the plots. No exceedances have been measured to date. Diurnal variations of maximum, minimum and average hourly CO concentrations are presented in Figure The ambient average CO concentrations are relatively consistent with time of day. A data summary is presented in Appendix G for the ambient carbon monoxide measurements 4-21

36 Figure 4-15 Time Histories of Ambient CO Concentrations Courtice Road 4-22

37 Figure 4-16 Diurnal Variations in Hourly CO Concentrations 4.3 Ambient TSP/Metals Concentrations A summary of the maximum, minimum, mean and 90 th percentile ambient TSP and metals concentrations (for a daily averaging period) are presented in Table 4-3. A detailed summary of the concentrations measured for each sample is presented in Appendix H. The maximum measured concentrations of TSP and all metals with MOE air quality criteria were below their applicable criteria. 4-23

38 Table 4-3 Summary of Measured Ambient TSP/Metals Concentrations Contaminant Max(ug/m 3 ) Min(ug/m 3 ) Mean (ug/m 3 ) 90th Percentile MOE Criteria (ug/m 3 ) Maximum % of Criteria TSP 1.13E E E E % Antimony (Sb) 3.10E E E E % Bismuth (Bi) 4.21E E E E-03 NA NA Boron (B) 9.68E E E E % Calcium (Ca) 6.64E E E E+00 NA NA Magnesium (Mg) 7.41E E E E-01 NA NA Phosphorus (P) 5.10E E E E-02 NA NA Potassium (K) 9.86E E E E-01 NA NA Silicon (Si) 4.52E E E E-01 NA NA Sodium (Na) 1.78E E E E+01 NA NA Strontium (Sr) 1.20E E E E % Thallium (Tl) 3.10E E E E-03 NA NA Uranium (U) 9.31E E E E-03 NA NA Zirconium (Zr) 2.12E E E E % Aluminum (Al) 4.40E E E E % Arsenic (As) 1.86E E E E % Barium (Ba) 1.36E E E E % Beryllium (Be) 5.84E E E E % Cadmium (Cd) 1.52E E E E % Chromium (Cr) 4.17E E E E % Cobalt (Co) 1.18E E E E % Copper (Cu) 3.08E E E E % Iron (Fe) 1.07E E E E % Lead (Pb) 1.38E E E E % Manganese (Mn) 3.24E E E E % Molybdenum (Mo) 9.31E E E E % Nickel (Ni) 6.38E E E E % Selenium (Se) 3.10E E E E % Silver (Ag) 3.10E E E E % Tin (Sn) 3.10E E E E % Titanium (Ti) 2.03E E E E % Vanadium (V) 2.59E E E E % Zinc (Zn) 8.84E E E E % Sulphur (S) 3.31E E E E+00 NA NA 4-24

39 4.4 Ambient PAH Concentrations A summary of the maximum, minimum, mean and 90 th percentile ambient PAH concentrations (for a daily averaging period) are presented in Table 4-4. In this summary both individual PAHs as well as a total PAH concentration are reported. A detailed summary of the concentrations measured for each sample is presented in Appendix I. The maximum measured concentrations of all PAHs with MOE air quality criteria were well below their applicable criteria. Table 4-4 Summary of Measured Ambient PAH Concentrations Contaminant Concentration Max(ug/m 3 ) Min(ug/m 3 ) Mean (ug/m 3 ) 90th Percentile MOE Criteria (ug/m 3 ) Maximum % of Criteria 1-Methylnaphthalene 1.71E E E E-03 NA 1-Methylphenanthrene 1.52E E E E-04 NA 2-Chloronaphthalene 1.52E E E E-04 NA 2-Methylanthracene 1.52E E E E-04 NA 2-Methylnaphthalene 3.23E E E E-03 NA 3-Methylcholanthrene 3.04E E E E-03 NA 7,12- Dimethylbenzo(a)anthracene 1.52E E E E-04 NA 9,10-Dimethylanthracene 6.08E E E E-04 NA Acenaphthene 3.30E E E E % Acenaphthylene 6.27E E E E % Anthracene 2.24E E E E-04 NA Benzo(a)anthracene 7.60E E E E-05 NA Benzo(a)fluorene 1.52E E E E-04 NA Benzo(a)pyrene 7.60E E E E-05 NA Benzo(b)fluoranthene 1.47E E E E-04 NA Benzo(b)fluorene 1.52E E E E-04 NA Benzo(e)pyrene 1.52E E E E-04 NA Benzo(g,h,i)perylene 9.98E E E E-05 NA Benzo(k)fluoranthene 7.60E E E E-05 NA Biphenyl 1.49E E E E-03 NA Chrysene 1.09E E E E-05 NA Coronene 1.52E E E E-04 NA Dibenz(a,h)anthracene 7.60E E E E-05 NA Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene 3.04E E E E-04 NA Fluoranthene 9.46E E E E-04 NA 4-25

40 Contaminant Concentration Max(ug/m 3 ) Min(ug/m 3 ) Mean (ug/m 3 ) 90th Percentile MOE Criteria (ug/m 3 ) Maximum % of Criteria Fluorene 1.72E E E E-03 NA Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene 7.60E E E E-05 NA m-terphenyl 1.52E E E E-04 NA Naphthalene 2.81E E E E-03 NA o-terphenyl 1.52E E E E-04 NA Perylene 1.52E E E E % Phenanthrene 4.62E E E E-03 NA p-terphenyl 1.52E E E E-04 NA Pyrene 3.62E E E E % Quinoline 6.08E E E E-04 NA Tetralin 1.52E E E E-04 NA Total PAH 2.16E E E E-02 NA 4.5 Ambient Dioxin and Furan Concentrations A summary of the maximum, minimum, mean and 90 th percentile ambient D/F concentrations (for a daily averaging period) are presented in Table 4-5. In this summary both individual dioxin and furan concentrations (pg/m 3 ) as well as the total toxic equivalency concentration (TEQ) are reported. A detailed summary of the concentrations measured for each sample is presented in Appendix J. The maximum measured toxic equivalent dioxin and furan concentration was well below the applicable criteria. Table 4-5 Summary of Measured Ambient Dioxin and Furan Concentrations Contaminant Max(pg/m 3 ) Min(pg/m 3 ) Concentrations Mean (pg/m 3 ) 90th Percentile (pg/m 3 ) MOE Criteria (pg TEQ/m 3 ) Maximum % of Criteria 2,3,7,8-Tetra CDD * 5.21E E E E-03 NA 1,2,3,7,8-Penta CDD 4.76E E E E-03 NA 1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexa CDD 1.76E E E E-02 NA 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexa CDD 3.01E E E E-02 NA 1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexa CDD 5.30E E E E-02 NA 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Hepta CDD 5.48E E E E-01 NA Octa CDD 2.47E E E E+00 NA Total Tetra CDD 8.33E E E E-03 NA Total Penta CDD 9.22E E E E-03 NA 4-26

41 Contaminant Max(pg/m 3 ) Min(pg/m 3 ) Concentrations Mean (pg/m 3 ) 90th Percentile (pg/m 3 ) MOE Criteria (pg TEQ/m 3 ) Maximum % of Criteria Total Hexa CDD 2.94E E E E-01 NA Total Hepta CDD 1.16E E E E-01 NA 2,3,7,8-Tetra CDF ** 3.24E E E E-02 NA 1,2,3,7,8-Penta CDF 9.22E E E E-03 NA 2,3,4,7,8-Penta CDF 1.79E E E E-02 NA 1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexa CDF 1.92E E E E-02 NA 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexa CDF 1.22E E E E-02 NA 2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexa CDF 1.00E E E E-03 NA 1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexa CDF 4.14E E E E-03 NA 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Hepta CDF 1.85E E E E-02 NA 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Hepta CDF 2.11E E E E-02 NA Octa CDF 3.81E E E E-02 NA Total Tetra CDF 2.00E E E E-01 NA Total Penta CDF 1.01E E E E-01 NA Total Hexa CDF 6.34E E E E-02 NA Total Hepta CDF 3.42E E E E-02 NA Total Toxic Equivalency (concentrations in pg TEQ/m 3 ) 7.77E E E E % 4-27

42 5. Conclusions This interim report provides a summary of the ambient data collected in the vicinity of the preferred site (Clarington 01) for the period September to August 2008.The following observations and conclusions were made from a review of the measured ambient monitoring data: 1. Measured levels of SO 2, CO, and O 3 were below the applicable MOE criteria. 2. The maximum measured hourly and daily average NO 2 concentrations exceeded their respective AAQCs. The hourly NO 2 criteria was exceeded for 20 hours in the May to July period. Hourly exceedances occurred for winds blowing from westerly or south westerly directions in all instances. 3. Since the Canada Wide Standard (CWS) for PM 2.5 is based on a 98th percentile level over 3 years, whereas the P M2.5 measurement period at the station was about 10-months, there was only a marginal amount of data collected to determine if exceedances of the CWS would occur. Therefore no comparison of the measured PM 2.5 data to the CWS was conducted for this report. Once a full year of PM 2.5 data is collected, the potential for exceedances will be assessed. 4. The maximum measured concentrations of TSP and all metals with MOE air quality criteria were below their applicable criteria. 5. The maximum measured concentrations of all PAHs with MOE air quality criteria were well below their applicable criteria. 6. The maximum measured toxic equivalent dioxin and furan concentration was well below the applicable criteria. 5-1

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