1 2015 (7): Transit of Narcotic and Psychotropic Drugs in the Coastal Areas of the South of the Country and Its Social Problems 1 Hoshang Shambayati 1, Bagher Shamlou 2, Jasem Rashidi 3 1. Assistant Professor and Board Member, Islamic Azad University, Kish International Branch, Kish, Iran 2. Assistant Professor and Board Member, Islamic Azad University, Kish International Branch, Kish, Iran 3. M.A in Criminal Law, Islamic Azad University, Kish International Branch, Kish, Iran ABSTRACT: A psychotropic drug is a great problem of most countries in the world. Due to the increase in the use of these drugs in the Islamic Republic of Iran, it is very important to research different dimensions of this phenomenon and the problems caused by the use of these drugs and the precise understanding of the relation between the use of these drugs and their subsequent problems can help the policy makers manage the society in a better way. Therefore, the present research has been conducted in order to investigate narcotic and psychotropic drugs' transit and the problems caused by their use in the coastal regions of the south of the country. The findings of this research show the greater transit of psychotropic drugs in the south than the other areas in the country due to the existence of water boundaries and the ease with which these drugs can be smuggled by traffickers. The results obtained from the research reveal that the transit of narcotic and psychotropic drugs in the south of the country has furthered addiction in these areas, which in turn has caused the youth to turn to drug trafficking. Educational failure in universities and schools is another phenomenon caused by the use and trafficking of such drugs. Another consequence of the trafficking of narcotic and psychotropic drugs in the south of the country is the reduced security in these regions and the disturbed national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Keywords: Transit Of Narcotics And Psychotropic Drugs, Southern Iran, Social Problems Pinnacle Research Journals 52 Introduction One of the great problems which have risen in Iranian society especially in recent years is addiction to and use of narcotic and psychotropic drugs and alcohol especially among the youth and adolescents. Various factors influence the use of narcotic and alcoholic drugs and we need to investigate the reasons for that in order to find solutions for it because narcotics and psychotropic drugs are unfortunately still being produced and consumed despite the measures taken to stop them. Narcotic drugs destroy humans and societies' lives, disturb the communities' sustainable development and pave the way for crimes. Narcotic drugs have targeted different sectors of people in all societies. The use of narcotic drugs threats the youth's freedom and growth, that is, the most important asset and wealth of the world. Narcotic drugs are a big danger to humans' health and welfare, countries' independence, democracy and nations' stability and finally the structure of all societies and the face of millions of hopeful people and that of their families in the world. The Islamic Republic of Iran has continually been invaded by narcotics and psychotropic drugs ' traffickers over the past years. Psychotropic drugs have a deep effect on all individuals and societies throughout the world. In the individual dimension, they endanger people's lives and security. In the national dimension, the relation between narcotics and psychotropic drugs and crimes has brought about social conflicts, attenuation of governments and backwardness of countries. The crucial question is to what extent narcotics and psychotropic drugs' transit increase social problems especially in the southern parts of the country. The characteristics of the border and southern areas of the country definitely pave the way for committing and developing crimes related to narcotic and psychotropic drugs, hence the need for scientific research on this issue. Previous Studies The subject of psychotropic drugs transit in southern Iran is a new subject about which no research has been conducted yet. Therefore, this research lacks previous studies. As for the part related to the social problems of psychotropic drugs in southern Iran, it can be said that this is also a new subject and the studies done in this field have dealt with the negative effects of narcotic drugs in Iranian whole society. 1 This article has been extracted from the corresponding writer's M.A thesis of criminal law.
2 Research Method Due to the nature of the research, the method used is librarian-analytical research method. Reviewing all of the studies having been conducted on the subject and collecting all of the present information and figures on the subject, the researchers have analyzed the data and have come to conclusions about the negative effects of narcotics and psychotropic drugs' trafficking. Narcotics and psychotropic drugs ' Historical Changes Trend in the World According to the estimates of UN Drug Control Program (UNDCP) in annual reports on the prevalence rate of drug use between 1998 and 2001, about 185 millions of people in the world 3.1 percent of the world's population or 4.3 percent of the population over 15 years - use narcotics and psychotropic drugs. According to this report, 147 million people use Cannabis, 33 million use drugs derived from Amphetamines including Meta Amphetamines, 7 million people use Ecstasy, 13 million use Cocaine, 13 million use opiates (including 9 million people using Heroin) (Asaadi, 2009). In general, 0.4 percent of death toll in the world (0.2 million people) and 0.8 percent of DALY (11.2 million years) is due to drug use and is more common in men than in women. The highest rate of DALY resulting from drug use (2-3.9 percent) is seen in Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pacific, Northern America, Western Europe, while the least rate (less than 0.5 percent) is seen in South Africa (Asaadi, 2009). According to the estimates of the World Health Organization (WHO) in its report in 2002, some 2 million people are used to drinking alcohol and 1.3 million people smoke cigarette throughout the world. According to the report made by this organization in 2005, one out of the ten people infected with HIV virus is used to injective use of narcotic drugs. There are 12.6 million people in the world, who are used to injective use of drugs and in some regions, over 50% of injective users are infected with HIV virus. The use of needle sticks and syringes already used by HIV-infected people is one of the fastest and easiest ways of HIV virus transmission (Danesh, 2005). Narcotics and psychotropic drugs ' historical changes trend in Iran There are different ideas on the time when opium arrived in Iran. Some historians trace it back to the time when Arabs from Egypt and Saudi Arabia invaded Iran. Since then, opium has been taken as a painkiller and insomnia treatment drug. Some others believe that Mongol Invaders developed this drug in Iran although Razi and Avicenna already knew the properties of opium. However, most historians agree that Iranians' habit of taking opium developed since the Safavid Dynasty. Opiumtaking has been so common during the kingdom dynasties in Iran that even some kings were addicted as well. Whereas opiumtaking has become common during the Safavids Dynasty in Iran, opium smoking began during Qajar dynasty, exactly Nasser Al-Din Shah era (Farjad, 2006). The first official law banning the use of opium was enacted in After the enactment of this law, the demand for opium did not decrease and the illegal sales of opium became common. The law banning poppy cultivation and opium use was enacted and implemented in After enactment of this, trafficking drugs such as heroin and morphine from overseas into the country turned into a profitable business and led to the gradual change of the consumption pattern and prevalence of heroin. It was in 1968 that opium cultivation was allowed in some regions under the control of the government. In the fifties, after a sudden increase in the oil revenues, the therapeutic officials of the country provided new plans for addicts' treatment and rehabilitation centers, which were left incomplete after the victory of the Revolution and a change in the policies and priorities. In Mordad 2010, drug control headquarters center was established, aiming at determining the general policy, planning and preparing the standards and regulations of narcotic drugs (Farjad, 2006). The rehabilitation centers were transferred in 1983 to the newly-built Welfare Organization, changing their name into Addicts' (Empowering) Rehabilitation Centers. Till 1988, the measures taken to deal with the addiction problem were limited exclusively to the anti-supply activities. In the early 1991s, the attitude of demand reduction was gradually developed in the scientific and academic centers of the country and the first basic measures of demand reduction were taken in the Department of Cultural Affairs and Prevention from Addiction. The first five-year plan for reducing the demand for drug use was offered in summer 1998 by the experts of the Welfare Organization and the Health Ministry. In 2000, the Health Ministry played a greater role in demand-reduction activities and began to educate the physicians of the private sector on the scientific methods of addiction treatment. In summer 2002, the National Committee of Damage Reduction was established by the Department of Safety of the Health Ministry in order to reduce the harms caused by injective addiction, especially the spread of AIDS. This department carried out other things including the integration of the program of prevention and that of treatment of drug use in the country's initial medical care system, establishment of Methadone treatment clinics and plan of reducing harm to the street drug users (Noghrekar, 2009). A conference held by the UN in 1949 divided the permission to cultivate and produce opium among different countries. The largest share was given fist to Turkey (50 percent) and then to Iran (25 percent) (Farjad, 2006). Narcotics and psychotropic drugs ' transit in southern Iran 53
3 We deal in this part of the article first with the transit of narcotics and psychotropic drugs in Kerman Province and then to the transit of narcotics and psychotropic drugs in Hormozgan province. The transit of narcotics and psychotropic drugs in Kerman Province Unfortunately, the trafficking of industrial addicting drugs is increasing in the south of Iran. Due to its neighborhood with Afghanistan, which produces 92% of the traditional narcotic drugs of the world, and its long border with this country, Iran has been unintentionally placed in the corridor of the transit of the largest volume of narcotic drugs in the world. Therefore, the most harm and damage has triggered Iran, especially Kerman province. Due to largeness and the particular geographical location for narcotic drugs trafficking of southern Iran, Kerman province has attracted the traffickers and profiteers' attention. Figures show that 70 percent of drug trafficking of the eastern borders of the country is transited from Kerman province and the trafficking of industrial drugs has continued in recent months. The unpopulated desert with square kms is suitable for drug trafficking and connected to Afghanistan and this dry geography is suitable for drug transit up to the back of the borders of western Iran, which is a factor which paves the way for drug trafficking (Mohammadi Noudeh, 2007). Kerman has the first rank in Iran in terms of detecting and dealing with drug trafficking. Despite the large volume of drugs transited from this province, people in this province have the tenth rank in terms of narcotic drugs use, as shown by the official figures, and the main reason for that is that the narcotic drugs corridor passes out of this province. As the trafficking of industrial narcotic drugs has increased and the traditional narcotic drugs have become expensive, traffickers seek to change the narcotic drugs' pattern of use in Iran and such moves occur for this purpose. The reason for the increase in narcotic drugs price in Iran is the occupying forces in Afghanistan and narcotic drugs mafias who depot traditional narcotic drugs in Afghanistan on the one hand and produces industrial narcotic drugs abundantly on the other in order to harm their target community. The price of narcotic drugs has in recent years increased intensely while that of industrial narcotic drugs has decreased considerably (Mohammadi Noudeh, 2007). Narcotics and psychotropic drugs ' transit in Hormozgan province Due to the geographical location of Hormozgan province, it has for long been the transit path of the biggest producer of narcotic drugs in the world, i.e. Afghanistan. However, this province has been acting as a shield protecting the other countries against the dangers of narcotic drugs by controlling and fighting traffickers. Obviously, the great volume of narcotic drugs which are transited from Afghanistan and Pakistan into Iran are not merely for the purpose of internal consumption; rather their transit into Iran targets other countries and even Europe. Hormozgan's special location with one thousand and one hundred water borders and its neighborhood with Sistan and Baluchestan province and Kerman province which have common boundaries with Afghanistan have led to the phenomenon of narcotic drugs trafficking in this province. All people in this province have in recent years sought with the cooperation of all executive offices and the police and military organizations to fight against the narcotic drugs' arrival in the province and have prevented the traffickers from transiting narcotic drugs from this province (Khalbari, 2009). As the biggest producer of narcotic drugs in the world, Afghanistan is Iran's neighbor, and unfortunately narcotic drugs' production in this country has increased from at most two thousand tons to 80 thousands of tons after NATO's presence in this country in The southern areas of Iran, including Hormozgan province, have been trying their best to resist against the arrival and transit of narcotic drugs from Afghanistan and Pakistan into other countries, but it is obvious that such resistance and fight against this dangerous phenomenon involves global determination (Khalbari, 2009). Problems arising from transit of psychotropic drugs We deal in this part with two points: first, the problems arising from detection of the gangs busy smuggling psychotropic drugs and second, the police's weakness in finding psychotropic drugs. Problems arising from detection of the gangs Nowadays, narcotic drugs' smugglers have found it difficult to carry opium in large volumes. This is why they have turned to production of industrial narcotic drugs in order to be away from the border patrol agents and the anti-drug campaign. It has been said that the most laboratories producing these industrial drugs lie in Pakistan and Afghanistan, although a part of it such as crystal is produced in Iran as well. Unfortunately, despite the government's large investment in recent years in closing the water borders of Southern Iran and the good effect of installing equipment and tools used to prevent smugglers on reduction of opium trafficking, such a measure has not been so effective in relation to industrial narcotic drugs trafficking (Danesh, 2005). The only way to reduce crystal trafficking from Iran's southern borders is first precise detection of crystal traffickers, second tighter border controls and third prevention of thousands of smuggled goods sold in the markets of southern Iran, because it is said that narcotic crystal is placed among these goods. After the western troops' presence in Afghanistan and the extensive propaganda to reduce the production of narcotic drugs, their production has unfortunately had a considerable 54
4 increase and consequently demand has also increased in different parts of the world. All countries are busy fighting against traffickers in our water and soil borders, but also and the maritime border has now been added to them. Cultural commonalities can pave the way for efficient cooperation among all countries bordering the Persian Gulf to resist this phenomenon. Iran's anti-drug police have decided to promote cooperation with the regional authorities in order to confront the maritime trafficking and transit, an idea welcome by the UN anti-drug central office and other offices of this center in different countries (Danesh, 2005). The police's weakness in finding psychotropic drugs We deal in this part with the indices of the effects of narcotic drugs trafficking on the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran in order to test the hypothesis of the negative effects of narcotic drugs trafficking on Iran's security. Permeability of borders As there is no possible way of producing narcotic drugs inside Iran (including opium cultivation or turning it into heroin) and the import of all such drugs from abroad, the issues of border and narcotic drugs are inseparable. On the other hand, it can be said that maintaining the borders' security and their impenetrability is considered a security index for any country and an increase in narcotic drugs trafficking threatens the security and impenetrability of the borders in several ways: An increase in the number of battles and the losses: nowadays, the major shipments of narcotic drugs are smuggled to Iran by big caravans equipped with modern pieces of equipment such as the advanced telecommunication devices, night view cameras, different types of weapons and even anti-aircraft missiles along with trained persons who are quite familiar with the region. This is why it is not as easy to confront them as it was in the past (Setoudeh, 2007). An increase in the costs of border control: Iran's 1916-km boundary with Pakistan and Afghanistan as well as the sea borders of the south of Iran are subject to menaces and penetration by narcotic drugs' traffickers. In order to stop this shipment, the Islamic Republic of Iran has to spend a lot in order to control and close its borders (Setoudeh, 2007). Corruption and addiction of the anti-drug forces: we have no intention to accuse any individuals or institution, but it is not unlikely for those who fight against narcotic drugs to be themselves addicted and corrupted. The ease with which other contraband goods are smuggled from borders: studies reveal that there is a correlation between trafficking of narcotic drugs and that of goods (Setoudeh, 2007). Narcotic drugs trafficking and an increase in the unauthorized laving of the country: most of those who want to leave the country illegally use routes which the traffickers of goods and narcotic drugs use, because the traffickers have found these paths out of reach and control of the police (Karampour, 2000). The ease with which foreigners can pass from the borders: there is a significant relation between narcotic drugs trafficking and foreigners' passing from the borders. The eastern boundaries of the country from which shipments of narcotic drugs arrive in the country are also the borders where foreigners also arrive in the country illegally (Karampour, 2000). Creation of felony and insecurity In most countries, due to the illegal and immoral nature of drug trafficking, it is done by the despicable individuals in the society and this is the reason why it is accompanied by felony. However, the range of felony and insecurity is higher in Iran than in other countries due to several reasons. First, before the Revolution, the local feudal lords and tribal chiefs received privileges and thus kept the security of the border areas, especially that of the east and south-east of the country. However, following the victory of the Islamic Revolution and all-round fighting against the feudal lords and tribal chiefs, the social structure of these areas was collapsed and the former feudal lords and tribal chiefs, who had brought weapons out of the military centers had the opportunity, especially during post-revolution years and Iran-Iraq war, to turn in these regions to smuggling narcotic drugs, doing evil and creating insecurity through murder, plunder, hostage-taking, rape and the like (Kosari, 2003). Addiction One of the major problems caused by narcotic drugs trafficking in southern Iran is addiction, which is higher than the average in the south according to figures. We deal in this part with the ominous phenomenon of addiction. In the first few decades of the twenties century, the term "addiction to chemicals" referred to a particular state created by their continuous consumption. It was also believed that those who use these drugs have abnormal consciousness. The World Health Organization (WHO) concluded in 1926 that the terms "addiction" and "addict" are not scientific terms as they are not clear enough. Therefore, the term "drug dependence" was used instead of the terms "drug addiction" and "drug habit". Drug dependence is of two types: Behavioral dependence, showing an individual's activities to get drugs and his pathological pattern of consumption. Physical dependence, which mainly emphasizes the signs of giving up and tolerance. "Giving up" is a (physical-behavioral) physiological condition caused after abandoning or reducing the consumption of a drug and "tolerance" refers to the gradual 55
5 reduction of the effect of a substance so that the individual feels a need to consume greater amount of that substance in order to reach that amount of effect (Hashemi, 2004). Security threats or harms Social harms are the peripheral facets of threats which damage the ethical health and the public discipline and security of a society. Plurality, inclusion and continuation can turn harms into security threats. Due to the following factors, this issue can be regarded as a security threat in Iran: Plurality, continuation and universality; during all these years, the amount of narcotic drugs smuggled into the country, the number of addicts, the number of prisoners, and the costs and economic damages resulting from the arrival, distribution and consumption of narcotic drugs as well as their geographical distribution and use have increased. In the ideological system of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Basij (mobilization) of people plays an important role in promoting the country's authority and security, and any factor damaging the common values of the society will damage the political system by having a negative influence on Basij, and that factor is considered an anti-security phenomenon. This internal phenomenon's finding an international dimension is another factor that connects the issue of narcotic drugs with the national security of the country. As expressed earlier, the issue of addiction and narcotic drugs trafficking in Iran is a category which is related with the outside of the borders, because production of narcotic drugs has been abandoned in the country and what is used or transited in Iran is imported from abroad. Damage to the implementation of the strategic plan of spatial planning In planning the each country's national space, spatial organization is considered an important political goal. Geographical organization and demographic organization are the basic elements of spatial planning. In spatial planning, population and geography are connected to politics and their interaction will have a great effect on the power and national security of the country. In order to change the regional policies and formulate new strategies and divide facilities and services among the scattered people in different parts of the country, governments need ability, expediency and organization. The ultimate goal of this organization is maintaining national unity and authority, rather than economic profitability (Mobaraki, 2004). Now, let's see how continuous and extensive trafficking of narcotic drugs can negatively affect the plan of spatial planning of regions: Drug trafficking's being more economical than other economic activities: the illegal business of narcotic drugs trafficking is very high. The price difference of narcotic drugs from the production place to consumption usually reaches 1500%. Therefore, with such an economical market which is the most profitable business after the trade of weapons, the present capitals have no tendency toward other manufacturing, industrial or even service activities. Making the atmosphere insecure for investment: any investment and economic activity involves security and investors' peace of mind and confidence. However, development of drug trafficking in some regions of the country has led to insecurity of the investment atmosphere and investors' reluctance to investment (Mobaraki, 2004). The internal and external opponents' Political abuse Turning traffickers' felony and wickedness into a political category doubles the security dimensions of this phenomenon. Some wicked traffickers have recently tried to legitimate their actions inside and outside the country by giving their activities a political dimension. This is why the opposition groups have made use of armed traffickers and villains such as the following groups: Secessionist groups: during the 60s and 70s, the small secessionist groups of Baluch who were supported by some countries of the region protested against the system's powerful battle against the traffickers of narcotic drugs. They used the experienced drug traffickers' power to achieve their goals which was genocide of Baluchestan people (Mobaraki, 2004). Taliban group: Before the extension of power in Afghanistan and even before that, Taliban group extended their movements and propaganda against the Islamic Republic of Iran. The effect of the use of psychotropic drugs on the national security Trafficking of narcotic drugs has various effects on the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Security is a multifaceted concept related with concepts such as power, threat and harm. According to definitions given in different cultures, security refers to the sense of freedom from fear or the sense of safety corresponding with material and psychological security. Security is a state and any definition of it is relative and based on the existing conditions. This is why one can hardly talk of an ideal secure state and achievement of complete security, as the surrounding environment is variable and less controllable (Aghababaei, 2007). We need the following indices in order to distinguish between security threats at the national level and social vulnerability, the current political problems and tensions and subjective understandings of threats: 56
6 The internal events' having become international Some local events find an international dimension and attract much sensitivity or stimulate other actors (governments or international organizations) due to their influence at global or international levels. One such event was the Islamic Revolution and the idea of its spread in other countries which was followed by the other countries' reaction against the Islamic Republic of Iran. Another example was Sudan's internal events which led the United States to attack this country in 1992 (Saki, 2007). Universality Factor If a would-be subject goes beyond a geographically limited area and covers a large part of the space of population of a country or attracts the attention of an important part of human force or the resources of a country and the state facilities, that subject will be considered a threat against the national security of that country. Some examples are large urban crises, widespread ethnic tensions or the problem of narcotic drugs (Saki, 2007). Continuation factor When a contested issue gets out of the form of a lasting unfavorable problem and is followed by damages in the medium-or long- term so that the government spends its material and non-material power on it, it will definitely be regarded as a security threat. Issues such as the population explosion and narcotic drugs last so long that they are considered security threats (Saki, 2007). Conclusion The present research aimed at investigating the transit of narcotics and psychotropic drugs in the southern regions of Iran and identifies the problems arising from it. The first part dealt with psychotropic drugs and different types of it and their physical and mental effects on humans and compared them with narcotic drugs. It was finally concluded that psychotropic drugs are more harmful than the traditional narcotic drugs and unfortunately more people turn to them because of their low price and accessibility, and despite the measures taken to combat this phenomenon, they are being produced more and more. It is worth citing that the coastal areas of southern Iran are frequented by passengers from the farthest parts of the country as well as foreign passengers and this requires further control and organization in order to prevent from trafficking of narcotics and psychotropic drugs. The present research also showed that the southern regions of the country are at further risk of psychotropic drugs than the other regions in the country, due to their water borders and the difficulty of controlling the borders as well as their neighborhood with Kerman and Sistan and Baluchestan provinces which are the provinces from which the narcotic drugs produced in Afghanistan are smuggled to other provinces. The important point worth mentioning here is that psychotropic drugs are being produced inside the country and it is difficult to identify the places where they are manufactured and this involves precise planning and the use of all facilities available in the country. The research results revealed that the southern regions of Iran are more subject to psychotropic drugs and are faced with further problems as a result of this phenomenon. A problem which was described in details was addiction and reduction of security. Therefore, the officials and authorities are required to look for a solution for the problems which follow this phenomenon besides taking measures to reduce the trafficking of psychotropic drugs into these regions, because these problems lead to individuals' turning to trafficking of narcotics and psychotropic drugs. Furthermore, it was shown by this study that different measures have been taken in order to put an end to addiction to narcotics and psychotropic drugs and the measures have been partly successful. Since the majority of those who are narcotics and psychotropic drugs' retailers are themselves addicted, reduction of addiction will certainly lead to reduction of trafficking. Therefore, it is necessary to take more serious measures in this regard in order to reduce the phenomenon of trafficking of narcotics and psychotropic drugs, to decrease addiction in the country and more importantly, to stop the youth from turning to these drugs. One of the most important plans which have recently been implemented in this regard is self-care training to the youth and adolescents. Suggestions A review of indicators shows the negative effects of the extended trafficking of narcotic drugs on the country. Considering the fact that narcotic drugs are imported from abroad, leads to impenetrability of borders, increases the losses and battles, adds to the costs of controlling the borders, and results in foreigners' unauthorized arrival in the country, the following strategies are recommended for improvement of this status: Posing the issue of fighting drug trafficking at the international level; Prioritizing fight against the distribution and use of narcotic drugs inside the country over the fight against their transit to abroad; 57