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1 Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report KTC /KSP2-11-1F Analysis of Traffic Crash Data in Kentucky ( )

2 Our Mission We provide services to the transportation community through research, technology transfer and education. We create and participate in partnerships to promote safe and effective transportation systems University of Kentucky, Kentucky Transportation Center Information may not be used, reproduced, or republished without our written consent. Kentucky Transportation Center 176 Oliver H. Raymond Building Lexington, KY (859) fax (859)

3 Research Report KTC-13-13/KSP2/11-1F ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CRASH DATA IN KENTUCKY ( ) by Eric R. Green Transportation Research Engineer Kenneth R. Agent Transportation Research Engineer and Jerry G. Pigman Transportation Research Engineer Kentucky Transportation Center College of Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky in cooperation with Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Commonwealth of Kentucky The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the University of Kentucky or the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. September 2013

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables... iii List of Figures... viii Executive Summary... ix 1.0 Introduction Procedure Statewide Crash Rates County Crash Statistics City Crash Statistics Alcohol- and Drug-Related Crashes Occupant Protection Speed-Related Crashes Teenage Drivers General Crash Statistics Page 10.1 Crash Trend Analysis Pedestrian Crashes Bicycle Crashes Motorcycle Crashes School Bus Crashes Truck Crashes Train Crashes Vehicle Defects i

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7 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page 11.0 Summary and Recommendations Statewide Crash Rates County and City Crash Statistics Alcohol-Related Crashes Drug-Related Crashes Occupant Protection Speed-Related Crashes Teenage Drivers General Crash Statistics Tables Figures Appendices A. Statewide Crash Rate as a Function of Several Variables B. Crash Data for Three-Year Period ( ) C. Critical Number of Crashes Tables D. Critical Crash Rate Tables for Highway Sections E. Critical Crash Rate Tables for "Spots" F. Total Crash Rates for Cities Included In 2010 Census ii

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Comparison of Crash Rates Table 2. Statewide Rural Crash Rates by Highway Type Classification ( ) Table 3. Statewide Urban Crash Rates by Highway Type Classification ( ) Table 4. Comparison of Crash Rates by Rural and Urban Highway Type Classification Table 5. Statewide Crash Rates for Spots by Highway Type Classification ( ) Table 6. Statewide Average and Critical Numbers of Crashes for Spots and One-Mile Sections by Highway Type Classification ( ) Table 7. Crash Rates by County for State-Maintained System and All Roads ( ) Table 8. County Populations (2010 Census) in Descending Order Table 9. Average and Critical Crash Rates by Population Category ( ) Table 10. Table 11. Table 12. Table 13. Table 14. Table 15. Table 16. Crash Rates by County and Population Category (in Descending Order with Critical Rates Identified) ( ) (All Roads) Crash Rates by County and Population Category (in Descending Order with Critical Rates Identified) ( ) (State-Maintained System) Injury or Fatal Crash Rates by County and Population Category (in Descending Order with Critical Rates Identified) ( ) (All Roads) Fatal Crash Rates by County and Population Category (in Descending Order with Critical Rates Identified) ( ) (All Roads) Miscellaneous Crash Data for Each County Crash Rates for Cities having Population over 2,500 (for State-Maintained System and All Roads for ) Miscellaneous Crash Data for Cities having Population over 2,500 ( for All Roads) Table 17. Crash Rates on Identified Streets by City and Population Category ( ) Table 18. Total Crash Rates by City and Population Category (in Descending Order) ( ) (All Roads) Table 19. Table 20. Fatal Crash Rates by City and Population Category (in Descending Order with Critical Rates Identified) ( ) (All Roads) Crashes Involving Alcohol by County and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) iii

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11 LIST OF TABLES (continued) Table 21. Crashes Involving Alcohol by City and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Table 22. Summary of Alcohol Convictions by County ( ) Table 23. Alcohol Conviction Rates in Decreasing Order (by County Population Categories) ( ) Table 24. Percentage of Drivers Convicted of DUI Arrest (by County) ( ) Table 25. DUI Arrest Conviction Rates by County and Population Category (in Descending Order) ( ) Table 26. Summary of Reckless Driving Convictions by County ( ) Table 27. Table 28. Table 29. Table 30. Table 31. Table 32. Table 33. Table 34. Percentage of Crashes Involving Drugs by County and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) (All Roads) Percentage of Crashes Involving Drugs by City and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Safety Belt Usage by County and Population Category (In Descending Order) (Observed Survey Of All Front Seat Occupants in 2007) Safety Belt Usage by Population Category (2007 Observational Data) (ADD) Crash Severity versus Safety Belt Usage (All Drivers) Usage and Effectiveness of Child Safety Seats ( Crash Data for Children Age Three and Under) Percentage of Crashes Involving Unsafe Speed by County and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Percentage of Crashes Involving Unsafe Speed by City and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Table 35. Summary of Speeding Convictions by County ( ) Table 36. Table 37. Table 38. Speeding Conviction Rates in Decreasing Order (by County Population Categories) ( ) Moving Speed Data for Various Highway Types (Cars) Moving Speed Data for Various Highway Types (Trucks) Table 39. Crash Trend Analysis ( ) Table 40. Number of Crashes and Rates by Crash Type for each County ( ) iv

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13 LIST OF TABLES (continued) Table 41. Table 42. Table 43. Table 44. Table 45. Table 46. Table 47. Table 48. Table 49. Table 50. Table 51. Pedestrian Crash Rates by County and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) (All Roads) Pedestrian Crash Rates by City and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Bicycle Crash Rates by County and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Bicycle Crash Rates by City and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Motorcycle Crash Rates by County and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Motorcycle Crash Rates by City and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) School Bus Crash Rates by County and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) School Bus Crash Rates by City and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Truck Crash Rates by County and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Motor Vehicle-Train Crash Rates by County and Population Category (in Order of Decreasing Percentages) ( ) Crashes Involving Vehicle Defect Before and After Repeal of Vehicle Inspection Law Table A-1. Statewide Crash Rates by Functional Classification ( ) Table A-2. Statewide Crash Rates by Administrative Classification ( ) Table A-3. Statewide Crash Rates by Median Type (Rural Roads with Four or More Lanes) ( ) Table A-4. Statewide Crash Rates by Access Control ( ) Table A-5. Statewide Crash Rates for Rural Highways by Federal-Aid System and Terrain ( ) Table A-6. Statewide Crash Rates by Rural-Urban Designation ( ) Table A-7. Statewide Crash Rates by Route Signing Identifier ( ) Table A-8. Relationship between Crash Rate and Traffic Volume ( ) v

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15 LIST OF TABLES (continued) Table A-9. Percentage of Crashes occurring During Wet or Snow or Ice Pavement Conditions or During Darkness by Rural and Urban Highway Type Classification ( ) Table B-1. Statewide Rural Crash Rates by Highway Type Classification ( ) Table B-2. Statewide Urban Crash Rates by Highway Type Classification ( ) Table B-3. Statewide Crash Rates for Spots by Highway Type Classification ( ) Table B-4. Table B-5. Table B-6. Table B-7. Table B-8. Table B-9. Table B-10. Table C-1. Table C-2. Statewide Average and Critical Numbers of Crashes for Spots and One-Mile Sections by Highway Type Classification ( ) Statewide Crash Rates for 0.1 Mile Spots by Highway Type Classification ( ) Statewide Average and Critical Numbers of Crashes for 0.1-Mile Spots and One-Mile Sections by Highway Type Classification ( ) Critical Crash Rates for 0.1-Mile Spots on Rural One-Lane, Two-Lane and Three-Lane Highways (Three-Year Period) ( ) Critical Crash Rates for 0.1-Mile Spots on Rural Four-Lane Highways, Interstates, and Parkways (Three-Year Period) ( ) Critical Crash Rates for 0.1-Mile Spots on Urban Two-Lane and Three-Lane Highways (Three-Year Period) ( ) Critical Crash Rates for 0.1-Mile Spots on Urban Four-Lane Highways, Interstates, and Parkways (Three-Year Period) ( ) Critical Numbers of Crashes on Rural Highways by Highway Type and Section Length ( ) Critical Numbers of Crashes on Urban Highways by Highway Type and Section Length ( ) Table D-1. Critical Crash Rates for Rural One-Lane Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table D-2. Critical Crash Rates for Rural Two-Lane Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table D-3. Critical Crash Rates for Rural Three-Lane Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table D-4. Critical Crash Rates for Rural Four-Lane Divided Sections (Non-Interstate and Parkway) (Five-Year Period) ( ) vi

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17 LIST OF TABLES (continued) Table D-5. Critical Crash Rates for Rural Four-Lane Undivided Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table D-6. Critical Crash Rates for Rural Interstate Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table D-7. Critical Crash Rates for Rural Parkway Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table D-8. Critical Crash Rates for Urban Two-Lane Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table D-9. Critical Crash Rates for Urban Three-Lane Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table D-10. Table D-11. Critical Crash Rates for Urban Four-Lane Divided Sections (Non-Interstate and Parkway) (Five-Year Period) ( ) Critical Crash Rates for Urban Four-Lane Undivided Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table D-12. Critical Crash Rates for Urban Interstate Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table D-13. Critical Crash Rates for Urban Parkway Sections (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table E-1. Table E-2. Table E-3. Table E-4. Critical Crash Rates for Spots on Rural One-Lane, Two-Lane, and Three-Lane Highways (Five-Year Period) ( ) Critical Crash Rates for Spots on Rural Four-Lane Highways, Interstates, and Parkways (Five-Year Period) ( ) Critical Crash Rates for Spots on Urban Two-Lane and Three-Lane Highways (Five-Year Period) ( ) Critical Crash Rates for Spots on Urban Four-Lane Highways, Interstates, Four- Lane Highways, and Parkways (Five-Year Period) ( ) Table F-1. Crashes and Crash Rates for All Cities Listed in the 2010 Census ( ) vii

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19 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Trends in Crash Rates Figure 2. Trends in Rural Crash Rates Figure 3. Trends in Urban Crash Rates viii

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21 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2008 through A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Average and critical numbers and rates of crashes were calculated for various types of highways in rural and urban areas. These data can be used in Kentucky s procedure to identify locations that have abnormal rates or numbers of crashes. The other primary objective of this study was to provide data that can be used in the preparation of the problem identification portion of Kentucky s Annual Highway Safety Plan. County and city crash statistics were analyzed. A summary of results and recommendations in several problem identification areas is presented. These general areas include; alcohol involvement, occupant protection, speed, teenage drivers, pedestrians, bicycles, motorcycles, trucks, and vehicle defects. Other areas included in the analysis for which specific recommendations were not made include, school bus crashes and train crashes. The crash data are contained in the Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) data base. This data base is updated daily so the number of crashes in a given calendar year will continue to change for a substantial time after the end of that year. ix

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23 1.0 INTRODUCTION Annual reports have previously been prepared since 1978 dealing with the calculation of statewide traffic crash rates for Kentucky and preparation of the problem identification portion of Kentucky's Annual Highway Safety Plan. This is the 27 th report providing a combination of those two report areas. Traffic crash data for the five-year period of 2008 through 2012 were used in the preparation of this report. Kentucky has a systematic procedure to identify locations that have had abnormal rates or numbers of traffic crashes. However, before that procedure may be utilized, average crash rates and numbers must be determined for appropriate highway categories and for rural and urban areas. A primary objective of this study was to determine average traffic crash statistics for Kentucky. Those statistics may then be used in the high-crash location identification program to identify locations that should be investigated to determine whether changes should be made. A highway safety program is prepared each year for Kentucky in order to comply with Section 402, Title 23 of the United States Code. This program includes the identification, programming, budgeting, and evaluation of safety projects with the objective of reducing the number and severity of traffic crashes. The second major objective of this report is to provide data that may be included as the problem identification portion of Kentucky's Annual Highway Safety Plan. Results from this report are used to provide benchmark data for that process. 2.0 PROCEDURE Crash and traffic (traffic volume and roadway geometrics) databases were used to obtain traffic crash statistics. Traffic crash data have been maintained in a computer file containing all police-reported crashes. The crash report was changed in 2000 with the data now contained in the Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) database. The computer files and data base were obtained from the Kentucky State Police (KSP). All police agencies in the state are required to send traffic crash reports to the KSP. Parking lot crashes were not included in the computer file from 1994 through Parking lot crashes are now contained in the CRASH data base but they were excluded from the analysis to maintain consistency with previous years. Crashes coded as occurring on private property were also excluded from the data for 2008 through 2012 so it would be consistent with other reports. All crashes included in the analysis occurred on a public highway. It should be noted that this data base is updated daily so the number of crashes in a given calendar year will continue to change for a substantial time after the end of that year. This would result in numbers in the tables in this report being less than those contained in the current CRASH database. Summaries were prepared from an analysis of the crash data from the CRASH database for 2008 through Volume data, along with other data describing highway characteristics such as number of lanes, were obtained from a computer file containing roadway characteristics data for all state- 1

24 maintained highways and some local roads. This information is obtained from the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) file. Data for a five-year period of 2008 through 2012 were obtained from this file. The HPMS file was used to obtain the roadway information needed to compute crash rates as a function of various roadway characteristics such as number of lanes. A computer program using both crash data from the crash data base and roadway characteristics information from the HPMS file was used to calculate rates for the statemaintained system. A separate computer program was used to obtain additional summaries of various crash variables with this program using all reported traffic crashes (excluding parking lots and private property). The matching process was significantly changed this year due to a change in the HPMS format. Crashes are now matched to any road with traffic volume data. Previously crashes were matched to HPMS using the route number. With the improvements in crash location data, crashes are able to be matched by three different route identifiers (RT_Unique, the GIS route identifier and roadway number). The resulting matching rate is much higher than previous years, particularly for urban streets. Rates were calculated for: 1) all roads having known traffic volumes, route numbers and 2) all public streets and highways on and off the state-maintained system. A large majority of roads with traffic volumes are state-maintained. However, this document will refer to these roads as identified roads since some of these routes were locally maintained. Rates were provided in terms of crashes per 100 million vehicle-miles (C/100 MVM) where traffic volumes could be determined. Population was used as the measure of exposure in instances where traffic volume data were not available to use as the exposure measure. Population data from the 2010 census were used. In addition to average rates, critical rates and numbers of crashes are required for the high-crash location program. Both types of rates were calculated. The following formula (Equation 1) was used to calculate critical crash rates. C c C a K Ca M 1 2M (1) in which Cc = critical crash rate Ca = average crash rate K = constant related to level of statistical significance selected (a probability of was used wherein K = 2.576) M = exposure (for sections, M was in terms of 100 million vehicle-miles (100 MVM); for spots, M was in terms of million vehicles) 2

25 To determine the critical number of crashes, the following formula (Equation 2) was used. N c N a K N a 0.5 (2) in which Nc = critical number of crashes Na = average number of crashes There are highway safety problem areas (standards) identified by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Problem areas that have been identified for emphasis include alcohol and occupant protection. To identify problems in these areas, as well as other "highway standard" areas, the analyses focused on the following. 1. Statewide Crash Rates 2. County Crash Statistics 3. City Crash Statistics 4. Alcohol- and Drug-Related Crashes 5. Occupant Protection 6. Speed-Related Crashes 7. Teenage Drivers 8. Pedestrian Crashes 9. Bicycle Crashes 10. Motorcycle Crashes 11. School Bus Crashes 12. Truck Crashes 13. Train Crashes 14. Vehicle Defects 15. General Trend Analysis 3.0 STATEWIDE CRASH RATES All of the rates referred to in this section apply to roads having known traffic volumes, route numbers, and mileposts. Crash rates are given in terms of crashes per 100 million vehiclemiles (C/100 MVM). Using the HPMS file results in about 29,000 miles being included in this category. This compares to over 80,000 miles of public roads in Kentucky. While only approximately 36 percent of the total miles are identified, these roads have accounted for approximately 86 percent of the vehicle miles traveled. The crash file is matched with the HPMS file. The percentage of all crashes identified as being on an identified road has ranged from 54 to 73 percent (with the highest percentage in 2012). This was further enhanced with an integrated mapping system built into the crash reporting tool. This map has replaced the need for a handheld device, instead having officers click on a point on the map which returns latitude and longitude and county, route and milepoint (even for local roads). 3

26 A comparison of 2008 through 2012 crash statistics on streets and highways having known traffic volumes, route numbers, and mileposts is shown in Table 1. Due to the improved method of locating the crash, the number of total crashes identified was higher in 2012 compared to the average of the previous four years. Some of the variance can be attributed to the inconsistencies in reporting locations on the crash reports. The overall crash rate in 2012 was 226 crashes per 100 million vehicle-miles (C/100 MVM). The crash rates for the previous four years varied from 163 to 203 C/100 MVM. The fatal crash rate showed an increase (7.9 percent) in 2012 compared to the previous four-year average. The fatal crash rate ranged from 1.14 C/100MVM in 2011 to 1.53 C/100 MVM in 2008 (with the rate decreasing each year from 2008 to 2011 before increasing in 2012). The injury crash rate in 2012 was 48 C/100MVM, which is an increase of 17.1 percent from the previous four-year average. The injury crash rate of 48 C/100MVM in 2012 was the highest rate in the five-year period. There had been a decrease every year in the injury and fatal crash rates prior to the increases in An analysis of statewide crash rates as a function of several variables, such as highway system classification, was conducted. Also included is information concerning the percentage of crashes occurring for various road conditions and during darkness. Results of this analysis are presented in APPENDIX A. Crash rates required to implement the high-crash spot-improvement program in Kentucky are average rural and urban rates by highway type. The current classification uses the number of lanes with an additional separation of four-lane highways (non-interstate or parkway) into divided and undivided categories. Interstates and parkways are classified separately. Rates for rural highways for the five-year period (2008 through 2012) are listed in Table 2. The rates for urban highways are listed in Table 3. Highways were placed into either the rural or urban category based upon the rural-urban designation denoted on the HPMS file. For sections having a volume, route, and milepost, the rural or urban and highway type classifications were determined. The crash could not be used in this analysis if the county and route were given but the milepoint was not noted. The number of crashes for each section was then obtained from the crash file. The total crash rates (crashes per 100 million vehicle-miles), as well as injury and fatal crash rates, were calculated. On rural highways, small lengths of one-lane highways have the highest rate for all crashes (Table 2) followed by two lane and four-lane undivided highways. Two-lane highways have the highest injury crash rate (excluding one-lane roads). The fatal crash rate on two-lane highways is substantially higher than the other road types. Interstates and parkways have the lowest all, injury, and fatal crash rates. The advantage of median-separated highways is shown when comparing the crash rates for four-lane divided (non-interstate or parkway) and four-lane undivided highways. The overall crash rate for a non-interstate or parkway divided highway (which would not typically have access control) is about 50 percent less than for an undivided highway, although the average daily traffic was fairly similar. On urban highways, the highest overall crash rates are on four-lane undivided and a small length of three-lane highways (Table 3). The fatal crash rates for two-lane and four-lane 4

27 undivided highways were 0.9 C/100MVM compared to the overall fatal rate of 0.7 C/100MVM. The lowest overall crash rate, along with injury and fatal crash rate, are on interstates and parkways. Interstates have the lowest fatal crash rate. Tables 2 and 3 show that the overall total crash rate on urban highways was almost twice that for rural highways. Also, the injury rate on urban highways is 35 percent greater than that for rural highways. However, the fatal crash rate on urban highways is only 37 percent of that for rural highways. The lower fatal crash rate is due to the slower travel speeds and the higher traffic volumes in urban areas. Variations in crash rates by rural and urban highway-type classifications over the fiveyear period are listed in Table 4. In 2012, there was a large increase in the overall crash rate in urban areas (36.6 percent) compared to a small increase in rural areas (2.4 percent). The large increase in urban areas is related to the improved ability to match crashes. Only a small percentage (about 11 percent) of identified roads mileage is classified as urban. The rates generally fluctuated more for the highway types that had only a small number of miles. Trends in overall crash rates representative of rural and urban areas are shown graphically in Figure 1 for the five-year period of 2008 through In addition, trends in crash rates for types of highways are shown for rural highways (Figure 2) and urban highways (Figure 3). These rates apply to state-maintained roads having known traffic volumes, route numbers, and mileposts. Not all highway types are shown on Figures 2 and 3 due to low mileages for some highway types. Average rates listed in Tables 2 and 3 may be used to determine critical crash rates for sections of highway of various lengths. In addition to highway sections, Kentucky's high-crash location procedure uses highway spots, defined as having a length of 0.3 or 0.1 mile. The highway spot represents a specific identifiable point on a highway. Statewide crash rates for "spots", by highway-type classification, are listed in Table 5 using 2008 through 2012 data. The first step in Kentucky's procedure for identifying high-crash locations involves identifying spots and sections that have more than the critical numbers of crashes. The crash rates for those locations are then compared to critical crash rates. Statewide averages and critical numbers of crashes for 0.3-mile "spots" and one-mile sections by highway-type classification are presented in Table 6 for 2008 through Critical numbers of crashes, such as those listed in Table 6, are used to establish the "number of crashes" criterion for determining the initial list of potential high-crash locations. For example, six crashes in this time period would be the critical number of crashes for a 0.3 mile spot on a rural, two-lane highway. The numbers and rates presented in Tables 2, 3, 5, and 6 could be calculated for various numbers of years. A three-year period is used in some analyses. The data shown in those tables were calculated for a three-year period ( ) with the results shown in APPENDIX B. Data for 0.1 mile spots are also given in that appendix. Critical numbers of crashes for various section lengths were determined for each highway type using Equation 2 on page 2 of this report. Results are presented in the tables found 5

28 in APPENDIX C. Section lengths up to 20 miles for rural roads and up to 10 miles for urban roads are included. The critical numbers of crashes given in this appendix are for the five-year period of 2008 through After the initial list of locations meeting the critical number criterion is compiled, comparisons between crash rates for those locations and critical crash rates are made. Critical rate tables for highway sections for the five-year period of 2008 through 2012 are presented in APPENDIX D. Critical crash rates for the various rural and urban highways were determined as a function of section length and traffic volume (AADT). The rates are listed in units of crashes per 100 MVM and were calculated using Equation 1 on page 2 of this report. Critical rate tables for 0.3 mile "spots" are contained in APPENDIX E. Those rates are presented in units of crashes per million vehicles and also were determined using Equation 1. These rates are for the five-year period of 2008 through COUNTY CRASH STATISTICS Crash rates were calculated for each county considering 1) roads that could be identified with crash and volume data related (the state-maintained system plus a few other roads with adequate data) and 2) all roads within the county. The crash rates are presented in terms of C/100 MVM (crashes per 100 million vehicle miles). Total crash rates were calculated for both categories. Also, using all roads in the county, crash rates were calculated considering fatal crashes only and fatal-or-injury crashes only. Those rates are presented in Table 7. The numbers given represent the crashes reported by the various police agencies in each county. If any agency does not report all of the crashes they investigate, the number of crashes listed in that county will be lower than the actual number that occurred. Total miles traveled in each county were determined by combining miles traveled on roads having known traffic volumes with those having no recorded volumes. The HPMS file was used to tabulate vehicle-miles traveled by county on roads having traffic volume counts. The difference between the statewide total of vehicle-miles traveled on roads having known traffic volumes (provided by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet) compared to the total estimated miles driven in the state was then distributed to each county. The distribution was based upon the percentage of registered vehicles in each county. The total miles driven in each county was then obtained by adding the known miles driven on the state-maintained highway system and the estimated miles driven on the remaining streets and highways. To assist in the analysis of county crash statistics, county populations were tabulated (in descending order) and presented in Table 8. The population data used are from the 2010 census. The counties were then grouped into five categories based upon population. Using crashes on all roads in the county, average and critical crash rates were calculated (Table 9). The total crash rate and injury-or-fatal crash rates generally increased as population increased while the fatal crash rate decreased with increased population. The critical crash rate was calculated using Equation 1. Critical rates (in terms of crashes per 100 million vehicle-miles) were calculated for total crashes, fatal crashes, and injury-or-fatal crashes. The numbers of counties having rates above critical in each population category were determined. The total number was 6

29 34 for total crashes (all roads), 21 for injury-or-fatal crashes, and two for fatal crashes. There has been consistency over the past few years in the counties that have a critical rate. For example, 32 of the 34 counties determined to have a critical crash rate when total crashes were considered were also identified in the last year s report. Table 10 contains the number of crashes and total crash rates for all counties grouped by population category (considering all roads in the county). Counties within each population category are listed in order of descending crash rate, with the critical rates identified with an asterisk. Crash rates for each county were also calculated considering only the identified (statemaintained and a few roads with sufficient information) system. Those rates, grouped by population category, are presented in Table 11. The rankings of counties in Tables 10 and 11 are similar. In four of the five population categories, the same county had the highest rate considering all roads or identified roads. These counties are Crittenden County (in the under 10,000 population category), Pendleton County (in the 10,000 to 14,999 population category), Harrison County (in the 15,000 to 24,999 populating category) and Jefferson County (in the over 50,000 population category). In the 25,000 to 50,000 population category, Boyd County had the highest rate for all roads while Jessamine County had the highest rate for the identified system. When all roads are considered, Jefferson and Fayette Counties have the highest rates in the state. When only identified roads are considered, Harrison County had the highest rate in the state. Robertson and Hickman Counties, which are in the smallest population category, had the lowest rate in the state for all roads. Hickman and Bath Counties had the lowest rate for identified roads. Crash rates were higher when all roads were considered compared to rates for only the identified system. Using crashes on all roads in each county, injury or fatal crash rates are listed in Table 12 in descending order by population category. Counties having critical rates are identified with an asterisk. Counties having the highest rates for their population categories are Crittenden, Breathitt, Clay, Perry, and Jefferson. Clay County has the highest rate in the state while Hickman County had the lowest rate. Similar rates for fatal crashes are listed in Table 13. Counties having the highest fatal crash rates for their population categories are Elliott, Pendleton, Clay, Knox and Harlan, and Pike. The highest rates are generally for the smallest counties where there would be more driving on two-lane rural roads which have been found to have the highest fatal crash rate (Table 2). Clay and Pike Counties are the only counties identified as having a critical fatal crash rate. A summary of other miscellaneous crash data used in the problem identification process is presented by county in Table 14. This table includes the number of crashes by year for the last five years; percent change in the 2012 crash total from the previous four-year average; percentages of crashes involving alcohol, drugs, and speeding; percentage of fatal crashes; percentage of injury-or-fatal crashes; and percentage of drivers using safety belts. 7

30 5.0 CITY CRASH STATISTICS Crash statistics were analyzed for cities by using the 2008 through 2012 crash data. The primary group of cities included in the analysis was those having a population over 2,500 that had a city code in the computer file allowing crash data to be summarized. Incorporated cities in Jefferson County, such as St. Matthews, Jeffersontown, and Shively, were included separately from Louisville. Therefore, for Louisville, only the population of the city area was included instead of a metropolitan area population. Table 15 is a summary of crash rates for cities included in the 2010 census having populations of more than 2,500 where crash data could be related to the city for all five years. Crashes recorded as occurring in the city are included. However, crashes using the city as a reference but recorded as occurring any distance from the city were not included. Table 15 includes 115 cities. Rates in terms of C/100 MVM are listed for the identified system while rates in terms of crashes per 1,000 population are listed using all streets in the city. The table notes the 12 cities where no data was available for the identified system. Additional statistics are listed in Table 16 for the 114 cities that had five years of crash data available for analysis. Rates for fatal crashes, pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes, bicyclemotor vehicle crashes, and motorcycle crashes are provided. Those rates are in terms of crashes per 10,000 population. Percentages of crashes involving speeding or alcohol are also listed. Total crash rates for all cities listed in the 2010 census are summarized in APPENDIX F (Table F-1). A total of 410 cities were listed with a population in the census. Information included for the cities were population, number of crashes, and crash rate (crashes per 1,000 population). However, a city code was not available for several small cities. This resulted in data being available for 335 cities in Appendix F. Crashes on the state-maintained system of highways within a city typically only accounted for a portion of all the crashes occurring within any city. Therefore, total crash rates, rather than on the identified system, were used to determine critical crash rates for cities. Crash rates on the identified system, by city and by population category, are shown in Table 17. The cities are listed in descending order by crash rate for each population category. The cities for which a match could not be obtained using a city code listed in the HPMS file would not be listed in Table 17. Lexington, Owensboro, Erlanger, Edgewood, Southgate, and Falmouth have the highest crash rate on identified streets in their population category. Cities in the 1,000 to 2,499 population category are also included in this table. Therefore, this table provides data for 153 cities compared to the 114 cities in Table 16. The average crash rate for all cities in a category is also listed. The overall rates are highest for cities in the population category of over 200,000. The lowest overall rate is for the 1,000 to 2,499 population category. The large range in rates and number of crashes is related in part to the detail of reporting. Total crash rates for cities by population category are listed in Table 18. They are tabulated in order of descending crash rates by population category and critical rates are 8

31 identified with an asterisk. The order of rates for cities is very different in Table 18 compared to Table 17. Sixteen cities were identified as having total crash rates above critical. Lexington, Florence, Somerset, Fort Wright, and Hazard have the highest total crash rates in their respective population ranges. Fatal crash rates, by city and population category, are listed in Table 19. They also are tabulated in order of descending fatal crash rates by population category. Louisville, Paducah, Bardstown, Pikeville, and Prestonsburg have the highest fatal crash rates in their respective population ranges. Prestonsburg was the only city identified as having a critical fatal crash rate and had the highest rate overall (by a substantial amount). 6.0 ALCOHOL- AND DRUG-RELATED CRASHES Alcohol- and drug-related crashes continue to be one of the highest priority problem identification areas (in Kentucky and across the nation) and considerable emphasis is being placed on programs to impact those problems. In Kentucky, the number of traffic crashes in which alcohol was listed as a contributing factor on the crash report has averaged about 4,779 per year for the past five years. Alcohol-related fatalities have averaged 167 per year during the past five years (using Fatal Analysis Reporting System data). Using the number of fatalities and injuries in alcohol-related crashes, the estimated cost of alcohol-related crashes in Kentucky in 2012 varied from about $570 million using economic cost data up to about $848 million using comprehensive cost data from the National Safety Council. The number of alcohol-related crashes has generally decreased over the past several years. In the early 1980's, the annual number of alcohol crashes was over 10,000. This number decreased to the relatively constant level of approximately 7,700 to 8,100 from 1985 through 1990 with a gradual reduction to a low of 5,995 in The first yearly increase since 1990 occurred in 1995 (to 6,163). The number of alcohol-related crashes then decreased yearly through 1998 to 5,222. In 1999, there was a slight increase and a larger increase in In 2001, the decrease in alcohol-related crashes started again. The total decreased slightly in 2012 (to 4,648) which represents a 3.4 percent decrease compared to the previous four-year average. The number this year is the lowest number since this trend analysis was started in Alcohol-related crashes represented about four percent of all crashes during the latest five-year period. The number of alcohol-related fatalities in 2012 (148) was lower (14.0 percent) than the previous four year average (172). To identify alcohol-related crash problem areas, percentages of crashes involving alcohol were summarized for counties and cities as shown in Tables 20 and 21, respectively. In Table 20, the number and percentage of crashes involving alcohol were determined by considering all drivers and those less than 21 years of age. This allowed a separate analysis for young drivers. The counties are listed by county population group in order of descending percentages of alcohol crashes for all drivers. Counties in each population category having the highest percentage of crashes involving alcohol, considering all drivers, are Robertson, Lewis, Marion, Floyd, and Pike and Kenton. The information provided in Table 20 also may be used to determine the counties that have the highest percentages of crashes involving alcohol for young drivers by county population 9

32 category. The counties identified as having the highest percentages of alcohol-related crashes, considering only young drivers, were very similar to those identified when all drivers were considered. For 16 through 20 years of age drivers, the county in each population category having the highest percentage of crashes involving alcohol are Robertson, Washington and Monroe, Woodford, Boyle, and Oldham. Table 21 is a summary of number and percentage of crashes involving alcohol for cities. For each population category, cities having the highest percentages of crashes involving alcohol are Lexington, Covington, Fort Thomas, Elsmere, and Vine Grove. Additional analyses were performed to show the number and rate of alcohol convictions by county (Table 22). Rates are in terms of convictions per 1,000 licensed drivers and convictions per alcohol-related crash. Five years of conviction data (2008 through 2012) were used in the analysis. The data were obtained from records maintained by the Administrative Office of the Courts (AOC). Those same rates are presented in Table 23 with counties grouped by population ranges and rates are listed in order of descending percentages. Counties in each population group having the lowest rates of alcohol convictions per 1,000 licensed drivers are Robertson, Edmonson, Wayne, Scott and Madison. Counties having the lowest rates of alcohol convictions per alcohol-related crash are Robertson, Pendleton, Mason, Montgomery, and Madison. Counties having low rates for either convictions per 1,000 licensed drivers or convictions per alcohol-related crash may be candidates for increased enforcement or other special programs (especially if they have a high percentage of alcohol-related crashes). Data in Table 22 show that, statewide, there has been a decrease each year for the last five years in the number of alcohol convictions during the five-year period from a low of 19,074 in 2012 to a high of 24,296 in The number of alcohol convictions in 2012 decreased 23.4 percent from the average of the previous four years. A comparison was also made between the total alcohol filings, convictions, and nonconvictions, by county, for the five years of 2008 through 2012 (Table 24). The data for "driving under the influence" filings and the results of the filings were obtained from the AOC. The statewide percentage of alcohol convictions per filing over these five years was 85.4 percent. The percentages varied from a low of 56.3 percent in Leslie County to a high of 93.1 percent in Breathitt County. In previous years, the percentages would be affected by the overlapping effects of filings being made and convictions being prosecuted in different calendar years. However, the current procedure calculates conviction rate using those filings that are resolved with either a conviction or non-conviction in the same calendar year as the filing. The highest rates, in descending order, were found in Breathitt, Fayette, and Oldham counties. The lowest rates, in descending order, were found in Gallatin and Leslie Counties. The counties are grouped by population category and are placed in decreasing order of conviction percentage by population category in Table 25. The average conviction percentage did not vary substantially by population category with a range of from 81.3 to 85.1 percent. Counties having the highest conviction percentages in the various population categories are Hancock, Breathitt, Woodford, Jessamine and Fayette. Counties having the lowest conviction percentages for the various population categories are Gallatin, Leslie, Clay, Knox and Bullitt. 10

33 A drunk-driving offense may be reduced to a charge of reckless driving. This could occur when a person is arrested for drunk driving because of erratic driving behavior, and then field sobriety or BAC tests fail to confirm the drunk-driving charge. In addition, the severity of the penalty for drunk driving could result in a reduction of the drunk-driving charge to reckless driving. For those reasons, it was determined that a summary of reckless driving convictions would be beneficial. Numbers of reckless driving convictions and the rate of convictions per 1,000 licensed drivers for each county are presented in Table 26. In the time period of 2008 through 2012, the highest number of convictions at 3,570 was in There has been a decrease in the number of reckless driving convictions since that year. The number in 2012 was a 13.4 percent decrease from the average number in the previous four years. The highest rates (convictions per 1,000 licensed drivers) occurred in Lyon, Gallatin, and Cumberland Counties. The lowest rates are in Oldham, Trimble, and Green Counties. Drugs continue to be listed as a contributing factor in a relatively small percentage of all crashes. However, drugs have been found to be involved in a large number of fatal crashes (when blood tests are conducted). The number of drug-related crashes (as noted as a contributing factor on the police report) increased to 1,667 in 2012 compared to the lowest number of 1,397 in the previous four years in When compared to the previous four-year average, drug crashes increased by 9.6 percent in The number of drug-related fatal crashes increased by 0.5 percent in 2012 compared to the previous four-year average. In 2012 there were 215 fatal drug-related crashes. The number of drug-related injury crashes decreased by 2.8 percent in 2012 compared to the previous four-year average. Percentages of crashes involving drugs (as noted by the investigating officer) by county and population category for all roads are presented in Table 27. Counties having the highest percentages of drug-related crashes by population category are: Owsley, Martin, Johnson, Floyd, and Pike. The data in Table 27 show most of the counties with the highest percentages are in southeastern Kentucky. Counties with the highest percentages of this type of crash are Martin, Floyd, Leslie, Pike, Johnson, Owsley, Magoffin, Bath, and Elliott counties. The large difference in the percentage in Pike County compared with the other counties in its population category should be noted. Another summary was prepared to show percentages of crashes involving drugs by city population categories (Table 28). Within each population category, cities having the highest percentages of drug-related crashes were Louisville, Covington, Lawrenceburg, Pikeville, and Paintsville. The percentage in Paintsville was the highest at OCCUPANT PROTECTION The percentages of drivers of passenger cars involved in traffic crashes that were reported as wearing safety belts (listed by county) have been used to compare usage rates. However, it was known that these reported rates were much higher than found in observation surveys. Observation surveys were first taken in each county in 2004 by the Area Development Districts. These surveys were repeated for 2005 and 2007 but data has not been collected since These rates (for 2007) for each county were reported in Table 14. Those same 11

34 percentages are listed in descending order by county population category in Table 29. The rates varied from a high of 83.0 percent in Oldham County to a low of 40.1 percent in Monroe County. The data shows that 26 counties had a usage rate over 70 percent while 18 counties had a rate under 50 percent. The 2013 statewide survey found a usage rate of 85 percent. The statewide methodology does not collect data in every county but uses a representative sample of counties. It should be noted that the first statewide safety belt law (with secondary enforcement) was passed with an effective date in July The law was changed to allow primary enforcement with an effective date of July Prior to the statewide laws, local ordinances had been enacted by several cities and counties. The first such ordinances were enacted in Fayette County effective July 1, 1990 and in the city of Louisville effective July 1, Similar ordinances were adopted in Jefferson County, Murray, Kenton County, Bowling Green, Corbin, Bardstown, and Midway. Observational surveys conducted since the enactment of the local ordinances and statewide law have demonstrated their effectiveness in increasing usage rates. Even though a statewide safety belt law has been passed, there is a need for continued promotion and enforcement of the law. Counties having the potential for intensive promotional campaigns are identified by an asterisk in Table 29. Those sixteen counties were selected on the basis of their safety belt usage rate (as determined by the surveys taken by the Area Development Districts (ADD)), crash rates, and location in the state. Counties having low usage rates were identified with the criterion of selecting one county from within each of the 16 Kentucky State Police Posts' areas of jurisdiction. When possible, an attempt was made to select counties having high crash rates (either total crash rate or injury or fatal crash rate). Also, an attempt was made to select counties that had not been identified in the past couple of years. The safety belt usage rates in 2007 (from the ADD survey) are presented in Table 30 as a function of county population. This table shows the higher usage percentages for counties having over 50,000 population. Counties in the over 50,000 population category had a usage rate about 11 percent higher than for counties in the under 10,000 population category. Safety belts are recognized as an effective method of reducing the severity of injuries in traffic crashes. This is confirmed by the crash data presented in Table 31. This table shows that, when a driver of a motor vehicle is wearing a safety belt at the time of a crash, the chance of being fatally injured is reduced by about 98 percent compared to not wearing a safety belt. Also, the chance of receiving an incapacitating injury is reduced by 91 percent and the chance of receiving a non-incapacitating injury is reduced by 81 percent. Safety belts will greatly decrease the possibility of injury in crashes involving large deceleration forces, but some injury or complaint of soreness or discomfort may persist. In many instances, use of seat belts will reduce a severe injury to a less severe injury. The category of "possible injury", which involves a complaint of pain without visible signs of injury, decreased only 65 percent (from percent for drivers not wearing safety belts to 5.77 percent for drivers wearing safety belts). The chance of receiving either a fatal or incapacitating injury was reduced by 93 percent. These percentages are high when compared to national statistics concerning the effectiveness of safety belts in reducing fatal or serious injuries. The reason would probably be related to the over reporting of 12

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