# THE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM AND IN-SITU MEASUREMENTS FOR EARLY NOTIFICATION AND OIL CALCULATIONS.

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2 concentration in food during emergencies for OIL recalculations. THEORY This section introduces the basic concepts of In-situ gamma-ray spectrometry calibration and OIL recalculations. In-situ gamma-ray spectrometry In-situ gamma-ray spectrometry provides a factor to convert the photopeak intensities to surface activity concentration. The factor depends on detector efficiency and angular response, calibration measurements as well as on calculation of unscattered flux F, assuming a certain distribution of the radionucleids in soil. For naturally occurred radionucleids a good approximation of the source distribution is that an infinite half space with homogeneous source concentration in the horizontal plane and uniform concentration with depth in the soil. For fallout radionucleids, a decreasing exponential depth profile can be used for first few years after deposition or in undisturbed semi-arid regions []. The activity concentration of a particular radionucleid is related to absorption peak counting rate by [2] A f x f Φ = Φ A x ( ) where is the counting rate from a Φ particular absorption peak per unit fluence rate for a plane parallel photon beam of energy E, f is the angular correction factor of the detector at energy E, Φ is the fluence rate at A x energy E due to a gamma transition for a particular radionucleid, not depending on detector. The detector angular correction can be calculated from f cos θ 2 = Φ cos θ Φ ( θ) cosθ ( ) d cosθ 2 The radial contribution to the photon flux varies with the distance to the detector and it is assumed to be 85% of the total unscattered photon flux from the first meters as detailed in figure. Figure A: Relative contribution to the total primary flux (in percentages) for a detector at height of meter assuming a homogeneous and uniform depth source distribution. OIL recalculations The term Operational Intervention Level (OIL) defines the quantities that can be easily assessed at the time of decision intervention actions. This quantities includes air dose rate, surface contamination, activity concentration in food, etc.. OIL are related to the avertable dose by a specific protective action as evacuation, relocation and banning of foodstuffs [3]. Table A: Relevant operational quantities for prediction of avertable doses by urgent and long term protective actions. Protective action Sheltering Evacuation Thyroid prophylaxis Precautionary food restriction Temporary relocation Permanent resettlement Foodstuff restrictions Operational quantity Dose rate, air concentration Dose rate, air concentration Air concentration of iodine Surface contamination density Dose rate, surface contamination density Dose rate, surface contamination density Surface contamination density, activity concentration in food. Generally, the avertable dose DE c,r,p from exposure to a single radionucleid, r, and pathway, p, which could be averted by 2

3 implementing a countermeasure, c, is given by: ( ) E = E E 3 c, r, p r, p c, r, p In the case of external gamma dose over time t related to evacuation or relocation t + τ L D t E( τ) = L D( t) dt = λ D t where ( ) t Lτ D t ( ) ( 4) ( ) ( λt e ) is the absorbed dose rate in air from deposited activity on ground, therefore OIL rel IL rel = ( ) D( t ) E τ ( 5) The collective effective dose rate from the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs is S t Q t e V s t V ( ) = ( ) ( 5 ) = ( ) ( 6) where V is the consumption rate, e(5) is the dose per unit activity ingested and Q the activity concentration. The avertable collective dose per unit mass of a given foodstuff over time t related to foodstuff countermeasure is t 2 2 t ( τ ) = ( ) = ( ) ( ) ( 7) S S t dt S t S t therefore OIL food ILfood = S τ ( ) Q( t ) ( 8) Environmental Radiation Monitoring The ational Environmental Radiation Monitoring System is composed by a network of 9 stationary stations and a one mobile who measures the absorbed dose rate in the location of the station. Each station contains: wide range WD2 Geiger type detector, measurement instrument Â, Front End Processor (FEP) to store data and modem to transfer the data to the PC in the control center through telephone lines [4]. The network is spread through the country in the main cities, close to nuclear facilities and in ports to monitor the ambient radiation level whenever nuclear vessels dock in the port. The detector measures the absorbed dose rate once per hour in mr/hr and once a day the FEP transfers the data to the control center. If a high absorbed dose rate threshold is overcome, the FEP transfers the data immediately to the control center and a message is broadcasted by a pager device simultaneously. The frequency sampling is increased to 5 to minute depending on the case. The mobile station is placed in the emergency patrol, powered by the car battery and can be mounted on a tripod at meter height from ground. The transfer of data is done through cellular telephone. Environmental Sampling Methods The environmental sampling includes low level gamma-ray spectrometry analysis of a typical foodstuff basket, soil samples, well and run off water from different locations around the country including in the vicinity of nuclear centers. Airborne dust and settling particles are collected periodically in filters in each stationary station of the ERMS and analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. In this manner lower levels of environmental contamination can be detected and identified than trough the radiation monitor detectors. The low level gamma-ray spectrometry analysis is performed on a laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry system with a shielded intrinsic Ge detector of 2% relative efficiency º. The soil samples for determination of 37 Cs activity concentration were collected from a representative geographical distribution from the top 5 cm of the soil using a 2.3 cm diameter steel corer [5]. In the lab the samples were weighted and overnight dried at 5 o C and weighted again MATERIALS AD METHODS Â EVIRAM B-, Rotem Industries Ltd., Beer Sheva. º Canberra Industries, Inc. uclear Products Group, Meriden CT

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