2 What is Security? Definitions from the Amer. Herit. Dict. : Freedom from risk or danger; safety. (NO!) Measures adopted to prevent a crime such as burglary or assault. (ALMOST!) Network security measures: Mechanisms to prevent, detect, and recover from network attacks, or for auditing purposes.
4 A Secured Network A network is secured if it has deployed adequate measures for prevention of, detection of, and recovery from attacks. Adequate = commensurate with the value of the network s assets and liabilities, and the perceived threat intensity. By Breno
5 Security Goals C onfidentiality I ntegrity A vailability
6 Confidentiality Prevent against: adversarial capture (of information) undue public disclosures Audit of data accesses Detection of unauthorized data access Retaliation (legal, PR, info. warfare)
7 Integrity: Data integrity + Authenticity Prevent against unauthorized data modification, and impersonation attacks Detect impersonation and/or undue data modification Recover from detected attacks Audit data modification, entity authentication
8 Availability Continuous service, quality of service, resource wastefulness reduction Typical attack: DoS, DDoS Prevention by removal of bottlenecks Detection of attacks Recovery of service provision ability Audit of service requests.
9 Concrete Security Measures Securing an open network requires adoption of a myriad of measures: Policies, audit and evaluation Personnel training Physical security/ EM emanation shielding Authentication and access control Communication security: Cryptographybased techniques.
10 Open Systems Interconnection A standard-centric networking model
11 Open Systems Open Systems: general-purpose networks that support standardized communication protocols and may accommodate heterogeneous sub-networks transparently. Corporate Intranets: Ethernet, Token Ring and Wireless subnets. Internet
12 Open Systems Interconnection Model ISO s layered approach to standardization Application layer FTP, Telnet, SSH Presentation layer MIME, XDR, SSH 5. Session layer NetBios, FTP, Telnet, SSH 4. Transport layer TCP,UDP,SSL/TLS 3. Network layer IP, ICMP, IPSEC 2. Data link layer Ethernet, PPP, ISDN 1. Physical layer pins, cabling, radio
13 1-2. Physical/Data Link Layers Physical layer: Radio, fiber, cable, pins Data link layer orchestrates the signaling capabilities of the physical medium (unreliable, noisy channel) into reliable transmission of protocol data units (PDUs). PDUs contain control information, addressing data, and user data. Hardware-based encryption operates at 1+2.
14 3. Network Layer Exports a logical network interface, allowing for uniform addressing and routing over heterogeneous subnetworks. E.g.: IP can route between Ethernet- and x - networks
15 4. Transport Layer Permits connection and connectionless associations. Connections enable reliable transmission of data streams. End-to-end security first becomes meaningful at this level. Security associations: An association is either a connection or a connectionless transmission service at levels 4-7.
16 Levels 5 and Higher Application through session protocol layers. Many network applications implement their own session management. Moreover, they typically depend on system libraries for presentation layer capabilities. Such applications, from a data-path viewpoint, may be considered a single layer: PDUs only typically appear at the session layer.
17 Example: SSH SSH provides provides services at all topmost three OSI layers. Application: Terminal/file transfer Presentation: Encryption Session: Connection, synchronization Only at the session layer the data (encrypted buffers of user input) gets first packaged into a protocol data unit for transmission.
18 TCP/IP networking model A data-path centric model
19 TCP/IP network model ( TCP/IP Protocol) TCP/IP Application Layer TCP/IP Transport Layer TCP/IP Network Layer TCP/IP Data Link Layer TCP/IP Physical Layer 7. OSI Application 6. OSI Presentation 5. OSI Session 4. OSI Transport 3. OSI Network 2. OSI Data Link Layer 1. OSI Physical Layer
20 Protocol PDU Wrapping SUN Sun Product Documentation
22 Fitting Security How security measures fit into the network models
23 Network Configuration Wireless access point Security Mechanisms in... V. L. Voydock and S. T. Kent
24 Association Model An association is either a connectionless data transmission service or a connection at any of OSI layers 4-7, or TCP/IP application /transport layers An N-association is the data-path through which N+1 entities communicate: Generally at session layer or below. N+1-layer data packaged into N-PDUs
25 Association Model (2) The association model simplifies the network environment, while still capturing the essential elements needed for security design. Security Mechanisms in... V. L. Voydock and S. T. Kent
26 Security at levels 1-3 Implemented at the host/network interface level (lack notion of association): Link-to-link security. Encryption/authentication requires operations at each network node. Each network node must be trusted. Impractical for Open Systems?
27 Security protocols 3 Many VPN technologies work at level 2 PPTP, L2F, L2TP Rationale: Directed at dial-up VPN networks, (PPP is level-2). Provide service to a variety of network-level protocols, such as IP or IPX. IPSEC works at level 3, essentially extends IPv6/IPv4.
28 Security above level 3 Most flexible security measures End-to-end security: The security policies and mechanisms can be based on associations between entities (applications, processes, connections), as opposed to hostbased: In multi-user environments, or when hosts are not physically secure, host-based policies are not sufficiently fine-grained.
29 Summary Security measures can take three main forms: 1. End-to-end security at the TCP/IP application layer (5-7 OSI model layers) 2. End-to-end security at the (TCP/IP,OSI) transport layer 3. Link-to-link security at the network, datalink and physical layers.
30 Attacks A taxonomy
31 Attack Types And their impact on end-to-end communication security mechanisms
32 Passive Attacks Observation of N+1-layer data in an N-layer PDU: release of data contents, or eavesdropping Observation of control/ address information on the N-PDU itself: traffic analysis. Transport/network boundary = End-to-end/ link-to-link boundary. Traffic analysis is least effective if N+1 = 4.
33 Active Attacks Impersonation Packet injection (attacker-generated PDU) Packet deletion/delay Packet modification/re-ordering Replay attacks If a breech can be achieved by both active and passive attacks, which is more powerful? (problematic)
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