International Journal of Management & Information Systems First Quarter 2012 Volume 16, Number 1

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "International Journal of Management & Information Systems First Quarter 2012 Volume 16, Number 1"

Transcription

1 International Journal of Manageent & Inforation Systes First Quarter 2012 Volue 16, Nuber 1 Proposal And Effectiveness Of A Highly Copelling Direct Mail Method - Establishent And Deployent Of PMOS-DM Hisatoshi Ishiguro, Aoyaa Gakuin University, Japan Kakuro Aasaka, Aoyaa Gakuin University, Japan ABSTRACT No clear processes are used at car dealers when deciding target custoers for direct ail capaigns, and individual sales representatives rely on their experience when aking such decisions. This eans that dealer strategies lose their effectiveness and dealers fail to achieve the desired increase in custoer visits. Thus, for this study, the author has established the Practical Method using Optiization and Statistics for Direct Mail (PMOS-DM) as a ethod of deciding the ost suitable target custoers for direct ail capaigns. Specifically, in order to both clarify the dealer s target custoer types and increase the nuber of custoer visits, the author applied atheatical prograing (cobinatorial optiization) using statistical science to establish a odel for deterining the ost suitable target custoers for direct ail capaigns. This odel has subsequently been applied at copany M dealers, deonstrating significant effectiveness in increasing custoer visits. Keywords: Marketing; Direct Mail; Nueric Siulation; PMOS-DM INTRODUCTION C hanges in the recent arketing environent have ade the personal relationship between businesses and their custoers even ore critical. Businesses are faced with the task of constructing sales schees that are able to flexibly and accurately grasp peculiarities and trends in custoer preferences. This study looks at the effectiveness of the direct ail advertising ethod in bringing custoers to auto dealers, based on the idea that foring personal bonds with custoers is a core coponent of successful sales. One of the unique features of direct ail is the advertiser s ability to select which custoers will receive the ailings. This point is the focus of this study, which attepts to identify an optiu decision-aking process for selecting target custoers. The way that dealers currently select which custoers will receive direct ail is by having individual salespeople choose the on the basis of personal experience and knowledge. Because there is no clear decisionaking process, the response rate is lower than expected and dealers do not achieve the targets set forth in their sales strategies. To address these issues, this study presents a ethodology for selecting direct ail recipients fro the dealer pool that will result in increased response (dealer visit) rates. The proposed echanis for selecting these optiu recipients is the PMOS-DM odel. This odel uses atheatical prograing and statistics to aid the decision-aking process and boost the effectiveness of direct ail advertising The Clute Institute 1

2 International Journal of Manageent & Inforation Systes First Quarter 2012 Volue 16, Nuber 1 IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC ADVERTISING Though Japanese copanies are estiated to have spent a total of around six billion yen in advertising over the past four years, the results have not been significant. Businesses need arketing activities that can axiize the effects of their liited advertising budgets. The fact that the auto industry tops the list in ters of oney spent on advertising highlights the critical role that prootional efforts play at these copanies. Activities that involve sales divisions searching in isolation for short-ter strategies no longer work in today s arket. The 4P strategy (Product, Price, Place - distribution channel- and Prootion) is a typical exaple. Instead, copanies ust work with divisions both inside and outside their organizations to develop a strategic approach to arketing activities that gives the central and far-reaching role in their business operations. The key to today s arketing activities is aking full use of custoer data in a way that goes beyond traditional custoer surveys. In an age when our lives are saturated with physical obects, consuer studies ay be the the only way to identify custoers internal wants and needs. Modern advances in inforation technology and the ability to utilize POS data and other electronic transactions data enables businesses to conduct up-to-date analyses of vast aounts of custoer purchase histories using data ining tools and other techniques. It is now possible to analyze the changing and evolving behavior of custoers and gain an even greater understanding of their preferences. Accordingly, arketing tools are also undergoing significant and far-reaching changes. Market segentation based on siple, observable custoer characteristics like age, gender, business size, and business category being replaced with latent clustering or latent class analysis segentation ethods that look at the underlying desires and preferences of custoers. DIRECT MAIL Because this study targets direct ail advertising, the following provides soe background inforation on the role of direct ail in advertising and how this ethod is currently being put into practice. Role in Advertising When looking at advertising effectiveness, there are any odels available that track the stages of psychological change in custoers as they ove fro the point the first encounter an advertiseent to the point where they actually purchase the product. Today s advertising inforation processing odels are largely based the AIDA odel, first proposed by Elias St. Elo Louis in The AIDA odel breaks down the psychology of custoer purchasing behavior into four steps fro which the acrony is derived: Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. Television coercials and other advertising and prootion activities seek to target custoer attention, which is the first stage in the AIDA theory. Newspaper inserts attept to ove custoers into the psychological stages of interest and desire. In other words, advertising edia that dealers use to increase the nuber of custoers visiting the shop (such as newspaper inserts or direct ail), are extreely iportant. Furtherore, dealers that are firly established in the counity play a critical role in foring personal relationships with custoers. Direct ail in particular is a eans of pinpointing specific consuers that the dealer wishes to provide with inforation. Because it works in a direct anner, it is considered an iportant advertising ethod for increasing the nuber of custoers who coe into the shop. In other words, direct ail is an effective eans of developing personal relationships between the dealer and its custoers The Clute Institute

3 International Journal of Manageent & Inforation Systes First Quarter 2012 Volue 16, Nuber 1 Current Process This section describes the way that direct ail activities are actually carried out. First, dealer headquarters puts together an event and creates the associated direct ail aterials. The individual dealer shops then deterine how any of the ailings to send out. Then, dealer salespeople then use this nuber to decide who aong their custoers will receive the ailings. At this point, each eber of the sales staff akes an individual decision about who to target. The selection process is vague and inexplicit. Take for exaple the process when a vehicle odel is copletely redesigned and the new cars first go on sale. Dealers decide to send out direct ailings announcing the new vehicle, hoping to target custoers who will be receptive to the design concept. However, the salespeople often fail to consider this strategy, with veteran staff ebers sending inforation only to their best custoers and new staff ebers sending it to whoever they happen to have access to. Several probles arise fro this process. First, the direct ailings result in an extreely low response rate. Second, dealer salespeople are not choosing the sae custoers that the dealer wishes to target. And third, because the process is not well defined, the quality of work perfored by different sales personnel is highly inconsistent. Because of these factors, dealers are currently failing to ake their direct ail activities effective. Related Works A search of previous research on direct ail both in Japan and overseas found no enough exaples of studies that focused on strategies for selecting target custoers. Instead, direct ail research tended to focus on optiizing ailing frequency, the reasons custoers chose to visit dealers upon receiving direct ail, which custoers were ost likely to visit the dealer after receiving direct ail, and the design features of the actual direct ail aterials. THE PMOS-DM MODEL Because dealers are currently not aking effective use of direct ail, this paper presents the PMOS-DM odel to boost the ability of direct ail activities to bring in custoers. Research Ais The new odel uses a three-pronged approach to resolving dealers current probles with direct ail activities. The first goal is to increase the response rate, or the percentage of custoers who visit the dealer as a result of receiving direct ail. To achieve this, the PMOS-DM odel uses statistical analysis to deterine which custoers are ost likely to respond. The second is to reflect dealer ais in the recipient selection process. This is achieved by using a siulation driven by atheatical prograing to optiize the selection of target custoers. Finally, the third goal is to clarify the recipient selection process by providing dealers with a odel that outlines a specific approach. Following an explicit odel infored by statistics and atheatical prograing keeps inconsistency aong salespeople to a iniu. The three-pronged approach proposed in this study therefore provides a direct ail ethod that allows dealers to both target their desired custoer segent and boost response rates at the sae tie. The odel proposed here is the PMOS-DM (Practical Method using Optiization and Statistics for Direct Mail). In short, it uses statistics and atheatically prograing for an obective decision-aking process that does not rely on the current selection ethods used by salespeople, which are based on personal knowledge and experience and therefore vague and inexplicit. At the sae tie, the odel ais to boost the direct ail response rate in line with dealer targets The Clute Institute 3

4 International Journal of Manageent & Inforation Systes First Quarter 2012 Volue 16, Nuber 1 The PMOS-DM Method Figure 1 shows the PMOS-DM direct ail ethod, which is designed to effectively bring custoers into the dealer. The odel works according to the following ethod. Step 1 of the process organizes custoer inforation for analysis. Step 2 identifies the custoer segents that are ost likely to be influenced to visit the dealer as a result of direct ail. Step 3 then runs a nuerical siulation to select direct ail recipients. Finally, Step 4 evaluates the ix of target custoers identified in Step 3. OPTIMAL SELECTION USING A MODEL FORMULA In its nuerical siulation, the PMOS-DM odel uses a atheatical forula to select target custoers for direct ail. In coing up with a forula to deterine who should be targeted by direct ail, the authors referred to the forulas shown in (1) and (2) below, which were developed by Koia et al. MIN M W 2 ( f x CR ) (1) J subect to L C f x H C (2) Custoer attributes (e.g. sex, age, age of current vehicle) Custoer nuber W Weighting for custoers with custoer attributes in direct ail target group f Indicates whether or not custoer has attribute (0 or 1) x Marks custoer for direct ailing (0 or 1) R Ideal percentage with custoer attributes in direct ail target group C Total nuber of direct ailing sent L Lower liit for the percentage of direct ailings sent to custoers with attribute H Upper liit for the percentage of direct ailings sent to custoers with attribute Figure: 1 Highly Copelling Direct Mail Method PMOS-DM The Clute Institute

5 International Journal of Manageent & Inforation Systes First Quarter 2012 Volue 16, Nuber 1 The target function of forula (1) is to iniize the gap between the ideal nuber of direct ailings sent to custoers with attribute (CR ) and the nuber actually sent to custoers with that attribute (Σf x ). In other words, the forula expresses the concept of setting a target value when sending out direct ail. Accordingly, the forula can be adapted to cases where a clear, rational target value can be set. However, the forula cannot be used when it is difficult to set a logical target value for the nuber of direct ailings to be sent and a dozen or so of the dealers that the authors studied did not set one. For those dealers, the authors set up a forula that would clarify the process that senior sales staff used to deterine who should be targeted by a given direct ail capaign. In the process of conducting interviews, the authors learned that senior sales staff uses an abstract ethod of targeting those custoers who see like they would have an easy tie coing into the dealer. The authors then constructed a akeshift definition of this group of custoers as follows. Each group of custoers defined by a given attribute (ale, feale, 20s, 30s, etc.) has different preferences that would otivate the to coe into the dealer. Each custoer s willingness to coe in can be assigned a cuulative value based on that person s attributes. Those with a high cuulative value can be considered the ones who are likely to coe into the shop. With this line of thinking, the authors developed a forula for calculating the total willingness for custoers targeted by direct ail. They then constructed a odel for optiizing those values. Finally, the authors cae up with a set of constraints in order to put liits on the nuber of ailings dealers would send, with the ai of axiizing the effectiveness of those that were sent. Model Forula This is the odel forula used in the nuerical siulation. MAX ( E ( f x )) (3) subect to x C (4) L C f x H C (5) Custoer attributes (e.g. sex, age, age of current vehicle) Custoer nuber E Effect of custoer attribute () on the likelihood that the custoer will visit the dealer f Indicates whether or not custoer has attribute (0 or 1) x Marks custoer for direct ailing (0 or 1) C Total nuber of direct ailing sent L Lower liit for the percentage of direct ailings sent to custoers with attribute H Upper liit for the percentage of direct ailings sent to custoers with attribute This atheatical forula is designed to deterine a value for the variable x. If the value is 1, ailings should be sent to the custoer nuber indicated by. If it is 0, a direct ailing should not be sent. The other variables are paraeters that ust be given values before solving the forula. C, L, and H are set at the discretion of whoever is sending out the direct ail. The value f is deterined based on the custoer inforation that the dealer has. E is deterined later via statistical analysis The Clute Institute 5

6 International Journal of Manageent & Inforation Systes First Quarter 2012 Volue 16, Nuber 1 The roles of the individual forulas are as follows. The obective function in forula (3) is used to axiize the custoer response rate (the percentage of custoers that coe to the dealer as a result of the direct ail). The constraint in forula (4) deterines the nuber of direct ailings that are to be sent out. The constraint in forula (5) deterines how any direct ailings are to be sent to each custoer segent, which is how dealer ais are incorporated into the odel. The atheatical forula is designed so that the nuber of custoer attributes it handles () can be increased at will. Depending on what custoer inforation dealers have, they can liit these attributes to basic life stages or expand the to include hobbies, preferences, and other lifestyle characteristics. Recipient Selection Process This section describes the procedure for using the atheatical forula provided to select direct ail recipients. First, a response likelihood value ust be set for each custoer using the variable E. The list of custoers is then reordered with those with the highest likelihood of responding at the top. The purpose of the obective function in forula (3) is to order custoers according to their likelihood of responding (visiting the dealer as a result of direct ail). Next, this list is used to select the nuber of custoers equal to the nuber of direct ailings (the constraint) to be sent out, starting with those ost likely to respond. For exaple, if 50 direct ailings are to be sent, they would be sent to the top 50 custoers ost likely to respond to the. This is the basic principle behind the developent of the forulas. In addition, when the dealer has a specific ai in ind (e.g. sending a large nuber of direct ailings to woen), the constraint function in forula (5) can be used to incorporate that ai in the calculations. For exaple, if the dealer wanted at least 60% of the 50 ailings to go to woen, the woen custoers would be listed in order of response likelihood and the top 30 custoers would be selected to receive direct ail. The reaining 20 recipients would be selected fro the entire pool of target custoers in order of their response likelihood as well. The purpose of this function is to allow dealers to use their arketing strategies to boost response rate. PUTTING PMOS-DM TO WORK The researchers teaed up with Copany M to use the PMOS-DM to guide direct ailing efforts in conunction with an event showcasing ultiple new vehicle odels. The following sections show how the odel was applied. Organizing Custoer Inforation (Step #1) Since this study requires custoer inforation to select direct ail recipients, raw custoer data used by Copany M dealers was collected. Participating dealers had inforation on a total of 391 custoers, which included data on sex (ale/feale), age (20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60+), and age of current vehicle (3-5 years, 6-8 years, 9+ years). Therefore, there were a total of 391 values assigned to in the forula, and a total of 10 different values assigned to. A binary code (0 or 1) was then assigned to the collected custoer inforation in order to analyze it. This resulted in values for the f variable. Recipients of direct ailing could now be deterined based on the dealers custoer inforation. Deterining Response Likelihood (Step #2) The next step was to conduct a survey and analyze the data to deterine which custoer attributes were ost likely to lead custoers to visit a dealer as a result of receiving direct ail. The survey ethod used in this study was to ask custoers of varying attributes (sex, age, vehicle age, etc.) whether receiving direct ail had ever caused the to visit the dealer. Once the results were collected, they were quantified and subected to a Type II analysis deterine which custoers had the highest likelihood of responding to direct ail. This ade it possible to analyze custoer attributes in ters of whether or not they were likely to lead to a dealer visit in ters of an external standard. These response likelihood values were then assigned the variable E The Clute Institute

7 International Journal of Manageent & Inforation Systes First Quarter 2012 Volue 16, Nuber 1 The forula below shows the results of this analysis. The discriinant ratio for the analysis results was 77.36%, indicating that they were fairly reliable. The linear discriinant forula produced fro the analysis results is below. y 0x 0x 0x x 0.9x 1.3x x 0.9x x x 25 (6) If the linear discriinant is greater than 0, the custoer is likely to visit the dealer as a result of receiving direct ail. If it is less than zero, it indicates that they are not likely to visit. Therefore, the coefficient produced by this forula indicates the response likelihood for the custoer attribute as expressed by E. The results of this analysis, which allowed us to identify which custoers were likely to visit the dealer, are suarized in Table 1. Table 1: Response Likelihood by Attribute Custoer attribute Response likelihood Men 0 Woen years old years old years old years old years old 1.7 Currently driving a vehicle 3 5 years old 0 Currently driving a vehicle 6 8 years old -1.3 Currently driving a vehicle 9+ years old -0.9 Selecting DM Recipients (Step #3) In the next step, direct ail recipients are selected based on a nuerical siulation. This section describes the siulation procedure. First, the custoer inforation collected in Step 1 is plugged into f, and the inforation on response likelihood for each custoer attribute is plugged into E. The nuber of direct ailings to be sent is plugged into C. The upper and lower liits for the percentage of direct ailings to go to custoers with each attribute is set at the dealer s discretion using the variables H and L. Once all the paraeters are set, the siulation is carried out. The forula given in chapter 5 is solved, and the optiu custoers to receive direct ailings are selected. During this process, forulas (3) through (5) are solved as a weighted constraint satisfaction proble. In the weighted constraint satisfaction proble, the weighted constraints are oved to the target function as in (7), where they are added as a way of iniizing the level of deviation outside of the given liits. Even if a feasible solution that satisfies the constraints does not exist, the forula allows dealers to coe as close as possible to eeting the constraints. Here, in constraining the nuber of ailings sent to custoers with the attributes defined in forula (5), it is difficult to set custoer attributes L and H, ensuring that a feasible solution is ore likely to exist. Therefore, when approaching the issue as weighted constraint satisfaction proble, it is best to find a solution that best satisfies forula (5). In other words, this allows dealers to send direct ail to those custoers ost likely to coe into the shop based on dealer strategy The Clute Institute 7

8 International Journal of Manageent & Inforation Systes First Quarter 2012 Volue 16, Nuber 1 MIN ( E W W ( H ( f x ( L C f C f Evaluating the Results (Step #4) )) x x ) ) Once the recipients of direct ailings are selected based on the siulation, whoever is sending out the direct ail checks the siulation results to ake sure that they accurately reflect the dealer s arketing strategy. If the desired results are not achieved, the causes for the discrepancy are identified, the paraeters are adusted, and the siulation is run again. EFFECTIVENESS OF PMOS-DM The effectiveness of the PMOS-DM odel was assessed by coparing the response rates (percentage of direct ail recipients who visited the dealer as a result) when salespeople selected direct ail recipients based on personal knowledge and experience and when recipients were selected using the odel. Five new odels were showcased at the event held by Copany M. Four of the design concepts targeted feale buyers, and one targeted ale buyers. As a result, the dealer s arketing strategy was to target woen in particular throughout a wide range of age groups. This strategy was thus taken into account when verifying the effectiveness of the odel. These verification results are suarized in Table 2. The response rate when direct ail recipients were selected on the basis of personal knowledge and experience of the sales staff was 19%. When selection was ade using the PMOS-DM odel, the rate was 20.4%. (7) Table 2: Verification Results (All) Dealer PMOS-DM Nuber of direct ailings sent Nuber of resulting dealer visitors Response rate 19.0% 20.4% Table 3 shows the sae inforation for feale custoers only (those targeted in the dealer s arketing strategy). Salespeople generated a 4.2% response rate using their personal knowledge and experience, while the odel generated a 19.8% response rate, signaling a significant iproveent. The effectiveness of the odel was thereby verified in the course of this study. Table 3: Verification Results (Woen) Dealer PMOS-DM Nuber of direct ailings sent Nuber of resulting dealer visitors 2 12 Response rate 4.2% 19.8% The Clute Institute

9 International Journal of Manageent & Inforation Systes First Quarter 2012 Volue 16, Nuber 1 CONCLUSION The present study sought to resolve probles with the effectiveness of direct ailing activities at dealers. Its purpose was to iprove the direct ail response rate by accurately reflecting dealer arketing strategy in the recipient selection process. The PMOS-DM odel was developed in order to select optiu direct ailing recipients and thus achieve these ais. Its effectiveness was then verified through application at actual dealers where an increase in response rate was deonstrated. It is hoped that custoer attributes will be studied in ore detail in the future and will no longer be liited to the three presented here (i.e., sex, age, and age of current vehicle). This added custoer inforation will result in a ore precise siulation outcoe. AUTHOR INFORMATION Hisatoshi Ishiguro is a graduate student of the College of Science and Engineering at Aoyaa Gakuin University. E-ail: Dr. Kakuro Aasaka is a Professor in the College of Science and Engineering at Aoyaa Gakuin University, Japan. He received his Ph.D. degree in Precision Mechanical and Syste Engineering, Statistics and Quality Control at Hiroshia University in Since oining Toyota Motor Corporation in 1968, He worked as a quality control consultant for any divisions, and the General Manager of the TQM Prootion Division ( ). His specialty is New JIT, Science TQM, Science SQC, Nuerical Siulation (CAE) and Custoer Science. Now, He has been serving as the vice chairan of JSPM ( ) and JOMSA (2008-), the director of JSQC ( ). E-ail: Corresponding author REFERENCES 1. Dentsu, Japanese total advertiseent rates, (in Japanese) 2. Toyo Keizai Inc., Advertiseent rates top 100, (in Japanese) 3. K. Aasaka, The validity of advanced TMS, A strategic developent arketing syste-toyota s scientific custoer creative odel utilizing New JIT-, The International Business & Econoics Research Journal, Vol. 6, No. 8, 2007, pp K. Aasaka, Science SQC. New quality control principle, Springer, K. Shiizu, Theory and strategy of advertiseent, Souse publishers, (in Japanese) 6. M. Shibasaki, Y. Moriune, Attribution analysis in effect of TV coercial to use AIDA theory, Aasaka-laboratory Study Group, (in Japanese) 7. T. Shiode, M. Kawaura, Attribution analysis in effect of TV coercial to use AIDA theory (part2), Aasaka-laboratory Study Group, (in Japanese) 8. Y. Jinno, M. Tabei, Attribution analysis on flyer advertiseent for increasing the effects of drawing custoers, Aasaka-laboratory Study Group, (in Japanese) 9. J. J. Jonker, N. Piersa, R. Potharst, A decision support syste for direct ailing decision, Decision Support Systes, Vol. 42, 2006, pp Y. Asahi, K. Jitaa, Y. Sugihara, T, Naatae, T. Yaaguchi, Identifying latent factors driving departent store purchases: A direct ail strategy, Operations research as a anageent science research, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2004, pp (in Japanese) 11. J. R. Bult, T. Wansbeek, Optial selection for direct ail, Marketing Science, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2005 pp T. Kiura, M. Yaai, K. Aasaka, A study of Scientific Approach Method for Direct Mail, SAM-DM effectiveness of attracting custoer utilizing Advanced TMS, Proceedings of the 5 th Asian Quality Congress, Incheon, Korea, 2007, pp T. Koia, T. Kiura, M. Yaai, K. Aasaka, Proposal and developent of the direct ail ethod PMOS-DM for effectively attracting custoers, International Journal of Manageent and Inforation Systes, Vol. 14, No. 5, 2010, pp The Clute Institute 9

10 International Journal of Manageent & Inforation Systes First Quarter 2012 Volue 16, Nuber 1 NOTES The Clute Institute

Journal of Business & Economics Research August 2012 Volume 10, Number 8

Journal of Business & Economics Research August 2012 Volume 10, Number 8 Establishment Of A Strategic Total Direct Mail Model To Bring Customers Into Auto Dealerships Hisatoshi Ishiguro, Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan Kakuro Amasaka, Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan ABSTRACT

More information

PERFORMANCE METRICS FOR THE IT SERVICES PORTFOLIO

PERFORMANCE METRICS FOR THE IT SERVICES PORTFOLIO Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov Series I: Engineering Sciences Vol. 4 (53) No. - 0 PERFORMANCE METRICS FOR THE IT SERVICES PORTFOLIO V. CAZACU I. SZÉKELY F. SANDU 3 T. BĂLAN Abstract:

More information

Evaluating Inventory Management Performance: a Preliminary Desk-Simulation Study Based on IOC Model

Evaluating Inventory Management Performance: a Preliminary Desk-Simulation Study Based on IOC Model Evaluating Inventory Manageent Perforance: a Preliinary Desk-Siulation Study Based on IOC Model Flora Bernardel, Roberto Panizzolo, and Davide Martinazzo Abstract The focus of this study is on preliinary

More information

Fuzzy Sets in HR Management

Fuzzy Sets in HR Management Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 8, No. 3, 2011 Fuzzy Sets in HR Manageent Blanka Zeková AXIOM SW, s.r.o., 760 01 Zlín, Czech Republic blanka.zekova@sezna.cz Jana Talašová Faculty of Science, Palacký Univerzity,

More information

Use of extrapolation to forecast the working capital in the mechanical engineering companies

Use of extrapolation to forecast the working capital in the mechanical engineering companies ECONTECHMOD. AN INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY JOURNAL 2014. Vol. 1. No. 1. 23 28 Use of extrapolation to forecast the working capital in the echanical engineering copanies A. Cherep, Y. Shvets Departent of finance

More information

CRM FACTORS ASSESSMENT USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

CRM FACTORS ASSESSMENT USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS 641 CRM FACTORS ASSESSMENT USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS Marketa Zajarosova 1* *Ph.D. VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, THE CZECH REPUBLIC arketa.zajarosova@vsb.cz Abstract Custoer relationship

More information

SOME APPLICATIONS OF FORECASTING Prof. Thomas B. Fomby Department of Economics Southern Methodist University May 2008

SOME APPLICATIONS OF FORECASTING Prof. Thomas B. Fomby Department of Economics Southern Methodist University May 2008 SOME APPLCATONS OF FORECASTNG Prof. Thoas B. Foby Departent of Econoics Southern Methodist University May 8 To deonstrate the usefulness of forecasting ethods this note discusses four applications of forecasting

More information

Motoi Ogura, Takayuki Hachiya, Kakuro Amasaka. Aoyama Gakuin University, Kanagawa-ken, Japan

Motoi Ogura, Takayuki Hachiya, Kakuro Amasaka. Aoyama Gakuin University, Kanagawa-ken, Japan Chinese Business Review, ISSN 1537-1506 March 2013, Vol. 12, No. 3, 195-203 D DAVID PUBLISHING A Comprehensive Mixed Media Model for Boosting Automobile Dealer Visits Motoi Ogura, Takayuki Hachiya, Kakuro

More information

The AGA Evaluating Model of Customer Loyalty Based on E-commerce Environment

The AGA Evaluating Model of Customer Loyalty Based on E-commerce Environment 6 JOURNAL OF SOFTWARE, VOL. 4, NO. 3, MAY 009 The AGA Evaluating Model of Custoer Loyalty Based on E-coerce Environent Shaoei Yang Econoics and Manageent Departent, North China Electric Power University,

More information

This paper studies a rental firm that offers reusable products to price- and quality-of-service sensitive

This paper studies a rental firm that offers reusable products to price- and quality-of-service sensitive MANUFACTURING & SERVICE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Vol., No. 3, Suer 28, pp. 429 447 issn 523-464 eissn 526-5498 8 3 429 infors doi.287/so.7.8 28 INFORMS INFORMS holds copyright to this article and distributed

More information

Example: Suppose that we deposit $1000 in a bank account offering 3% interest, compounded monthly. How will our money grow?

Example: Suppose that we deposit $1000 in a bank account offering 3% interest, compounded monthly. How will our money grow? Finance 111 Finance We have to work with oney every day. While balancing your checkbook or calculating your onthly expenditures on espresso requires only arithetic, when we start saving, planning for retireent,

More information

Method of supply chain optimization in E-commerce

Method of supply chain optimization in E-commerce MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive Method of supply chain optiization in E-coerce Petr Suchánek and Robert Bucki Silesian University - School of Business Adinistration, The College of Inforatics and Manageent

More information

A Study on the Chain Restaurants Dynamic Negotiation Games of the Optimization of Joint Procurement of Food Materials

A Study on the Chain Restaurants Dynamic Negotiation Games of the Optimization of Joint Procurement of Food Materials International Journal of Coputer Science & Inforation Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 6, No 1, February 2014 A Study on the Chain estaurants Dynaic Negotiation aes of the Optiization of Joint Procureent of Food

More information

Analysis of the purchase option of computers

Analysis of the purchase option of computers Analysis of the of coputers N. Ahituv and I. Borovits Faculty of Manageent, The Leon Recanati Graduate School of Business Adinistration, Tel-Aviv University, University Capus, Raat-Aviv, Tel-Aviv, Israel

More information

CLOSED-LOOP SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK OPTIMIZATION FOR HONG KONG CARTRIDGE RECYCLING INDUSTRY

CLOSED-LOOP SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK OPTIMIZATION FOR HONG KONG CARTRIDGE RECYCLING INDUSTRY CLOSED-LOOP SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK OPTIMIZATION FOR HONG KONG CARTRIDGE RECYCLING INDUSTRY Y. T. Chen Departent of Industrial and Systes Engineering Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong yongtong.chen@connect.polyu.hk

More information

Applying Multiple Neural Networks on Large Scale Data

Applying Multiple Neural Networks on Large Scale Data 0 International Conference on Inforation and Electronics Engineering IPCSIT vol6 (0) (0) IACSIT Press, Singapore Applying Multiple Neural Networks on Large Scale Data Kritsanatt Boonkiatpong and Sukree

More information

Software Quality Characteristics Tested For Mobile Application Development

Software Quality Characteristics Tested For Mobile Application Development Thesis no: MGSE-2015-02 Software Quality Characteristics Tested For Mobile Application Developent Literature Review and Epirical Survey WALEED ANWAR Faculty of Coputing Blekinge Institute of Technology

More information

Research Article Performance Evaluation of Human Resource Outsourcing in Food Processing Enterprises

Research Article Performance Evaluation of Human Resource Outsourcing in Food Processing Enterprises Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 9(2): 964-969, 205 ISSN: 2042-4868; e-issn: 2042-4876 205 Maxwell Scientific Publication Corp. Subitted: August 0, 205 Accepted: Septeber 3, 205 Published:

More information

Project Evaluation Roadmap. Capital Budgeting Process. Capital Expenditure. Major Cash Flow Components. Cash Flows... COMM2501 Financial Management

Project Evaluation Roadmap. Capital Budgeting Process. Capital Expenditure. Major Cash Flow Components. Cash Flows... COMM2501 Financial Management COMM501 Financial Manageent Project Evaluation 1 (Capital Budgeting) Project Evaluation Roadap COMM501 Financial Manageent Week 7 Week 7 Project dependencies Net present value ethod Relevant cash flows

More information

INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT FOR STORING AND HANDLING INFORMATION IN TASKS OF INDUCTIVE MODELLING FOR BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT FOR STORING AND HANDLING INFORMATION IN TASKS OF INDUCTIVE MODELLING FOR BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS Artificial Intelligence Methods and Techniques for Business and Engineering Applications 210 INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT FOR STORING AND HANDLING INFORMATION IN TASKS OF INDUCTIVE MODELLING FOR BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

More information

ASIC Design Project Management Supported by Multi Agent Simulation

ASIC Design Project Management Supported by Multi Agent Simulation ASIC Design Project Manageent Supported by Multi Agent Siulation Jana Blaschke, Christian Sebeke, Wolfgang Rosenstiel Abstract The coplexity of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) is continuously

More information

Investing in corporate bonds?

Investing in corporate bonds? Investing in corporate bonds? This independent guide fro the Australian Securities and Investents Coission (ASIC) can help you look past the return and assess the risks of corporate bonds. If you re thinking

More information

An Expert Decision Support System for Crisis Management. Boumediene Belkhouche Reda Bakeer Salah Al-Saleh

An Expert Decision Support System for Crisis Management. Boumediene Belkhouche Reda Bakeer Salah Al-Saleh An Expert Decision Support Syste for Crisis Manageent Bouediene Belkhouche Reda Bakeer Salah Al-Saleh EECS Departent Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70118 (504) 862-3372 (phone) (504) 862-3293 (fax)

More information

Investing in corporate bonds?

Investing in corporate bonds? Investing in corporate bonds? This independent guide fro the Australian Securities and Investents Coission (ASIC) can help you look past the return and assess the risks of corporate bonds. If you re thinking

More information

Standards and Protocols for the Collection and Dissemination of Graduating Student Initial Career Outcomes Information For Undergraduates

Standards and Protocols for the Collection and Dissemination of Graduating Student Initial Career Outcomes Information For Undergraduates National Association of Colleges and Eployers Standards and Protocols for the Collection and Disseination of Graduating Student Initial Career Outcoes Inforation For Undergraduates Developed by the NACE

More information

Over the last few years, many organizations

Over the last few years, many organizations Evaluating and Selecting Mining Tools by Mike Ferguson Over the last few years, any organizations have invested oney developing data warehouses and data arts. They have ipleented systeatic schees for extracting

More information

Reliability Constrained Packet-sizing for Linear Multi-hop Wireless Networks

Reliability Constrained Packet-sizing for Linear Multi-hop Wireless Networks Reliability Constrained acket-sizing for inear Multi-hop Wireless Networks Ning Wen, and Randall A. Berry Departent of Electrical Engineering and Coputer Science Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

More information

REQUIREMENTS FOR A COMPUTER SCIENCE CURRICULUM EMPHASIZING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBJECT AREA: CURRICULUM ISSUES

REQUIREMENTS FOR A COMPUTER SCIENCE CURRICULUM EMPHASIZING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBJECT AREA: CURRICULUM ISSUES REQUIREMENTS FOR A COMPUTER SCIENCE CURRICULUM EMPHASIZING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBJECT AREA: CURRICULUM ISSUES Charles Reynolds Christopher Fox reynolds @cs.ju.edu fox@cs.ju.edu Departent of Coputer

More information

An Innovate Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm Based on Task

An Innovate Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm Based on Task An Innovate Dynaic Load Balancing Algorith Based on Task Classification Hong-bin Wang,,a, Zhi-yi Fang, b, Guan-nan Qu,*,c, Xiao-dan Ren,d College of Coputer Science and Technology, Jilin University, Changchun

More information

An Improved Decision-making Model of Human Resource Outsourcing Based on Internet Collaboration

An Improved Decision-making Model of Human Resource Outsourcing Based on Internet Collaboration International Journal of Hybrid Inforation Technology, pp. 339-350 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/hit.2016.9.4.28 An Iproved Decision-aking Model of Huan Resource Outsourcing Based on Internet Collaboration

More information

Cooperative Caching for Adaptive Bit Rate Streaming in Content Delivery Networks

Cooperative Caching for Adaptive Bit Rate Streaming in Content Delivery Networks Cooperative Caching for Adaptive Bit Rate Streaing in Content Delivery Networs Phuong Luu Vo Departent of Coputer Science and Engineering, International University - VNUHCM, Vietna vtlphuong@hciu.edu.vn

More information

These ads downplay the terms and risks of reverse mortgages and confuse senior consumers by making them seem too good to pass up.

These ads downplay the terms and risks of reverse mortgages and confuse senior consumers by making them seem too good to pass up. WISERWoan Fall 2015 A QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER FROM THE WOMEN S INSTITUTE FOR A SECURE RETIREMENT Reverse Mortgages and Reverse Mortgage Scas There s a growing buzz about reverse ortgages infoercials, pop-up

More information

A Case Study of Bee Algorithm for Ready Mixed Concrete Problem W. Wongthatsanekorn, N. Matheekrieangkrai

A Case Study of Bee Algorithm for Ready Mixed Concrete Problem W. Wongthatsanekorn, N. Matheekrieangkrai A Case Study of ee Algorith for Ready Mixed Concrete Proble W. Wongthatsanekorn, N. Matheekrieangkrai Abstract This research proposes ee Algorith (A) to optiize Ready Mixed Concrete (RMC) truck scheduling

More information

An Integrated Approach for Monitoring Service Level Parameters of Software-Defined Networking

An Integrated Approach for Monitoring Service Level Parameters of Software-Defined Networking International Journal of Future Generation Counication and Networking Vol. 8, No. 6 (15), pp. 197-4 http://d.doi.org/1.1457/ijfgcn.15.8.6.19 An Integrated Approach for Monitoring Service Level Paraeters

More information

Roland Berger Strategy Consultants. content. Fresh thinking for decision makers

Roland Berger Strategy Consultants. content. Fresh thinking for decision makers Roland Berger Strategy Consultants content Fresh thinking for decision akers Opportunities for obile telephone operators in rural areas Custoers in the countryside are different They need unique offerings

More information

Searching strategy for multi-target discovery in wireless networks

Searching strategy for multi-target discovery in wireless networks Searching strategy for ulti-target discovery in wireless networks Zhao Cheng, Wendi B. Heinzelan Departent of Electrical and Coputer Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, NY 467 (585) 75-{878,

More information

and virtually all 4-year-olds are now enrolled in education.

and virtually all 4-year-olds are now enrolled in education. MEXICO Attainent rates are steadily increasing Mexico has the highest average annual rate of growth of first-tie upper secondary graduation rates aong OECD countries for which inforation is available.

More information

Optimal Resource-Constraint Project Scheduling with Overlapping Modes

Optimal Resource-Constraint Project Scheduling with Overlapping Modes Optial Resource-Constraint Proect Scheduling with Overlapping Modes François Berthaut Lucas Grèze Robert Pellerin Nathalie Perrier Adnène Hai February 20 CIRRELT-20-09 Bureaux de Montréal : Bureaux de

More information

Extended-Horizon Analysis of Pressure Sensitivities for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks: Application to the Barcelona Network

Extended-Horizon Analysis of Pressure Sensitivities for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks: Application to the Barcelona Network 2013 European Control Conference (ECC) July 17-19, 2013, Zürich, Switzerland. Extended-Horizon Analysis of Pressure Sensitivities for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks: Application to the Barcelona

More information

Markovian inventory policy with application to the paper industry

Markovian inventory policy with application to the paper industry Coputers and Cheical Engineering 26 (2002) 1399 1413 www.elsevier.co/locate/copcheeng Markovian inventory policy with application to the paper industry K. Karen Yin a, *, Hu Liu a,1, Neil E. Johnson b,2

More information

Managing Complex Network Operation with Predictive Analytics

Managing Complex Network Operation with Predictive Analytics Managing Coplex Network Operation with Predictive Analytics Zhenyu Huang, Pak Chung Wong, Patrick Mackey, Yousu Chen, Jian Ma, Kevin Schneider, and Frank L. Greitzer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

More information

AUC Optimization vs. Error Rate Minimization

AUC Optimization vs. Error Rate Minimization AUC Optiization vs. Error Rate Miniization Corinna Cortes and Mehryar Mohri AT&T Labs Research 180 Park Avenue, Florha Park, NJ 0793, USA {corinna, ohri}@research.att.co Abstract The area under an ROC

More information

The Research of Measuring Approach and Energy Efficiency for Hadoop Periodic Jobs

The Research of Measuring Approach and Energy Efficiency for Hadoop Periodic Jobs Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@benthascience.ae 206 The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal, 2015, 8, 206-210 Open Access The Research of Measuring Approach and Energy Efficiency for Hadoop Periodic

More information

New for 2016! Get Licensed

New for 2016! Get Licensed Financial Manageent 2016 HS There s only one place you need to go for all your professional developent needs. The Power to Know. NEW Experience a different school of learning! New for 2016! Online courses

More information

Load balancing over redundant wireless sensor networks based on diffluent

Load balancing over redundant wireless sensor networks based on diffluent Load balancing over redundant wireless sensor networks based on diffluent Abstract Xikui Gao Yan ai Yun Ju School of Control and Coputer Engineering North China Electric ower University 02206 China Received

More information

Mobile Backhaul in Heterogeneous Network Deployments: Technology Options and Power Consumption

Mobile Backhaul in Heterogeneous Network Deployments: Technology Options and Power Consumption Mobile Backhaul in Heterogeneous Network Deployents: Technology Options and Power Consuption Paolo Monti*, Meber, IEEE, Sibel Tobaz, Meber, IEEE, Lena Wosinska, Senior Meber, IEEE, Jens Zander, Meber,

More information

An Approach to Combating Free-riding in Peer-to-Peer Networks

An Approach to Combating Free-riding in Peer-to-Peer Networks An Approach to Cobating Free-riding in Peer-to-Peer Networks Victor Ponce, Jie Wu, and Xiuqi Li Departent of Coputer Science and Engineering Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL 33431 April 7, 2008

More information

AUTOMATIC SATELLITE IMAGE REGISTRATION BY COMBINATION OF STEREO MATCHING AND RANDOM SAMPLE CONSENSUS

AUTOMATIC SATELLITE IMAGE REGISTRATION BY COMBINATION OF STEREO MATCHING AND RANDOM SAMPLE CONSENSUS AUTOATIC SATELLITE IAGE REGISTRATION BY COBINATION OF STEREO ATCHING AND RANDO SAPLE CONSENSUS Taejung Ki* Yong-Jo I** *Satellite Technology Research Center Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

More information

Markov Models and Their Use for Calculations of Important Traffic Parameters of Contact Center

Markov Models and Their Use for Calculations of Important Traffic Parameters of Contact Center Markov Models and Their Use for Calculations of Iportant Traffic Paraeters of Contact Center ERIK CHROMY, JAN DIEZKA, MATEJ KAVACKY Institute of Telecounications Slovak University of Technology Bratislava

More information

SAMPLING METHODS LEARNING OBJECTIVES

SAMPLING METHODS LEARNING OBJECTIVES 6 SAMPLING METHODS 6 Using Statistics 6-6 2 Nonprobability Sapling and Bias 6-6 Stratified Rando Sapling 6-2 6 4 Cluster Sapling 6-4 6 5 Systeatic Sapling 6-9 6 6 Nonresponse 6-2 6 7 Suary and Review of

More information

Dependent Events and Operational Risk

Dependent Events and Operational Risk Dependent Events and Operational Risk Miro R. Powojowski, Diane Reynolds and Hans J.H. Tuenter Most people acknowledge that soe correlation between operational losses exists. Modelling it, however, is

More information

Insurance Spirals and the Lloyd s Market

Insurance Spirals and the Lloyd s Market Insurance Spirals and the Lloyd s Market Andrew Bain University of Glasgow Abstract This paper presents a odel of reinsurance arket spirals, and applies it to the situation that existed in the Lloyd s

More information

Online Bagging and Boosting

Online Bagging and Boosting Abstract Bagging and boosting are two of the ost well-known enseble learning ethods due to their theoretical perforance guarantees and strong experiental results. However, these algoriths have been used

More information

An Indian Journal FULL PAPER. Trade Science Inc. The research on green logistic network planning in manufacturing workshops ABSTRACT KEYWORDS

An Indian Journal FULL PAPER. Trade Science Inc. The research on green logistic network planning in manufacturing workshops ABSTRACT KEYWORDS [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] ISSN : 0974-7435 Volue 10 Issue 17 BioTechnology 2014 An Indian Journal FULL PAPER BTAIJ, 10(17), 2014 [9624-9631] The research on green logistic network planning in

More information

Reconnect 04 Solving Integer Programs with Branch and Bound (and Branch and Cut)

Reconnect 04 Solving Integer Programs with Branch and Bound (and Branch and Cut) Sandia is a ultiprogra laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Copany, Reconnect 04 Solving Integer Progras with Branch and Bound (and Branch and Cut) Cynthia Phillips (Sandia National

More information

Analyzing Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Education Network Traffic with Flexible Multiscale Entropy

Analyzing Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Education Network Traffic with Flexible Multiscale Entropy Vol. 9, No. 5 (2016), pp.303-312 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijgdc.2016.9.5.26 Analyzing Spatioteporal Characteristics of Education Network Traffic with Flexible Multiscale Entropy Chen Yang, Renjie Zhou

More information

Construction Economics & Finance. Module 3 Lecture-1

Construction Economics & Finance. Module 3 Lecture-1 Depreciation:- Construction Econoics & Finance Module 3 Lecture- It represents the reduction in arket value of an asset due to age, wear and tear and obsolescence. The physical deterioration of the asset

More information

Media Adaptation Framework in Biofeedback System for Stroke Patient Rehabilitation

Media Adaptation Framework in Biofeedback System for Stroke Patient Rehabilitation Media Adaptation Fraework in Biofeedback Syste for Stroke Patient Rehabilitation Yinpeng Chen, Weiwei Xu, Hari Sundara, Thanassis Rikakis, Sheng-Min Liu Arts, Media and Engineering Progra Arizona State

More information

Dynamic Placement for Clustered Web Applications

Dynamic Placement for Clustered Web Applications Dynaic laceent for Clustered Web Applications A. Karve, T. Kibrel, G. acifici, M. Spreitzer, M. Steinder, M. Sviridenko, and A. Tantawi IBM T.J. Watson Research Center {karve,kibrel,giovanni,spreitz,steinder,sviri,tantawi}@us.ib.co

More information

Energy Efficient VM Scheduling for Cloud Data Centers: Exact allocation and migration algorithms

Energy Efficient VM Scheduling for Cloud Data Centers: Exact allocation and migration algorithms Energy Efficient VM Scheduling for Cloud Data Centers: Exact allocation and igration algoriths Chaia Ghribi, Makhlouf Hadji and Djaal Zeghlache Institut Mines-Téléco, Téléco SudParis UMR CNRS 5157 9, Rue

More information

Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks with Multiple Relays

Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks with Multiple Relays Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks with Multiple Relays Kağan Bakanoğlu, Stefano Toasin, Elza Erkip Departent of Electrical and Coputer Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY, 0

More information

Exercise 4 INVESTIGATION OF THE ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

Exercise 4 INVESTIGATION OF THE ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM Eercise 4 IVESTIGATIO OF THE OE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 1. Ai of the eercise Identification of paraeters of the euation describing a one-degree-of- freedo (1 DOF) atheatical odel of the real vibrating

More information

ESTIMATING LIQUIDITY PREMIA IN THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT SECURITIES MARKET

ESTIMATING LIQUIDITY PREMIA IN THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT SECURITIES MARKET ESTIMATING LIQUIDITY PREMIA IN THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT SECURITIES MARKET Francisco Alonso, Roberto Blanco, Ana del Río and Alicia Sanchis Banco de España Banco de España Servicio de Estudios Docuento de

More information

Design, optimization and prototyping of small power transformers

Design, optimization and prototyping of small power transformers Doctoral School of Energy- and Geo-technology January 15 20, 2007. Kuressaare, Estonia Design, optiization and prototyping of sall power transforers Avo Reinap, Rando Pikner, Roan Ionikan, Karl Pärn Tallinn

More information

Machine Learning Applications in Grid Computing

Machine Learning Applications in Grid Computing Machine Learning Applications in Grid Coputing George Cybenko, Guofei Jiang and Daniel Bilar Thayer School of Engineering Dartouth College Hanover, NH 03755, USA gvc@dartouth.edu, guofei.jiang@dartouth.edu

More information

ADJUSTING FOR QUALITY CHANGE

ADJUSTING FOR QUALITY CHANGE ADJUSTING FOR QUALITY CHANGE 7 Introduction 7.1 The easureent of changes in the level of consuer prices is coplicated by the appearance and disappearance of new and old goods and services, as well as changes

More information

A Hybrid Grey-Game-MCDM Method for ERP Selecting Based on BSC. M. H. Kamfiroozi, 2 A. BonyadiNaeini

A Hybrid Grey-Game-MCDM Method for ERP Selecting Based on BSC. M. H. Kamfiroozi, 2 A. BonyadiNaeini Int. J. Manag. Bus. Res., 3 (1), 13-20, Winter 2013 IAU A Hybrid Grey-Gae-MCDM Method for ERP Selecting Based on BSC 1 M. H. Kafiroozi, 2 A. BonyadiNaeini 1,2 Departent of Industrial Engineering, Iran

More information

The public private partnership paradox

The public private partnership paradox The public private partnership paradox Stephen Gray * UQ Business School, University of Queensland Jason Hall UQ Business School, University of Queensland Grant Pollard Value Decisions ABSTRACT A public

More information

Modeling Nurse Scheduling Problem Using 0-1 Goal Programming: A Case Study Of Tafo Government Hospital, Kumasi-Ghana

Modeling Nurse Scheduling Problem Using 0-1 Goal Programming: A Case Study Of Tafo Government Hospital, Kumasi-Ghana Modeling Nurse Scheduling Proble Using 0-1 Goal Prograing: A Case Study Of Tafo Governent Hospital, Kuasi-Ghana Wallace Agyei, Willia Obeng-Denteh, Eanuel A. Andaa Abstract: The proble of scheduling nurses

More information

Factor Model. Arbitrage Pricing Theory. Systematic Versus Non-Systematic Risk. Intuitive Argument

Factor Model. Arbitrage Pricing Theory. Systematic Versus Non-Systematic Risk. Intuitive Argument Ross [1],[]) presents the aritrage pricing theory. The idea is that the structure of asset returns leads naturally to a odel of risk preia, for otherwise there would exist an opportunity for aritrage profit.

More information

Products vs. Advertising: Media Competition and the. Relative Source of Firm Profits

Products vs. Advertising: Media Competition and the. Relative Source of Firm Profits Products vs. Advertising: Media Copetition and the Relative Source of Fir Profits David Godes, Elie Ofek and Miklos Sarvary February 2003 The authors would like to thank Dina Mayzlin, and participants

More information

Solution of Saint Venant's Equation to Study Flood in Rivers, through Numerical Methods.

Solution of Saint Venant's Equation to Study Flood in Rivers, through Numerical Methods. Hydrology Days 005 Solution of Saint Venant's Equation to Study Flood in Rivers, through Nuerical Methods. Chagas, Patrícia Departent of Environental and Hydraulics Engineering, Federal University of Ceará

More information

A framework for performance monitoring, load balancing, adaptive timeouts and quality of service in digital libraries

A framework for performance monitoring, load balancing, adaptive timeouts and quality of service in digital libraries Int J Digit Libr (2000) 3: 9 35 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON Digital Libraries Springer-Verlag 2000 A fraework for perforance onitoring, load balancing, adaptive tieouts and quality of service in digital libraries

More information

Adaptive Modulation and Coding for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Radio Channel

Adaptive Modulation and Coding for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Radio Channel Recent Advances in Counications Adaptive odulation and Coding for Unanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Radio Channel Airhossein Fereidountabar,Gian Carlo Cardarilli, Rocco Fazzolari,Luca Di Nunzio Abstract In

More information

Are you managing your Service Portfolio?

Are you managing your Service Portfolio? White Paper Are you anaging your Service Portfolio? About this White Paper The CIO is expected to be the prestidigitator 1, anaging priorities like a juggler attepting the next world record. But just how

More information

Earnings and Community College Field of Study Choice in Canada

Earnings and Community College Field of Study Choice in Canada DISCUSSION PAPER SERIES IZA DP No. 1156 Earnings and Counity College Field of Study Choice in Canada Brahi Boudarbat May 2004 Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit Institute for the Study of Labor

More information

Algorithmica 2001 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Algorithmica 2001 Springer-Verlag New York Inc. Algorithica 2001) 30: 101 139 DOI: 101007/s00453-001-0003-0 Algorithica 2001 Springer-Verlag New York Inc Optial Search and One-Way Trading Online Algoriths R El-Yaniv, 1 A Fiat, 2 R M Karp, 3 and G Turpin

More information

Impact of Search Engine Ownership on Underlying Market for Goods and Services

Impact of Search Engine Ownership on Underlying Market for Goods and Services Ipact of Search Engine Ownership on Underlying Market for Goods and Services Rajiv Dewan, Marshall Freier, and Paul Nelson Willia E. Sion Graduate School of Business Adinistration University of Rochester

More information

Endogenous Market Structure and the Cooperative Firm

Endogenous Market Structure and the Cooperative Firm Endogenous Market Structure and the Cooperative Fir Brent Hueth and GianCarlo Moschini Working Paper 14-WP 547 May 2014 Center for Agricultural and Rural Developent Iowa State University Aes, Iowa 50011-1070

More information

SUPPORTING YOUR HIPAA COMPLIANCE EFFORTS

SUPPORTING YOUR HIPAA COMPLIANCE EFFORTS WHITE PAPER SUPPORTING YOUR HIPAA COMPLIANCE EFFORTS Quanti Solutions. Advancing HIM through Innovation HEALTHCARE SUPPORTING YOUR HIPAA COMPLIANCE EFFORTS Quanti Solutions. Advancing HIM through Innovation

More information

Red Hat Enterprise Linux: Creating a Scalable Open Source Storage Infrastructure

Red Hat Enterprise Linux: Creating a Scalable Open Source Storage Infrastructure Red Hat Enterprise Linux: Creating a Scalable Open Source Storage Infrastructure By Alan Radding and Nick Carr Abstract This paper discusses the issues related to storage design and anageent when an IT

More information

Enrolment into Higher Education and Changes in Repayment Obligations of Student Aid Microeconometric Evidence for Germany

Enrolment into Higher Education and Changes in Repayment Obligations of Student Aid Microeconometric Evidence for Germany Enrolent into Higher Education and Changes in Repayent Obligations of Student Aid Microeconoetric Evidence for Gerany Hans J. Baugartner *) Viktor Steiner **) *) DIW Berlin **) Free University of Berlin,

More information

The individual neurons are complicated. They have a myriad of parts, subsystems and control mechanisms. They convey information via a host of

The individual neurons are complicated. They have a myriad of parts, subsystems and control mechanisms. They convey information via a host of CHAPTER 4 ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS 4. INTRODUCTION Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are relatively crude electronic odels based on the neural structure of the brain. The brain learns fro experience.

More information

Study on the development of statistical data on the European security technological and industrial base

Study on the development of statistical data on the European security technological and industrial base Study on the developent of statistical data on the European security technological and industrial base Security Sector Survey Analysis: France Client: European Coission DG Migration and Hoe Affairs Brussels,

More information

Option B: Credit Card Processing

Option B: Credit Card Processing Attachent B Option B: Credit Card Processing Request for Proposal Nuber 4404 Z1 Bidders are required coplete all fors provided in this attachent if bidding on Option B: Credit Card Processing. Note: If

More information

Don t Run With Your Retirement Money

Don t Run With Your Retirement Money Don t Run With Your Retireent Money Understanding Your Resources and How Best to Use The A joint project of The Actuarial Foundation and WISER, the Woen s Institute for a Secure Retireent WISER THE WOMEN

More information

Entity Search Engine: Towards Agile Best-Effort Information Integration over the Web

Entity Search Engine: Towards Agile Best-Effort Information Integration over the Web Entity Search Engine: Towards Agile Best-Effort Inforation Integration over the Web Tao Cheng, Kevin Chen-Chuan Chang University of Illinois at Urbana-Chapaign {tcheng3, kcchang}@cs.uiuc.edu. INTRODUCTION

More information

EFFICIENCY BY DESIGN STORIES OF BEST PRACTICE IN PUBLIC BODIES

EFFICIENCY BY DESIGN STORIES OF BEST PRACTICE IN PUBLIC BODIES EFFICIENCY BY DESIGN STORIES OF BEST PRACTICE IN PUBLIC BODIES Acknowledgeents We would like to extend a special thank you to ebers of the Public Chairs Foru (PCF) and the Association of Chief Executives

More information

Is Pay-as-You-Drive Insurance a Better Way to Reduce Gasoline than Gasoline Taxes?

Is Pay-as-You-Drive Insurance a Better Way to Reduce Gasoline than Gasoline Taxes? Is Pay-as-You-Drive Insurance a Better Way to Reduce Gasoline than Gasoline Taxes? By Ian W.H. Parry Despite concerns about US dependence on a volatile world oil arket, greenhouse gases fro fuel cobustion,

More information

Financial Aid Workshop Promotional Kit

Financial Aid Workshop Promotional Kit Financial Aid Workshop Prootional Kit CFWV.COM West Virginia s Free College-Planning Resource The College Foundation of West Virginia, online at www.cfwv.co, provides FREE resources to help students and

More information

The Velocities of Gas Molecules

The Velocities of Gas Molecules he Velocities of Gas Molecules by Flick Colean Departent of Cheistry Wellesley College Wellesley MA 8 Copyright Flick Colean 996 All rights reserved You are welcoe to use this docuent in your own classes

More information

Audio Engineering Society. Convention Paper. Presented at the 119th Convention 2005 October 7 10 New York, New York USA

Audio Engineering Society. Convention Paper. Presented at the 119th Convention 2005 October 7 10 New York, New York USA Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 119th Convention 2005 October 7 10 New York, New York USA This convention paper has been reproduced fro the authors advance anuscript, without

More information

Last For A Lifetime. Making Your Money. Why You Need to Know About Annuities

Last For A Lifetime. Making Your Money. Why You Need to Know About Annuities Making Your Money Last For A Lifetie Why You Need to Know About Annuities A Joint Project of The Actuarial Foundation and WISER, the Woen s Institute for a Secure Retireent Acknowledgeents Special thanks

More information

The United States was in the midst of a

The United States was in the midst of a A Prier on the Mortgage Market and Mortgage Finance Daniel J. McDonald and Daniel L. Thornton This article is a prier on ortgage finance. It discusses the basics of the ortgage arket and ortgage finance.

More information

Efficient Key Management for Secure Group Communications with Bursty Behavior

Efficient Key Management for Secure Group Communications with Bursty Behavior Efficient Key Manageent for Secure Group Counications with Bursty Behavior Xukai Zou, Byrav Raaurthy Departent of Coputer Science and Engineering University of Nebraska-Lincoln Lincoln, NE68588, USA Eail:

More information

IT SOURCING PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT FOR IT SERVICES PROVIDERS - A RISK/COST PERSPECTIVE

IT SOURCING PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT FOR IT SERVICES PROVIDERS - A RISK/COST PERSPECTIVE IT SOURCING PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT FOR IT SERVICES PROVIDERS - A RISK/COST PERSPECTIVE Copleted Research Paper Steffen Zierann Arne Katzarzik Dennis Kundisch Abstract Utilizing a global IT sourcing strategy

More information

A magnetic Rotor to convert vacuum-energy into mechanical energy

A magnetic Rotor to convert vacuum-energy into mechanical energy A agnetic Rotor to convert vacuu-energy into echanical energy Claus W. Turtur, University of Applied Sciences Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel Abstract Wolfenbüttel, Mai 21 2008 In previous work it was deonstrated,

More information

Employment 1st information for colleges and training providers in Northern Ireland

Employment 1st information for colleges and training providers in Northern Ireland eployent Eployent st inforation for colleges and training providers in Northern Ireland Eployent st A new collaborative approach to industry-specific pre-eployent training Hospitality, leisure, travel

More information

The Application of Bandwidth Optimization Technique in SLA Negotiation Process

The Application of Bandwidth Optimization Technique in SLA Negotiation Process The Application of Bandwidth Optiization Technique in SLA egotiation Process Srecko Krile University of Dubrovnik Departent of Electrical Engineering and Coputing Cira Carica 4, 20000 Dubrovnik, Croatia

More information

RECURSIVE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING: HEURISTIC RULES, BOUNDING AND STATE SPACE REDUCTION. Henrik Kure

RECURSIVE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING: HEURISTIC RULES, BOUNDING AND STATE SPACE REDUCTION. Henrik Kure RECURSIVE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING: HEURISTIC RULES, BOUNDING AND STATE SPACE REDUCTION Henrik Kure Dina, Danish Inforatics Network In the Agricultural Sciences Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University

More information