Microstructures and carrion as key factors for biodiversity in pastoral ecosystems. Dr. René Krawczynski, DBU Naturerbe GmbH

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1 Microstructures and carrion as key factors for biodiversity in pastoral ecosystems Dr. René Krawczynski, DBU Naturerbe GmbH

2 naturfotos-kaefer.de What do Robins eat? Food: Insects and other small Invertebrates, berries in autumn BLV Bestimmungsbuch Vögel, p. 237

3 Source: Ein Herz für Tiere

4 Where do Wall Gliders breed? Actually Common Swift Habitat: breeds in houses and natural stone walls; mainly in cities nabu.de BLV Bestimmungsbuch Vögel, S. 175

5 FFH-Area Tauersche Eichen, ca ha lat. Name in Geßners Thierleben 1669 Hirundo sylvestris Foto: Alter

6

7 Ecological consequences of human interference in carrion food webs (according to Green et al. 2004) Treatment of live stock with Diclophenac Dumping dead live stock Increase of facultative necrophagous mammals (rats, feral dogs, foxes) carriers of rabies Drastic increase of rabies with humans and live stock Poisining of vultures by remains of Diclophenac in live stock Decline of obligatory necrophagous birds by > 99 %

8 Material & Methods Wild boar carcass, Lieberoser Heide, objectives: vertebrates using carrion Microflora invertebrates using carrion development of methods Game killed by accidents (hunting, traffic) hunted game was opened carcasses of wild boar, roe deer, fox, mufflon, red deer calf

9 Material & Methods Lieberoser Heide necrophagous vertebrates present (wild boar, fox, white tailed eagle, red kite, black kite, raven, wolf) few human disturbances (former millitary training area)

10 Material & Methods eagle Lieberoser Heide, ravens

11 Material & Methods carrion camera m Pit fall trap and numberr Change of batteries, SD-cards and pitfall traps every Monday, Wednesday and Friday

12 Results: liverworth Cephaloziella divaricata, Lieberoser Heide, November 2008 Mikro fungus, unknown to science

13 results: time to decompose

14 Results: vertebrate scavengers

15 Fox puppet hunting insects

16 Results: dung of a badger

17 Pine marten looking for carcass under snow

18 Raccoon dog looking for carcass under snow

19 Ergebnisse: Vögel scavengers Results: vertebrate In summer, crows serach for insects at the carcass

20 Ergebnisse: Kolkraben Results: vertebrate scavengers Ravens do not eat at the spot carry the meat away to hide it.

21 Ergebnisse: Rotmilan Results: vertebrate scavengers Red kites feed at the carcass but also steal from raven storage.

22 Results: vertebrate scavengers Ergebnisse: Seeadler Eagles seemed to dominate the scene when looking only at photos.

23 Results: ravens mobbing other birds

24 Ergebnisse: Amselnscavengers Results: vertebrate Black birds and tits feed on the carcasses' fat in winter.

25 Without large vertebrate scavengers like wolf or vultures it is difficult to open the carcass.

26 Ergebnisse: Käfer scavengers Results: invertebrate Holes of Taurus Beetle (Typhaeus typhoeus) under a carcass, Lieberoser Heide,

27 Necrophorus vestigator Necrodes littoralis RL D 3, BB 3 Hister quadrinotatus RL D 3, BB r Hetaerius ferrugineus RL 3 Saprinus immundus RL 3 Necrophorus vestigator RL BB 3 Necrophorus sepultor RL BB 0 Hister quadrinotatus

28 Results: butterflies

29 Results: grasshoppers

30

31 results: Hymenoptera Wasps (Spheciformes) hunt for flies on the carcass. Vespidae eat directly from the carcass and carry the meat home.

32 Results: hymenoptera Bees suck directly from the carcass. Andrena spec. Ants carry away dead insects and hunt small maggots. Megachile spec.

33 (Silphidae, Dermestidae, Trogidae) Beetle larvae nord nord süd süd Dung beetles (Aphodius) Dung beetles (Geotrupes) nord nord süd süd

34 Rove beetles (Staphinilidae) Flies nord 05 nord süd Earwig (Labidura riparia) 90 süd 60 Maggots nord süd nord süd

35 Ants 250 Ground beetles (Carabidae) nord 03 nord süd süd Spiders (Arachnidae) Cicadineae nord süd 05 nord süd

36 Diskussion R22 R19 R16 R13 R10 R7 R4 R R25 R28 R31 50 Soil conductivity after 3 months of decopmposition of a carcass.

37 Visit necros project on youtube.com! Similar to this fox dragging a stinking carcass home I want us to drag some knowledge into European policy. Thanks for your attention!

38 Material & Methods Automatic cameras (photo) Automatic camera (video) make pictures when they detect warmth AND movement reacts on movement only Infrared light Infrared light Sponsored by A.M.G. Alarmtechnik (Sachsen-Anhalt)

39 14:03 14:24 14:45 15:06 15:27 15:48 16:09 16:30 16:51 17:12 17:33 17:54 14:24 14:45 15:06 15:27 15:48 16:09 16:30 16:51 17:12 17:33 17:54 13:00 12:39 12:18 11:57 11:36 11:15 10:54 10:33 10:12 9:51 9:30 9:09 8:48 8:27 13:42 Seeadler Bussard Fuchs 14:03 Rabe 13: :42 Activities of ravens and eagles at the first carcass 13:21 13: :39 0 8: : : : : : : : : : : : :27 0 7: :06 5 7: : : : : : : :42 6: :21 17:53 17:32 17:11 16:50 16:29 16:08 15:47 15:26 15:05 14:44 14:23 14:02 13:41 13:20 12:59 12:38 12:17 11:56 11:35 11:14 10:53 10:32 10:11 9:50 09:30 09:09 08:48 08:27 08:06 07:45 07:24 07:03 06:42 06:21 06: :00 17:54 17:33 17:12 16:51 16:30 16:09 15:48 15:27 15:06 14:45 14:24 14:03 13:42 13:21 13:00 12:39 12:18 11:57 11:36 11:15 10:54 10:33 10:12 9:51 9:30 9:09 8:48 8:27 8:06 7:45 7:24 7:03 6:42 6:21 6:00 Results: activities of birds Rabe Seadler Bussard Fuchs

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