A STUDY ON GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN THE WORKPLACE. Mrs. D. AARTHI Research Scholar in Management. Erode Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Erode

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1 A STUDY ON GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN THE WORKPLACE Mrs. D. AARTHI Research Scholar in Management Erode Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Erode. Dr. L. MANIVANNAN Associate Professor & Research Supervisor, Department of Corporate Secretaryship, Erode Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Erode Erode: ABSTRACT Gender discrimination in the workplace is an important issue affecting many women throughout the world. Unfair and unequal pay and level of occupation among women in the workplace is a large issue that is affecting the organizations today.this study identifies the factors underlying gender discrimination in Information Technology organizations. Based on analyses of data collected from 320employees working in IT companies, it is evident that gender inequality is still practiced in various forms in the organizations. These findings highlight the need to recognize and treat the employees without bias especially caste, creed, rich, poor, skilled, semi-skilled, average minded, highly knowledgeable, etc. KEYWORDS Discrimination, Gender Inequality, Information Technology, Workplace.

2 INTRODUCTION Gender discrimination in the workplace continues to be an enormous problem in recent years.the women employees experience disadvantage and unequal employment opportunities and outcomes in many developed and developing countries. In this regard, India is no exception. Gender equality is achieved when people are able to access and enjoy the same rewards, resources and opportunities regardless of whether they are a woman or a man. Women have caught up with men in terms of education. In fact, in Tamilnadu, women now actually surpass men in educational achievement. The problem arises when young adults try to balance work and family, and women end up carrying nearly all of the caregiving responsibilities. If women put many more hours into these household activities than men, this greatly disadvantages women in the workplace. However, women continue to earn less than men, are less likely to advance their careers as far as men, and are more likely to spend their final years in poverty. At the same time, men often find it more difficult to access family-friendly policies or flexible working arrangements than women. The aim of gender equality in the workplace is to achieve broadly equal outcomes for women and men, not exactly the same outcome for all individuals. To achieve this requires: Workplaces to provide equal pay for women and men for work of equal or comparable value The removal of barriers to the full and equal participation of women in the workforce. Access to all occupations and industries, including leadership roles, for women and men. Elimination of discrimination on the basis of gender, particularly in relation to family and caring responsibilities for both women and men. Achieving gender equality is important for workplaces not only because it is fair and the right thing to do, it is also vitally important to the bottom line of a business and the productivity of our nation. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY The gender discrimination in the workplace remains valid regardless of profession or differing social and cultural factors on which the different systems of work are based. The IT industryis expanding at a faster rate. The newness and the expanding nature of the IT industry has given an impression that it would be relatively immune to gender Namex International Journal of Management Research 34 Volume 6, Issue No. 1, Jan. June 2016

3 discrimination and would maintain gender equity in all management practices. However, from the examination of the IT employees in Tamilnadu, it reveals that gender discrimination is predominant in this industry. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study is an overall attempt to spot the gender discrimination of the employees in the workplace. Based on the above, a question is scrutinized to this issue. Are men and women treated equally in the workplace? Added to that, it is expected to know whether the employees have been a victim of gender discrimination. This study focuses on gender discrimination on the basis of various factors such as salary, promotion, biased attitude, workload partiality, hiring based on gender, etc. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are the main objectives of the study: To identify the major factors affecting the gender discrimination of employees working in the IT industries. To find out whether men and women are treated equally in their workplace. To find out whether the respondents have been a victim of gender discrimination. METHODOLOGY The strength of any research is based on the efficient method of data collection and analysis. Questionnaire was the important tool and mechanism used for collecting the primary information from the employees of IT industry. Hence, more importance and attention was given to frame the questionnaire in a systematic way by covering with relevant questions to ensure in achieving the research objective. The study group included 320IT employees and a questionnaire was circulated to the employees. They responded the questionnaire precisely which assessed socio economic factors, and the various factors which affect gender discrimination in the workplace. A stratified sampling method was used to obtain the Research sample. Pilot study was conducted with few samples and required modifications were included after the pilot study. First-hand information was collected together with the help of those questionnaires. The data collected from the primary sources are arranged in sequence and tabulated in a systematic manner. Factor Analysis Namex International Journal of Management Research 35 Volume 6, Issue No. 1, Jan. June 2016

4 Factor analysisis a tool used for data reduction. It is a multivariate technique and can be used to combine the related variables into a smaller number of relevant factors. Factor analysis computes pairs of correlation between all variables and the highly related variables are combined into factors. Percentage Analysis Percentage analysis is a method used to represent raw streams of data as a percentage for better understanding of the collected data. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Factor Analysis The Bartlett s test of spherically. The hypotheses are: H 0 : The factor analysis is not valid H 1: The factor analysis is valid Table 1: KMO and Bartlett s Test Kaiser Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.863 Approx. Chi Square Bartlett s Test of Sphericity df 45 Sig..000 From table 1, it is inferred that the significance (0.000) is less than the assumed value (0.05). Hence, the null hypothesisho is rejected. This means that the factor analysis is valid. The KMO coefficient is (0.863). The value is more than 0.5. So this implies that the factor analysis for data reduction is effective. Table 2 : Communalities Statements Initial Extraction Workload partiality Biased attitude gender Special privilege women Malemoresalary Male fasterpromotion Women cannothandlepower Only hiring people of a certain gender More attention gender Not promotinggender Paycutsgender Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Namex International Journal of Management Research 36 Volume 6, Issue No. 1, Jan. June 2016

5 Statements Work Load partiality Biased attitude gender Special privilege women Male more salary Male Faster promotion Women cannot Handle Power Only hiring people of a certain gender More attention gender Not promoting gender Paycut gender Table 3: Correlation Matrix Workload partiality Biased attitude Special privilege Male moresalary Male faster promotion Women cannot handle power Only hiring people of a certain gender More attention gender Not promoting gender Paycutsgender

6 Table 4: Total Variance Explained Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. From table.4, i.e Total Variance Explained, it is inferred that only two factors have Eigen values over 1. So our result has two factors. Namex International Journal of Management Research 38 Volume 6, Issue No. 1, Jan. June 2016

7 From the Scree Plot, it is evident that the Scree starts with the 2 nd factor, therefore2 factors are assumed. Table 5:Rotated Component Matrix a Statements Component 1 2 Workload_partiality Biased_attitude_gender Special_privilege_women Male_more_salary Male_faster_promotion Women_cannot_handlePower Only hiring people of a certain gender More_attention_gender Not_promoting_gender Paycuts_gender Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a. Rotation converged in 3 iterations. Namex International Journal of Management Research 39 Volume 6, Issue No. 1, Jan. June 2016

8 From the rotated component matrix, the constituents of each factor are identified. The constituents are: Factor 1 Factor 2 Male Employees Getting More Salary. Male Employees Getting Faster Promotion. Only Hiring People Based On Gender. Attention& Instruction Based On Gender. Promotion Based On Gender. Gender Based Paycuts Workload Partiality. Biased Attitude. Special Privilege For Women. Women Cannot Handle Power. From the constituent variables, the factors are named as follows: Factor 1 Staffing factors Factor 2 Behavioural factors Table6: Component Score Coefficient Matrix Statements Component 1 2 Workload_Partiality Biased_Attitude_Gender Special_Privilege_Women Male_More_Salary Male_Faster_Promotion Women_Cannot_Handlepower Only Hiring People Of A Certain Gender More_Attention_Gender Not_Promoting_Gender Paycuts_Gender Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Namex International Journal of Management Research 40 Volume 6, Issue No. 1, Jan. June 2016

9 F 1 = ( X X X X X X X X X X10) F 2 = (0.422 X X X X X X X X X X10) F 1, F 2 are the two factors. X1 = Workload partiality. X2 = Biased attitude. X3 = Special privilege for women. X4 = Male employees getting more salary. X5 = Male employees getting faster promotion. X6 = Women cannot handle power. X7 = Only hiring people based on gender. X8 = Attention & instruction based on gender. X9 = Promotion based on gender. X10 = Gender based pay cuts. Percentage analysis: Table 7: Respondent s Opinion On Gender Discrimination Statement Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Yes Sometimes No Total Table 7 shows that nearly 33% of the employees working in IT industry feel that only sometimes, men and women are treated equally in their workplace. About 26 % of the employees feel that men and women are not treated equally in the workplace. Nearly 41% of the employees feel that men and women are treated equally. Namex International Journal of Management Research 41 Volume 6, Issue No. 1, Jan. June 2016

10 Table 8: Respondent s Opinion On Victim Of Gender Discrimination Statement Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Yes No Total Table 8shows that 49 % of the employees in the IT industry believe that they have been a victim of gender discrimination in the workplace. FINDINGS Research from the employees working in IT industry in Tamilnadu shows that 49% of the employees in the IT industry believe that they have been a victim of gender discrimination in the workplace. About 59 % of the employees feel that men and women are not treated equally in the workplace. Two major factors such as Staffing and Behavioural factors are identified from ten variables pertaining to the gender discrimination. SUGGESTIONS For the tide to turn in women s favor, leaders must take an active role by championing women in IT industry and making their companies a safe, welcoming environment for all employees. The companies must find ways of promoting gender equality at every stage of the hiring process and career progression. The companies should provide a fair and transparent salary range and ask applicants to position themselves within it during the interview. The gender equality should be made as a part of training and education. Young people should be supported in choosing jobs that are future-oriented and promising, regardless of their gender. The companies should be proactive about welcoming women. Companies should clearly state that they want to hire, support and promote women. Salaries and promotions should be monitored and evaluated on a regular basis to ensure equal treatment. Networking, mentoring and coaching opportunities can help women build confidence and develop their careers. Namex International Journal of Management Research 42 Volume 6, Issue No. 1, Jan. June 2016

11 CONCLUSION Gender discrimination remains a major barrier to human development. Women have made major strides since 1990, but they have not yet gained gender equity. All too often, women are discriminated against in health, education, political representation, labour market, etc with negative repercussions for development of their capabilities and their freedom of choice.as a society, we need to continue to encourage people to go beyond stereotypes and recognize the contributions that each individual, male or female, can make to the workplace and to relationships at home. REFERENCES Ania, Rodriguez. (2015, September 8). Gender Inequality Is Hurting the Tech Industry What can You Do About It? Retrieved from Chandrasekhar &Jayati. (2015).Growth, employment patterns and in equality in Asia: A Case Study of India. ILO Asia- Pacific Working Paper Series. Garcia, Patricia.(2016).New Study Finds Gender Discrimination in the Tech Industry Is still Sky-High. Staermose.India must have zero tolerance for workplace sexual harassment. Retrieved from Trachsel.(2014,October 29).Six ways to fix gender inequality at work, Equality of Men and Women of the Canton, Zurich Williams, Jenny. IT industry is too apathetic to tackle gender discrimination, University of Gloucestershire.Retrieved from Namex International Journal of Management Research 43 Volume 6, Issue No. 1, Jan. June 2016