Assessment wind measurement strategy

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1 ENERGY Assessment wind measurement strategy Options for Hollandse Kust Zuid - Draft 1 DNV GL SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

2 Introduction and assignment In December 2014 DNV GL made the following recommendations for wind zone Hollandse Kust Zuid Use publicly available fixed Lidar data from Goeree LE in combination with wind mapping and publicly available historical data; Not to install a floating Lidar in Hollandse Kust Zuid wind farm zone; To consider installation of a fixed Met Mast on site taking into account the additional economic value on the one hand and the extensive preparations needed on the other hand RvO have asked DNV GL to make an update of the analysis taking into account Developments in floating Lidar technology Status of measurement campaigns in the Dutch North Sea Changes in subsidy tender regime where TenneT is responsible for development of the offshore grid and hence cost for project developers are lower. For the assessment indicative maximum tender levels presented by ECN have been used 2

3 Wind zone Hollandse Kust Zuid Total planned power 1400 MW 1 st 700 MW tender planned Q nd 700 MW tender planned Q

4 OWEZ IJMVER LUD BOR1 BOR2 LEG EPF HKZ Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Overview of existing and planned measurement locations Time table of measurement campaigns IJmuiden Ver Luchterduinen OWEZ OWEZ IJMVER IJMVER BOR1 BOR2 LEG EPF HKZ HKZ 2 Europlatform LE Goeree Oosterschelde Borssele Lot 1 Borssele Lot 2 Vlakte van de Raan Legenda: Fixed met mast Floating Lidar Fixed Lidar Tender date Wandelaar 4

5 Options for Hollandse Kust Zuid In December 2014 DNV GL made recommendations for wind zone Hollandse Kust Zuid Use publicly available fixed Lidar data from Goeree LE in combination with wind mapping and publicly available historical data; A fixed Lidar was installed, but there have been issues with data recovery To support installation of a fixed Lidar at Europlatform by ECN to give more insight in the horizontal gradient of the wind speed off the Dutch coast. This has been in planning for at least 18 months, but so far no Lidar has been installed; Taking into account the development stage by the end of 2014, it was not considered necessary to invest in a floating Lidar at Hollandse Kust Zuid. This was due to the fact that no improvement in uncertainty was to be expected as most floating Lidar were just entering pre-commercial stage. To consider installation of a fixed Met Mast on site taking into account the additional economic value on the one hand and the extensive preparations needed on the other hand. Since then one year has passed, and it is at least doubtful whether installation of a fixed mast would be feasible before the tender for Hollandse Kust Zuid will be launched early 2018; In the methodology used, there is an important role for mesoscale (weather-based) wind speed and wind direction data. These data are either available from commercial companies, and from (semi-)public National Met Offices. These models are still under development, it is therefore considered wise to consider investment in such models. 5

6 Measurement techniques Fixed met mast Fixed Lidar Floating Lidar Reanalysis data MERRA/ERA/Harmony Measurement principle Traditional cup anemometers Lidar anemometry Lidar anemometry with/out motion compenstation Virtual weather model data Maturity Baseline Baseline Pre-commercial Standard product, but under continuous development Accuracy 2% 2-4% 4-7% (pre-commercial) 2-4% commercial 10% absolute error Calibration with meas. required Implementation requirements Permit to build and operate (RWS) Power supply Agreement platform operator Permit to build and operate (RWS) Regular updates of data should be made in order to facilitate MCP methods Mobilization time 2 years (including tender, design and installation) Dependent on agreement with platform operator Limited construction period 6 months including Tendering Notification coastguard None Costs 1st yr keur 200 keur 1000 keur 100 keur improve model Add year 250 keur/a 100 keur/a 500 keur/a 10 keur/a commercial data 6

7 Present status floating Lidar equipment (November 2015) Floating Lidar systems Experience with floating Lidars At present Floating Lidars have been used in 11 commercial projects Duration of the campaigns ranges from 6 to 24 months Validation campaigns were conducted. Several devices (see right) have reached the criteria for pre-commercial stage As far as known to DNV GL no greenfield projects have obtained financing based solely on FLD data. However in April 2015 Dong Energy obtained green light for Burbo Bank extension relying on FLD data only So far there is limited knowledge on real campaign FLD measurement uncertainty. More information will become available soon. Until then DNV GL can only refer to the OWA roadmap (next slide) Floating Lidar systems System Lidar Platform Status Flidar, AXYS Wind sentinel, AXYS FORECAST, Babcock SeaZephIR, SeaRoc Seawatch Wind Lidar Buoy, Fugro Windcube v2 (Leosphere) Vindicator (OADS); ZephIR Surface Buoy Surface Buoy Pre-commercial Stage 2 to be achieved Q ZephIR Spar Buoy Pre-commercial ZephIR TLP Unknown ZephIR Surface Buoy Pre-commercial Eolos ZephIR Surface Buoy Pre-commercial? 7

8 Meso-scale modelling Several meso-scale models exist that can be used to extrapolate wind fields for the North Sea Ecofys validation shows that the KNMI North Sea Windatlas has high correlation with measured wind speeds and energy generation KNMI have requested funding for: Model updates Site modelling to carry out MCP-extrapolation using site measurements Help desk function Commercial parties have indicated that there is added value to make available public mesoscale data from a reliable source MCP services could be offered as commercial services by tender or contract Ecofys Borssele Wind Resource Assessment 8

9 Recent developments in measuring campaigns Measurement set Type Remarks IJmuiden Ver Fixed Mast IJmuiden Ver Met Mast will be discontinued. OWEZ LE Goeree Europlatform Borssele 1 Borssele 2 Ijmuiden Ver Fixed Mast Essential Met Station Fixed Lidar installation Essential Met Station Fixed Lidar negotiated Floating Lidar Floating Lidar Floating Lidar No plans to reestablish OWEZ measurements because measurements are too disturbed by upstream measurements. Since October 2014, ECN operates a fixed Lidar. Due to data storage problems 5 months (10-4 to 28-9) are missing. It is being investigated whether the data can be recovered. It is intended to install a second fixed Lidar in the near future. ECN has continued to develop plans to deploy a fixed Lidar at EPF. With RWS an agreement has been reached for operations and transport. Since June 2015 a floating Lidar has been deployed and measurements have been provided to RvO. ECN has been assigned for data management and quality control Except for June 2015, no data has been released yet. A second floating Lidar has been deployed near the Belgian border, in order to monitor the influence of Belgian wind farms on the Borssele site. As part of the FLOW program a floating Lidar was deployed during part of IJmuiden Ver measurements have been used to validate the instrument 9

10 Summary of OWA roadmap Source: Carbon Trust Offshore Wind Accelerator 10

11 Overview of scenarios 5 Floating Lidar (12m) 1 Meso data 2 Meteo data 3 Offshore masts 4 Fixed Lidar (12 m) 6a Fixed Mast (6m) 6b Fixed Mast (12 m) 7 Improved mesoscale For Hollandse Kust Zuid the following data are assumed to be available in the base case: State of the Art mesoscale wind resource data Climatological data from KNMI essential meteo stations (LE Goeree, Europlatform) Wind speed data sets from fixed meteo masts (IJmuiden Ver, OWEZ) Fixed Lidar wind speed data from fixed Lidar measurements on LE Goeree, potentially complemented with measurements from EPF Additional measurement scenarios have been assessed: Floating Lidar measurement at HKZ Fixed Mast measurement at HKZ (6 months and 12 months) Improved mesoscale modelling 11

12 Possible scenarios Hollandse Kust Zuid 1 Hollandse Kust Zuid 2 Base line (1-4) Existing met data (LEG, EPF,OWEZ, IJmuiden) Mesoscale models Fixed Lidar LEG, EPF (1 year) 5 Floating Lidar on location 1 year 1 year 6a, 6b Fixed mast on location 6 months 1 year 7 Improved mesoscale modeling Met data and/or mesoscale models alone are not bankable (too high uncertainty) Combination of all available data (met data, mesoscale models, offshore met masts) is bankable and defined as reference Fixed Lidar measurements by ECN at LE Goeree included in baseline All scenarios are used with wind mapping using available models and historical data IJmuiden Ver measurements have been continued in 2015 All benefits and costs are relative to baseline 12

13 Probability of Occurrence Uncertainty and Finance Energy yield uncertainty is a driver for financing costs P90 is regarded as a good measure for certain revenue stream Banks require DSCR of 1.3 at P90, free cash flow = 1.3 x debt service Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC): WACC = Y * RoE + (1-Y) * interest Lower uncertainty Lower WACC 0.5 Overall Project Uncertainty 90% probability of exceeding Expected Value (P50) 50% probability of exceeding Long-Term Average Energy Production Cost of Energy - relative to baseline (ct/kwh) See also: Assessment Wind Measurement Program North Sea - DNV GL P90/P50 13

14 Hollandse Kust Zuid Baseline Floating Lidar (12 months) Met mast (6 months) Met mast (12 months) P90/P % 87.7% 88,9% 89,0% Cost of Energy (ct/kwh) *) Additional revenues Cost (MEUR) Financial benefit over 15 years compared to baseline (MEUR) Hollandse Kust Zuid mainly benefits from installation of fixed Lidar (already in the basecase) There is no apparent additional value of the installation of a floating Lidar on site compared to the baseline. Hollandse Kust Zuid could benefit from a fixed Met Mast in case an optimistic planning for deployment is used, but this option is highly theoretical because the risks of delay are very large, which would quickly take away the benefits *) cost of energy only includes investment in wind farms. Cost for grid are excluded from calculations. (Source: ECN) 14

15 Sensitivity analysis and discussion The cost benefit analysis presented in the previous slide is based on the assumptions that financiers are willing to give higher debt/equity ratios if wind resource data become more accurate. In the base case already a high P90/P50 ratio has been obtained. Although it has been shown that there are financial benefits to install a fixed met mast, this depends significantly on the assumptions. Assuming that a fixed met mast could be built in 18 months (including tendering, design, manufacturing, permitting and deployment), it is unlikely that more than 6 months of data could be collected. According to DNV GL this does not justify the time and financial investment in relation to the real risks of delays, which would make the benefits disappear. Fixed Lidar at EPF has been discussed for a long time. This is considered a cost effective option, that would serve to give insight into the horizontal gradient of the wind speed, while at the same time offering some redundancy to other measurement equipment At present floating Lidars are still in pre-commercial stage, but in rapid pace experience is gained with using Floating Lidars. Potential bidders have indicated that a floating Lidar at site gives additional comfort, because no vertical or horizontal extrapolation would be required. This could come at an acceptable cost. Mesoscale wind maps have rapidly developed over the latest years and have become an important tool to make Energy Production Assessments. The KNMI North Sea Wind Atlas has proven to correlate well with wind measurements; improvements in Energy Production Assessments are still possible. DNV GL would advise to make available wind fields in the public domain. Energy Production Assessments could be left to commercial companies, that have plenty of experience with this. 15

16 Conclusions and recommendations HKZ 1 HKZ 2 Baseline Existing met data (LEG, EPF,OWEZ, IJmuiden) Mesoscale models (MERRA, ERA, Harmonie) Fixed Lidar LEG, EPF Floating Lidar on location 0/+ 0/+ 6a, 6b Fixed mast on location Improved mesoscale modelling + + Recommendations Install EPF fixed Lidar for at least one year (spatial information of the land/sea transition zone, and redundancy for other measurement systems) Consider to install a floating Lidar at Zuid-Hollandse Kust in order to provide extra comfort to bidders at relatively low cost. Do not build a fixed met mast, because design, permitting and deployment risks are considered too high Consider to fund further development of KNMI North Sea Wind Atlas, but leave detailed Energy Production Assessments and wind correlations to commercial companies. 16

17 Copyright DNV GL All rights reserved. Unless otherwise agreed in writing: (i) This publication or parts thereof may not be copied, reproduced or transmitted in any form, or by any means, whether digitally or otherwise; (ii) The content of this publication shall be kept confidential by the customer; (iii) No third party may rely on its contents; and (iv) DNV GL undertakes no duty of care toward any third party. Reference to part of this publication which may lead to misinterpretation is prohibited. DNV GL and the Horizon Graphic are trademarks of DNV GL AS. DNV GL Distribution: Unrestricted distribution (internal and external) Unrestricted distribution within DNV GL Group Unrestricted distribution within DNV GL contracting party No distribution (confidential) Rev. No. Date Reason for Issue Prepared by Verified by Approved by First issue Hans Cleijne Detlef Stein Jillis Raadschelders Public version Hans Cleijne Patrick Schwenk Jillis Raadschelders 17

18 Hans Cleijne SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER 18

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