1 Statistics Caada Catalogue o XIE Vol. 19 o. 1 ILLICIT DRUGS AND CRIME IN CANADA by Sylvai Tremblay HIGHLIGHTS Although the overall rate of police-reported drug offeces has icreased 12% sice 1993, the log-term tred has geerally remaied stable over the past 15 years. It must be oted that treds i drug offeces are directly iflueced by levels of police eforcemet. After a te-year declie, the rate of caabis offeces has icreased by 34% sice Coversely, the rate of cocaie offeces icreased betwee 1981 ad 1989, but has dropped by 36% sice The rate of heroi offeces also icreased for a umber of years, peakig i 1993, ad the fallig 25% over the last four years. Caabis-supply offeces (traffickig, importig ad cultivatio) icreased for the fourth cosecutive year i 1997, partially drive by a icrease i cultivatio offeces. Caabis-possessio offeces icreased steadily from 1991 to 1996, but dropped slightly i Caabis offeces cotiue to accout for the majority of all drug offeces. More tha 7 i 1 drug offeces reported i 1997 ivolved caabis. Two-thirds of caabis offeces were for simple possessio. British Columbia cotiued to show the highest rate (426 offeces per 1, populatio) of drug offeces i 1997, almost twice the atioal average. However, whe examiig oly the umber of persos charged with drug offeces, the rate for British Columbia was oly 41% greater tha the atioal average. Newfoudlad reported the lowest rate (132) of drug offeces for the secod year i a row. While Newfoudlad ad Alberta have show the largest decreases i drug offeces i recet years, Nova Scotia (+44%), Saskatchewa (+26%) ad Maitoba (+14%) have see the largest icreases i the rate of drug offeces over the last 2 years. Youger people are less likely to be charged with serious drug offeces. Of all persos charged with cocaie ad heroi offeces, oly 36% were uder 25 years of age. For caabis offeces, this proportio was 86%. The courts cotiue to treat traffickig offeces more severely tha possessio offeces. I , data from seve provices ad oe territory show that about two-thirds (64%) of persos covicted of traffickig were seteced to imprisomet, compared to 13% for possessio. Data from a oe-day sapshot of imates i correctioal facilities i 1996 show that the most serious offece for which 9% of the adult imate populatio i Caada were icarcerated was a drug offece.
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The paper used i this publicatio meets the miimum requiremets of America Natioal Stadard for Iformatio Scieces Permaece of Paper for Prited Library Materials, ANSI Z Itroductio I 1996, licit ad illicit drugs (excludig alcohol) resulted i the deaths of 1,256 people by overdose 1. I additio, approximately oe-half of the 3, to 5, estimated cases of HIV ifectio i Caada occurred amog itraveous drug users (Health Caada, 1998). While it is ot possible to distiguish the specific part attributable to drugs cosidered illegal accordig to the Caadia Crimial Code, these drugs represet a major health ad public safety cocer i may coutries, icludig Caada. The cosequeces iheret i the use of illegal drugs are serious. Apart from the loss of huma life, illegal drugs geerate direct costs to the health ad crimial justice systems as well as idirect costs through lost work productivity, abseteeism ad the loss of huma potetial. Ecoomically, these costs amout to about $1.4 billio aually (Sigle et al., 1996). I additio to these ecoomic losses, drug abuse takes a social toll o drug users, childre, family members ad sometimes etire city eighbourhoods. Illicit drug use is also a importat elemet associated with crime; however, the lik betwee the two is complex. It varies from simple possessio of drugs to orgaized crime fightig for cotrol of the drug trade, to serious addictio problems that may lead users to commit crimes for quick moey. Hard drug users are foud to be most likely to commit crimes to satisfy their drug eeds. To fight the drug problem, Caada has implemeted a atioal strategy that aims to strike a balace betwee reducig the black market supply of illegal drugs ad reducig demad. 2 The first compoet emphasizes the fight agaist drug crimes by the crimial justice system, while the secod focuses o prevetio ad public awareess of the egative effects of drug use. This issue of Juristat focuses pricipally o crimial drug offeces reported by Caadia police services. It sketches a statistical profile of drug crimes ad drug offeders, while examiig the various types of offeces ad drugs ivolved. The report also examies atioal treds as well as provicial/territorial comparisos. Other iformatio sources are used to describe the attitudes of Caadias toward the drug problem ad the reactio of the courts to those appearig o drug charges. Drugs ad Crime: A complex relatioship Although illicit drugs are more widely used by people experiecig problems with the law tha by the geeral populatio, it does ot sigify a causal relatioship betwee the two (Brochu, 1994). Ideed, ot all drug users are ivolved i crimial activity outside their illegal drug use. Coversely, ot all offeders are drug users. Both types of behaviour are more likely to be the outcome of a deviat lifestyle. Experts i the field believe that the drug cosumptio profile of users is decisive i explaiig the extet of their ivolvemet i crime (Brochu, 1994; Gomme, 1993). There are four mai ways i which illegal drugs are liked to the commissio of crimes. First, possessig, growig or buyig illegal drugs are activities which i themselves costitute a violatio of the law. Secod, the use of itoxicats ecourages some offeders to act out by distortig their ihibitios, perceptios ad reaso. For some users, drugs are a meas to boost their courage, motivatio or aggressiveess, or simply to get a thrill. Third, some drug addicts commit crimes for the purpose of obtaiig the moey they eed to purchase more drugs. Fourth, a fial aspect cocers the fact that the drug market is a major source of icome for may offeders ad for members of orgaized crime i geeral. The Caadia Govermet estimates a value of $7 to $1 billio aually for the udergroud, illegal drug market i Caada (Porteous, 1998). Coflicts betwee people ivolved 1 Icludig overdoses related to substace abuse, accidetal itoxicatio, suicide or poisoig by medicatio ad legal or illegal drugs. Source: Health Statistics Divisio, Statistics Caada. 2 Caada s Drug Strategy, Govermet of Caada, Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1
3 i such a lucrative illegal trade are commoly settled by various forms of violece, icludig assault, arso or homicide (idem, 1998). The New Drug Act ad its Applicatio Before 1997, drugs came uder the authority of two separate federal acts: The Narcotics Cotrol Act, which govered illegal drugs such as caabis, cocaie ad heroi, ad; the Food ad Drugs Act, which govered cotrolled ad restricted drugs such as amphetamies, LSD or aabolic steroids. A ew act etitled the Cotrolled Drugs ad Substaces Act (CDSA) came ito force i May 1997 to replace the two existig acts. The CDSA icorporates certai parts of the two previous acts, while moderizig ad improvig Caada s policy o drug cotrol ad abuse. The CDSA also aims to meet Caada s obligatios uder a umber of iteratioal drug protocols. Caadia police forces report all CDSA drug offeces to the Uiform Crime Reportig (UCR) survey. However, it should be oted that sice drug offeces usually ivolve cosetig persos who are ulikely to report these evets to the police, recorded drug crimes are very sesitive to levels of eforcemet ad detectio. Accordigly, a icrease i the umber of arrests ad seizures does ot ecessarily reflect a icrease i the populatio s use of illegal drugs. However, it may be a idicator that the iteratioal ad atioal circulatio of drugs is risig or that there is a push o police eforcemet. Aalysis of Police-Reported Data The drug crime rate has climbed over the past 4 years I 1997, police forces i Caada reported a total of 66,521 offeces uder the Cotrolled Drugs ad Substaces Act, represetig a rate of 222 offeces per 1, populatio. Although the drug crime rate has icreased 12% over the last 4 years, it has geerally remaied stable sice Betwee 1981 ad 1983, however, drug offeces pluged sigificatly (Figure 1). This drop may have bee a direct result of the itroductio of the Charter of Rights ad Figure 1 Gap has arrowed betwee rate of drug possessio ad drug supply offeces Rate per 1, populatio Itroductio of the Charter of Rights ad Freedoms Supply offeces Total Possessio offeces Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, Freedoms i 1982 which limited police authority i search ad seizure operatios. 3 This chage seems to have affected mostly possessio of drug offeces. The drug offeces tred also reflects a chage i the police strategy i the fight agaist drugs after the itroductio of the Charter. Police data seem to idicate a icrease i the effort of police departmets to couter crimes ivolvig the supply of drugs (icludig traffickig, importig, ad cultivatio) to the illegal drug market sice Eumeratig Drug Crimes Sice 1962, the Caadia Cetre for Justice Statistics has bee gatherig data o drug offeces through the Uiform Crime Reportig (UCR) Survey. The survey couts oly the most serious offece committed i each crimial icidet, which cosequetly uderestimates the total umber of drug-related icidets. For example, if a icidet icludes both a act of violece ad a drug offece, oly the act of violece is couted. Similarly, if a icidet ivolves both a drug importatio ad a possessio offece, the possessio offece is ot recorded. Also, the UCR Survey cosiders traffickig ad importatio to be cotiuig offeces. As a example, a drug trafficker who is observed sellig drugs for five days to multiple persos is couted as oe icidet. Drug supply The expressio drug supply as used i this report refers to a amalgamatio of drug traffickig, drug importig, ad caabis cultivatio. Caabis offeces Crimial offeces ivolvig caabis (possessio, traffickig, importatio ad cultivatio) accout for the vast majority of drug crimes. I 1997, more tha 7 drug offeces i 1 ivolved caabis. Possessio of caabis offeces represeted a rate of 19 per 1, populatio, almost half of all drug offeces (rate of 222) (Figure 2). I compariso, the overall rate for cocaie offeces was 38, for heroi 4 ad, other drugs 2. Figure 2 Rate per 1, populatio About half of all drug icidets were for possessio of caabis i 1997 Possessio offeces Supply offeces Caabis Cocaie Heroi Other Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, Article 8 of the Charter specifically aims at protectig people from ureasoable searches ad seizures. Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1 3
4 The icreasig umber of caabis possessio offeces betwee 1991 ad 1996 has drive the overall tred i caabis-related icidets (Figure 3). Caabis supply offeces icreased for the fourth cosecutive year i 1997, fuelled by a rise i cultivatio offeces, which climbed from a rate of 4 per 1, populatio i 1987 to 22 i Compared to 1996, the cultivatio rate icreased by 3% i Cultivatio offeces ow accout for 14% of all caabis offeces compared to slightly less tha 3% te years ago. More sophisticated growig techiques ad ew techology eable Caadia traffickers to produce highquality caabis i hydropoic greehouses. As a result, Caadia-grow caabis accouted for 5% of the total Caadia market supply i 1995 compared to 1% i 1985 (Porteous, 1998). Figure 3 Rate per 1, populatio Rate of caabis icidets icreasig sice 1991 Total Possessio offeces Supply offeces Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, Cocaie offeces Amogst the hard drugs, cocaie is the most popular. The rate of cocaie offeces icreased substatially betwee 1979 ad This icrease seems to have bee the result Figure 4 Rate per 1, populatio Rate of cocaie icidets decreasig sice 1991 Total Supply offeces Possessio offeces of a risig popularity of cocaie amog drug users as well as a chage i police drug strategies to focus eforcemet o hard drugs. Coversely to the rate of caabis offeces that has icreased i recet years, the rate of cocaie offeces has declied sice Compared to 1991, the 1997 rates showed a 28% decrease for possessio offeces ad a 38% decrease for supply offeces. I 1997, offeces related to the drug market supply of cocaie amouted to 58% of all cocaie offeces, a percetage that has remaied relatively stable over time. Heroi offeces Heroi is cosidered oe of the most devastatig drugs, as a icrease i tolerace to heroi facilitates the process of addictio to the drug (Gomme, 1993). Heroi offeces accout for less tha 2% of all drug crimes. The majority (61%) of heroi offeces i 1997 occurred i British Columbia. After reachig a peak i 1993, the rate of heroi offeces dropped by 24% betwee 1994 ad Similar to the case for cocaie, supply-related offeces accouted for 58% of the 1,235 offeces reported by police departmets i Figure 5 Rate per 1, populatio Rate of heroi icidets peaked i 1993 Total Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, Other drug offeces Supply offeces Possessio offeces Most other drugs ca be divided ito two categories: 1) illegal drugs other tha caabis, cocaie or heroi (e.g., PCP [phecyclidie], LSD or ecstasy), ad 2) cotrolled drugs (e.g., amphetamies, barbiturates or aabolic steroids). The latter were covered uder the former Food ad Drugs Act ad simple possessio of them is ot a idictable offece. Betwee 1983 ad 1991, the tred for all other drugs varied cosiderably from year to year, maily due to variatios amog possessio offeces. Over the last two years, rates of possessio ad supply of other drugs offeces have icreased 15%. Possessio of other drugs accouted for 56% of all other drug icidets i Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1
5 Figure 6 Rate per 1, populatio Rate of "other drug" related icidets fluctuates aually Total Possessio offeces Supply offeces Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, British Columbia has the highest rate of drug icidets amog provices Amog the provices, British Columbia has cosistetly reported the highest rate of drug crime sice 1982 (Table 1). The 1997 rate of 426 icidets per 1, populatio was almost double the atioal rate (Figure 7). Rates i both territories were higher tha i British Columbia (Yuko: 438 ad the Northwest Territories: 67). At the other extreme, Newfoudlad (132) reported the lowest rate for the secod cosecutive year. The drug crime rates i the three other Atlatic provices were slightly higher tha those of the Prairie provices, Quebec ad Otario. Figure 7 Rate per 1, populatio British Columbia reported the highest rate of drug icidets i 1997 B.C. N.B. P.E.I. N.S. Sask. Ma. Que. Ot. Alta. Nfld. Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, Icidets Persos charged Caada While some provices (Price Edward Islad, New Bruswick, Quebec, Saskatchewa ad Maitoba) have show a upward tred sice the early 199 s, drug crime rates i British Columbia ad Otario have remaied relatively stable. Betwee 1996 ad 1997, the percetage chage i drug crimes raged from a decrease of 29% i Yuko to a icrease of 14% i Maitoba. The rate of persos charged with drug offeces is decliig I all, 4,816 people (youths ad adults) were charged by the police for a drug offece i 1997, accoutig for a rate of 136 per 1, populatio. The vast majority were male (89%). Official statistics o drug crimes are closely related to levels of drug eforcemet by police. Ivestigatios which lead to the seizure of illicit drugs frequetly result i the arrest of suspects. As a result, this type of crime reveals a aual umber of drug icidets which usually closely parallels the aual umber of persos charged. However, sice 1995, a ew tred has emerged. Although the drug crime rate has icreased by 6% over these two years, the rate of persos charged has falle by 7%. The rate of icidets that were cleared otherwise by the police icreased by 12% betwee 1995 ad The icrease was apparet i most provices, ad could partially be explaied by the itroductio of alterative measures for adults that came ito effect i This program allows police forces to use discretio i referrig adult suspects to a diversioary program who could otherwise have bee charged. A similar program was already i force for youth. Amog provices ad territories, police departmets i British Columbia reported the lowest charge rate (47%) for drug offeces. 5 Oly 35% of caabis icidets ad 36% of other drug icidets resulted i charges, compared to 79% ad 81% for all the other provices combied. No sigificat differeces amog the provices i charges for heroi or cocaie traffickig ad importatio offeces were oted. I Caada, of all youths aged 12 to17 idetified by police i 1997 as havig committed a drug offece, 4% were ot charged by police. This was true i oly 13% of cocaie icidets ad 7% of heroi icidets. Youger people more ivolved i less serious drug offeces Accordig to the revised UCR survey, the average age of someoe charged i a drug icidet was 26 years. Persos charged i cocaie ad heroi icidets teded to be older (average age of 3) tha persos charged i caabis ad other drug icidets (average age of 25). For comparative purposes, the average age of persos charged with property offeces was 21 years of age compared to 29 years of age for violet offeces. The ages of those charged i heroi ad cocaie icidets are more evely distributed tha i caabis icidets (Figure 8). Most people charged i caabis icidets were youg: 26% of all idividuals charged were less tha 18 years of age, ad 6% were less tha 25 years of age. Amog those charged with heroi or cocaie offeces, oly 5% were uder 18 years of age, while 33% were less tha 25 years of age. 4 Crimes are cleared by charge whe the police have laid a iformatio or made a recommedatio that the Crow lay official charges agaist the accused. Crimes are cleared otherwise whe a suspect is idetified ad sufficiet evidece exists to charge the suspect, but charges are ot laid. 5 The charge rate represets the percetage of accused persos who are actually charged by police. Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1 5
6 The older the offeder, the most likely they were to be charged with cocaie or heroi offeces, or with drug supply offeces (Table 3). Amog idividuals uder 16 years of age, 4% were charged for cocaie or heroi icidets, compared to 32% of 2 to 24 year-olds, 42% of 25 to 34 year-olds, ad 45% of 35 to 44 year-olds. This results from drug habits that chage with age. Youger people ted to be more ivolved with drugs for their persoal use or use i small groups as they seek out ew experieces ad pleasure. The higher price rage for hard drugs like cocaie or heroi may also explai a more prevalet use of caabis (which is cheaper) amog the youger populatio. Table 3 shows that those who pursue their drug activities seem more likely to graduate to harder drugs ad participate more extesively i the drug trade. Figure 8 Distributio of age by type of drug, Caada, 1997 Data from the Statistics Caada Homicide Survey show that, of the 581 homicides i Caada i 1997, oe i three victims ad oe i two accused had bee drikig alcohol ad/or usig drugs at the time of the crime. Male victims were oe ad a half times more likely to have cosumed alcohol or used drugs tha female victims. The police also reported that 12% of homicide icidets with a kow motive were drug-related. Decrimializig Drugs Although the public, police officers ad politicias seem to uaimously support the idea of icreasig efforts to fight the drug problem, some are begiig to questio the hard-lie approach ivolvig the crimial justice system. Some members of the academic, legal, political ad health commuities have expressed their support for various meas of decrimializig drugs. These meas rage from legalizig the use of caabis for therapeutic purposes, to legalizig possessio, to completely decrimializig all crimial drug offeces. Age Caabis Heroi ad Cocaie The supporters of decrimializatio claim that it would help elimiate the icome geerated by traffickig, reduce the attedat crime rates, lower costs to the health ad crimial justice systems, ad decrease the likelihood that users become ivolved i crime. Those who oppose relaxig the laws argue that such legislatio would icrease the umber of users, ot elimiate the black market, ad raise, rather tha reduce, the umber of drug-related problems Illegal Drug Use By Caadias May Caadias admit to usig illegal drugs. Accordig to the Caadia Alcohol ad Other Drugs Survey (1994), almost oe i four Caadias 15 years of age or over reported havig used at least oe illegal drug durig his/her lifetime, primarily caabis (Table 4). The fidigs show that the use of illicit drugs icreased sigificatly across the coutry betwee 1993 ad Caabis use climbed from 4.2% to 7.4%, cocaie from.3% to.7%, ad LSD, speed or heroi from.3% to 1.1% (McKezie, D., Williams, B. & Sigle, E., 1997) % Source: Revised Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, High rate of alcohol ad other drug ivolvemet i homicides I additio to the formal federal drug statute offeces described above, there are also other forms of drug-related crimes such as the violece betwee orgaized crime groups over cotrol of the drug trade, ad the crimes committed by drug addicts to obtai quick cash. Table 4 shows that illegal drug use (caabis, cocaie, LSD, speed or heroi) was twice as prevalet amog me as wome, ad that users were primarily youg people. About oe-quarter (26%) of youths 15 to 17 years of age ad a similar proportio of 18 to 19 year-olds (24%) reported havig used at least oe illegal drug i the previous year, compared to 2% amog those aged 2 to 24 years. Adlaf, Ivis, Smart ad Walsh (1997) reached very similar fidigs i the 1997 cycle of the Otario Studet Drug Use Survey. They foud that the percetage of Otario studets who used caabis (at least oce durig the previous year) was the same as i 1995, but that the umber of halluciogeic drug users had icreased over the two-year period. McKezie et al. (1997) also foud that illegal drug use varies from oe provice to aother. British Columbia respodets reported usig illegal drugs the most (12%) durig the previous year, followed by Alberta, Maitoba ad Quebec respodets (9%). At the other ed of the spectrum, less tha 4% of respodets from Newfoudlad reported usig illicit drugs. 6 Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1
7 The court reactio to persos accused of drug-related offeces I , the Adult Crimial Court Survey collected iformatio from provicial/territorial courts i seve provices ad Yuko. 6 I that year, these courts heard 18,515 drugrelated offece cases, of which 29% were for drug traffickig. Ufortuately, the survey does ot allow for a distictio betwee the types of drugs. Almost two-thirds of persos charged with drug traffickig are seteced to imprisomet The Crimial Code provides a maximum of life imprisomet i the case of traffickig ad importatio of drugs. For all jurisdictios combied, about two-thirds (64%) of all persos covicted of drug traffickig were seteced to imprisomet (Figure 9). The media setece legth i these cases was four moths. Figure 9 shows provicial/territorial differeces i imprisomet proportios for drug crime cases. Yuko, Newfoudlad ad Alberta imposed the highest proportios of priso seteces for drug traffickig, ragig from 78% to 83%. However, less tha six i te persos covicted of drug traffickig i Quebec ad Saskatchewa were seteced to priso. The logest seteces of imprisomet were imposed i Price Edward Islad ad Alberta (medias of 12 moths ad 8 moths respectively). I additio, probatio was the most serious setece imposed i 24% of drug traffickig cases, ad fies i 9%. Figure 9 % of cases resultig i a priso setece 9 Traffickig About two-thirds of covicted drug traffickers were seteced to priso i Caada i Yk. Nfld. Alta. P.E.I. Ot. N.S. Sask. Que. Source: Adult Crimial Court Survey, Possessio Caada 6 The survey covers the period from April 1, 1996 to March 31, The courts of New Bruswick, Maitoba, British Columbia ad the Northwest Territories were ot icluded i the survey. Data for were available, but with the itroductio of the ew drug legislatio, some drug offeces were coded to the Other Federal Statutes category. This iflates the OFS group ad udercouts drug offeces. Fie is the most commo setece for drug possessio I cases of drug possessio, a fie was the most commo setece imposed (i 63% of cases), with a media amout of $2. The highest fies were imposed i Price Edward Islad ($4 media), while the lowest were give i Quebec ad Yuko ($15 media). Natioally, a fie was imposed as the most serious setece i 55% of cases, followed by probatio i 22% of cases ad imprisomet i 13%. I most provices/territory, the media legth of the setece of imprisomet raged from oe to two moths. Drug Offeders i the Correctios System The fidigs of A Oe-Day Sapshot of Imates i Caada s Adult Correctioal Facilities Survey coducted o October 5, 1996 showed that the most serious setece for which 9% of the o-register Caadia adult imate populatio (icludig remads) were i priso was a drug-related offece. Alberta (17%) ad Quebec (14%) held the highest percetage of drug offeders i provicial prisos (Table 5). I British Columbia, the provice that had the highest umber of persos charged with drug offeces, oly 8% of imates were icarcerated for drug offeces as the most serious offece. New Bruswick also reported a similar proportio. I federal peitetiaries, those icarcerated for drug offeces also accouted for 8% of all imates. Drugs are also a major problem iside provicial ad federal correctioal istitutios. The Oe-Day Sapshot of Imates Survey foud that priso admiistrators cosidered drug abuse as a security cocer for 23% of the imate populatio covered. I additio, a atioal imate survey coducted by Robiso & Mirabelli (1996) foud that 38% of imates icarcerated i federal istitutios said they had used illegal drugs at least oce sice their admissio. The most frequetly used drugs were caabis (59%), heroi (19%), cocaie or crack (17%). Methodology 1. Uiform Crime Reportig Survey (UCR) a) Aggregate Compoet 1% Coverage The aggregate UCR survey tracks the umber of crimial icidets reported to the police. It icludes the umber of reported icidets ad the umber of actual icidets, the umber of icidets cleared by police ad the umber of persos charged by geder ad by status as youths or adults. It does ot iclude data o victim characteristics. Uless otherwise idicated, all of the aalyses icluded i this report are based o aggregate survey couts. b) Revised UCR Survey - (UCRII Research File - icidet-based) The revised micro-data survey gathers detailed iformatio o the idividual crimial offeces reported to the police, icludig the characteristics of victims, of accused persos, ad of icidets. I 1997, detailed data were gathered from 179 police departmets i six provices. These data accout for 48% of the atioal volume of Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1 7
8 actual crimes set out i the Crimial Code. Icidets etered i the Research File i 1997 were distributed as follows: 42% i Quebec, 32% i Otario, 11% i Alberta, 8% i British Columbia, 5% i Saskatchewa ad 1% i New Bruswick. Except i Quebec, most of the data were supplied by urba police departmets. Readers are advised that these data are ot represetative at the atioal level. 2. Homicide Survey The Homicide Survey has collected police-reported data o homicide icidets sice 1961, icludig characteristics of victims ad accused. Survey questioaires are completed for each homicide kow to the police by the ivestigatig police departmet. 3. Adult Crimial Court Survey (ACCS) Provicial crimial courts i seve provices ad two territories (represetig approximately 8% of the atioal total) supplied the survey data. These data were distributed as follows: Otario (51%); Quebec (21%); Alberta (14%); Saskatchewa (7%); Newfoudlad (2%); the Northwest Territories (.7%); Yuko (.5%); ad, Price Edward Islad (.4%). 4. A Oe-Day Sapshot of Imates i Caada s Adult Correctioal Facilities For the first time, the study took a cesus of imates registered i Caadia adult correctioal facilities as of midight, October 5, The purpose of the cesus was to provide a detailed profile of the imates i Caadia adult prisos. The data were gleaed from the admiistrative files kept by the various federal, provicial ad territorial correctioal services. Refereces Adlaf E.M., Ivis F.J., Smart R.G. & Walsh G.W. (1997). Otario Studet Drug Use Survey: Toroto, Addictio Research Foudatio. Brochu, S. (1994). Drogues et crimialité : ue relatio complexe. Perspectives Crimiologiques Collectio, Uiversities of Ottawa ad Motreal Press. Carrière, D. Adult Crimial Court Statistics, Juristat. Catalogue 85-2, Vol.18, No.7, Caadia Cetre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Caada, Fedorowycz, O. Homicide i Caada, Juristat. Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol.18, No.13, Caadia Cetre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Caada, Gomme, I.M. (1993). The Shadow Lie: Deviace ad Crime i Caada. Toroto, Harcourt Brace Jovaovich Caada. Govermet of Caada (1998). Caada s Drugs Strategy. Ottawa, Iterdepartmetal Workig Group o Alcohol ad Other Drugs. Health Caada (1998). Risk Behaviours Amog Ijectio Drug Users i Caada. Report available o the WebSite at Kog, R. Crime Statistics, Juristat. Catalogue 85-2, Vol.18, No.11, Caadia Cetre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Caada, McKezie, D., Williams, B. & Sigle E. (1997). Caadia Profile: Alcohol, tobacco ad other drugs. Ottawa, Caadia Cetre agaist Substace Abuse ad Otario Foudatio of Research for Substace Abuse. McKezie, H. (1989). Drugs ad their Cosequeces: Social ad Ecoomic Cosequeces. Ottawa, Research Service, Policy ad social Affairs Divisio, Parliamet Library. Porteous, S. (1998). Orgaized Crime: Impact Study (Highlights). Ottawa, Solicitor Geeral of Caada. Robiso, D. & Mirabelli, L. (1996). Summary of Fidigs of the 1995 Correctioal Service Caada Natioal Imate Survey. Ottawa, Research Divisio, Correctioal Service Caada. Sigle et al. (1996). The Costs of Substace Abuse i Caada. Ottawa, Caadia Cetre agaist Substace Abuse. Trevetha, S. & McKillop B. A Oe-Day Sapshot of Imates i Caada s Adult Correctioal Facilities. Juristat. Catalogue 85-2, Vol.18, No.8, Caadia Cetre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Caada, Wolff, L. & Reigold B. Drug Cosumptio ad Crime. Juristat. Catalogue 85-2, Vol.14, No.6, Caadia Cetre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Caada, Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1
9 Table 1 Number ad Rate of Drug Offeces by Provice/Territory, Caada, 1988 to % chage Newfoudlad umber , rate % chage i rate... 5% 3% -19% 23% -4% 1% 22% -11% -18% -- Price Edward Islad umber rate % chage i rate... -2% 11% -35% 53% -3% 19% 6% 25% -8% 53% Nova Scotia umber 1,924 2,87 2,252 1,877 1,969 1,923 2,55 1,833 1,91 2,86 rate % chage i rate... 8% 7% -17% 4% -3% 7% -11% 4% 9% 4% New Bruswick umber 1,295 1,783 1,364 1,199 1,96 1,24 1,237 1,546 1,672 1,776 rate % chage i rate... 37% -24% -13% -9% 1% 3% 25% 8% 6% 33% Quebec umber 8,67 9,33 8,645 9,88 1,639 11,185 11,847 12,391 14,218 13,92 rate % chage i rate... 6% -8% 4% 16% 4% 5% 4% 14% -3% 5% Otario umber 22,41 26,66 23,532 21,34 18,619 17,67 18,33 18,915 2,688 2,927 rate % chage i rate... 18% -13% -12% -13% -6% 3% 2% 8% % Maitoba umber 2,713 3,54 2,165 1,724 2,262 1,683 1,682 1,792 1,88 2,149 rate % chage i rate... 3% -39% -21% 31% -26% -1% 6% 4% 14% -23% Saskatchewa umber 1,967 1,949 2,51 1,155 1,791 1,745 1,651 1,77 2,54 2,87 rate % chage i rate % -43% 55% -3% -6% 7% 15% 1% 7% Alberta umber 6,672 6,587 6,195 5,18 5,685 6,234 5,286 4,837 5,226 5,93 rate % chage i rate... -3% -8% -2% 11% 8% -16% -1% 6% -4% -34% British Columbia umber 12,737 13,539 12,833 14,616 15,279 13,728 16,49 16,651 16,174 16,868 rate % chage i rate... 4% -8% 11% 2% -13% 16% -1% -5% 2% 4% Yuko umber rate % chage i rate... 29% -15% 7% -22% -16% 26% -- 1% -29% -3% Northwest Territories umber rate % chage i rate... 1% 27% -9% -3% 7% -1% 4% 17% -5% 52% Caada umber 59,382 66,93 6,624 57,68 58,881 56,817 6,153 61,613 65,729 66,521 rate % chage i rate... 11% -11% -7% 2% -5% 5% 1% 6% Rates are calculated o the basis of 1, persos. Populatio estimates come from the Demography Divisio, Cesus ad Demographic Statistics Brach, Statistics Caada. Populatio to July 1: revised itercesal estimates for 1988 to 1995; updated post-cesus estimates for 1996 ad % chages are based o o-rouded rates.... figures ot appropriate. -- umbers too small to be expressed. Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, CCJS. Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1 9
10 Table 2 Drug Icidets by Type of Offece, by Provice/Territory, 1997 Caabis Cocaie Heroi Other Cotrolled Drugs & Substace Act Total Icidets Pos- Traf- Impor- Culti- Total Pos- Traf- Impor- Total Pos- Traf- Impor- Total Pos- Traf- Impor- Total sessio fickig tatio vatio sessio fickig tatio sessio fickig tatio sessio fickig tatio Newfoudlad Price Edward Islad Nova Scotia , ,86 New Bruswick , ,776 Quebec 4,84 2,1 75 1,915 8,93 1,134 1, , , ,972 13,92 Otario 11,647 1, ,536 15,66 1,643 1, , ,558 2,927 Maitoba 1, , ,149 Saskatchewa 1, , ,87 Alberta 2, , ,93 British Columbia 8,76 1, ,88 12,127 1,446 1, , ,868 Yuko Northwest Territories Caada 32,682 7, ,632 47,98 4,785 6, , ,235 3,312 2, ,959 66,521 - il or zero. Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, CCJS. Table 3 Type of Drug ad Offece by Age of Accused, Caada 1, to to to to Total % Type of Drug Caabis Heroi Cocaie Other Drugs Total Type of Offece Possessio Traffickig Importatio Productio Total Revised UCR survey comprised of a o-represetative sample of 179 police forces accoutig for 48% of the volume of all crimes ad 32% of the volume of drug crime. - il or zero. Source: Revised Uiform Crime Reportig Survey 1 Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1
11 Table 4 Percet of Respodets Usig Illicit Drugs i the Previous Year Amog those 15 or Older, Caada, 1994 Caabis Cocaie LSD, Use of Speed, ay of 5 Heroi illegal Drugs % Total Sex Male Female Age Group Provice Newfoudlad Price Edward Islad Nova Scotia New Bruswick Quebec Otario Maitoba Saskatchewa Alberta British Columbia umbers too small to be expressed. Source: Caadia Profile: Alcohol, tobacco ad other drugs, Table 5 Proportio of O-Register Imates Icarcerated for Drug Offeces 1, by Jurisdictio, October 5, 1996 Total Imates Imates Icarcerated for Drug-Related Offeces Number Percetage # % Newfoudlad Price Edward Islad Nova Scotia New Bruswick Quebec 5, Otario 7, Maitoba 1, Saskatchewa 1, Alberta 2, British Columbia 2, Northwest Territories Yuko Total Provicial Imates 22,18 2,7 9 Correctioal Service Caada 13,829 1,16 8 Total Caada Adult Imate Populatio 35,847 3, Drug offeces were the most serious setece. Icludes both seteced ad remad imates. Source: A Oe-Day Sapshot of Imates i Caada's Adult Correctioal Facilities Survey, CCJS, Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1 11
12 Table 6 Number ad Rate of Drug Offeces by Type of Drug, Caada, Caabis umber 58,481 53,378 56,834 64,866 65,763 53,658 43,799 43,917 43,83 41,514 43,72 rate % chage i rate % 5% 13% % -19% -1% -1% -6% 2% Heroi umber 1,37 1, rate % chage i rate % -53% 7% -8% 24% 27% -33% 29% 9% -17% Cocaie umber 897 1,3 1,142 1,74 2,189 2,738 3,275 4,119 4,9 6,729 8,22 rate % chage i rate % 1% 47% 27% 24% 18% 25% 18% 36% 2% Other Drugs umber 5,523 5,118 6,372 7,3 6,569 7,56 6,831 6,28 7,675 7,94 9,619 rate % chage i rate % 23% 8% -7% 13% -1% -9% 21% -8% 34% Total umber 65,938 6,747 64,923 74,196 75,14 64,636 54,847 54,95 57,25 56,251 61,658 rate % chage i rate % 6% 13% % -16% -1% 3% -3% 8% Caabis umber 4,3 4,243 38,81 33,267 34,993 35,995 4,496 43,845 47,234 47,98 rate % chage i rate 2-8% -1% -5% -15% 4% 2% 11% 7% 7% -- Heroi umber ,26 1,362 1,449 1,595 1,67 1,236 1,287 1,235 rate % chage i rate 2 21% -- 25% 12% 5% 9% % 3% -5% Cocaie umber 11,36 16,158 12,765 16,114 14,139 12,523 12,339 11,369 11,478 11,419 rate % chage i rate 2 33% 44% -22% 25% -13% -12% -3% -9% -- -2% Other Drugs umber 7,427 9,66 7,864 6,35 8,3 6,74 5,711 5,163 5,73 5,959 rate % chage i rate 2-24% 27% -19% -2% 29% -2% -16% -11% 1% 3% Total umber 59,43 66,961 6,645 57,93 58,881 56,817 6,153 61,613 65,729 66,521 rate % chage i rate 2-5% 11% -11% -7% 2% -5% 5% 1% 6% -- 1 Rates are calculated o the basis of 1, persos. Populatio estimates come from the Demography Divisio, Cesus ad Demographic Statistics Brach, Statistics Caada. Populatio to July 1: revised itercesal estimates for 1977 to 1995; updated post-cesus estimates for 1996 ad % chages are based o o-rouded rates.... figures ot appropriate. -- umbers too small to be expressed. Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, CCJS. 12 Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1
13 Table 7 Number ad Rate of Drug Offeces by Type of Offece, Caada, Possessio umber 54,13 48,325 51,279 58,459 58,838 47,19 39,23 41,386 42,39 39,596 41,182 rate % chage i rate % 5% 13% -1% -21% -18% 5% 1% -7% 3% Traffickig umber 1,816 11,88 12,522 14,566 15,183 15,912 13,792 11,979 13,639 14,941 18,411 rate % chage i rate % 12% 15% 3% 4% -14% -14% 13% 8% 22% Importatio umber ,38 1,23 rate % chage i rate % -5% -2% -4% 56% 22% -9% -- 16% -3% Cultivatio umber ,42 rate % chage i rate % -24% 7% -12% 27% 13% -2% -11% 4% 52% Total umber 65,938 6,747 64,923 74,196 75,14 64,636 54,847 54,95 57,25 56,251 61,658 rate % chage i rate % 6% 13% % -16% -1% 3% -3% 8% Possessio umber 39,322 43,53 38,187 32,221 33,786 34,17 37,74 38,56 41,726 41,293 rate % chage i rate 2-6% 8% -13% -17% 4% -- 9% 1% 7% -2% Traffickig umber 18,118 21,59 2,268 21,818 2,78 18,672 17,874 17,394 17,913 17,217 rate % chage i rate 2-3% 17% -8% 6% -6% -11% -5% -4% 2% -5% Importatio umber ,52 1,449 1,18 1,141 1,22 1,56 1,379 rate % chage i rate 2-16% 6% -11% 21% 36% -19% -4% 4% -13% 29% Cultivatio umber 1,115 1,375 1,334 2,2 2,938 2,795 3,434 4,457 5,34 6,632 rate % chage i rate 2 6% 21% -4% 48% 45% -6% 21% 28% 12% 3% Total umber 59,43 66,961 6,645 57,93 58,881 56,817 6,153 61,613 65,729 66,521 rate % chage i rate 2-5% 11% -11% -7% 2% -5% 5% 1% 6% -- 1 Rates are calculated o the basis of 1, persos. Populatio estimates come from the Demography Divisio, Cesus ad Demographic Statistics Brach, Statistics Caada. Populatio to July 1: revised itercesal estimates for 1977 to 1995; updated post-cesus estimates for 1996 ad % chages are based o o-rouded rates.... figures ot appropriate. -- umbers too small to be expressed. Source: Uiform Crime Reportig Survey, CCJS. Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1 13
14 Caadia Cetre for Justice Statistics For further iformatio, please cotact the Caadia Cetre for Justice Statistics, 19th floor, R.H. Coats Buildig, Ottawa, Otario K1A T6 at (613) or call toll-free To order a publicatio, you may telephoe (613) or fax (613) or iteret: You may also call (Caada ad Uited States) toll-free. If you order by telephoe, writte cofirmatio is ot required. Recet Juristat Releases Catalogue 85-2-XPE 1997 Vol. 17 No. 4 Adult Correctioal Services i Caada, Vol. 17 No. 5 Crime i Major Metropolita Areas, Vol. 17 No. 6 Adult Crimial Court Statistics, Vol. 17 No. 7 Weapos ad Violet Crime Vol. 17 No. 8 Caadia Crime Statistics, 1996 Vol. 17 No. 9 Homicide i Caada, 1996 Vol. 17 No. 1 Youth Court Statistics Highlights Vol. 17 No. 11 Assaults Agaist Childre ad Youth i The Family, 1996 Vol. 17 No. 12 Impaired Drivig i Caada, 1996 Vol. 17 No. 13 The Justice Data Factfider 1998 Vol. 18 No. 1 Motor Vehicle Theft i Caada Vol. 18 No. 2 Missig ad Abducted Childre Vol. 18 No. 3 Adult Correctioal Services i Caada, Vol. 18 No. 4 The Chagig Nature of Fraud i Caada Vol. 18 No. 5 Breakig ad Eterig i Caada, 1996 Vol. 18 No. 6 Crimial Victimizatio: A Iteratioal Perspective Vol. 18 No. 7 Adult Crimial Court Statistics, Vol. 18 No. 8 Vol. 18 No. 9 A Oe-Day Sapshot of Imates i Caada s Adult Correctioal Facilities Violece Committed by Stragers Vol 18. No. 1 Legal Aid i Caada: Vol. 18 No. 11 Caadia Crime Statistics, 1997 Vol. 18 No. 12 Homicide i Caada, 1997 Vol. 18 No. 13 Private Security ad Public Policig i Caada Vol. 18 No. 14 Adult crimial court statistics, Statistics Caada Catalogue o. 85-2, Vol. 19, No. 1
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