Present trends and climate change projections for the Mediterranean region

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1 Present trends and climate change projections for the Mediterranean region Prof. Piero Lionello, Science of Materials Department, University of Salento, Italy

2 Plan of the talk: An introduction to the climate of the Mediterranean region. Present trends of precipitation and temperature Climate projections for the Mediterranean region Water scarcity Other factors

3

4 1700km 3700km

5 10 out of 30 Köppen climate types are present around the Mediterranean Sea

6 Past winter precipitation (DJF) Luterbacher J. et al. (2005), Mediterranean climate variability over the last centuries: a review In P.Lionello, P.Malanotte-Rizzoli, R.Boscolo (eds) Mediterranean Climate Variability. Amsterdam: Elsevier (NETHERLANDS).

7 Graphics based on CRU (Climatic Research Unit) climatology, interpolated from station data to 0.5 degree lat/lon grid ( New, M., M. Hulme and P. Jones, 1999a and b)

8 Temperature DJF MAM JJA SON

9 Precipitation DJF MAM JJA SON Pre_season_19 75_2000

10 Present trends of precipitation and temperature

11 Temperature trend DJF MAM JJA SON

12 Precipitation trends DJF MAM JJA SON

13 Wet season precipitation trend ( ) Acknowledgement: Xoplaki, 2002; Xoplaki et al., 2004 mm/50years

14 ECA&D: EUROPEAN CLIMATE ASSESSMENT & DATASET Participants and data Today, ECA&D has 53 participants from 41 countries and the ECA dataset contains 7033 series of observations at 2317 meteorological stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean (see Daily data > Data dictionary for an overview of all available series). Participation to ECA&D is open to anyone maintaining daily station data. If you want to join please contact us.

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16

17 Though there is a possibly widespread over-perception of precipitation trends, reduction of (winter) precipitation is observed over large areas of the Mediterranean region. The signal for temperature is much clearer than for precipitation: there is positive trend with an acceleration during the last part of the 20th century involving the whole Mediterranean region. Clear positive trend of heat waves, less clear trend for a more extreme precipitation regime In general, it is important to increase the number of long time series Risoluzione 5

18 MODEL Grid interval 20C B1 A1B A2 CCMA-3-T47 CNRM-CM3 CSIRO-MK3 GFDL-CM2-0 GFDL-CM2-1 GISS-AOM GISS-E-R INMCM3 IPSL-CM4 MIROC3-2H MIROC3-2M MIUB-ECHO-G MPI-ECHAM5 MRI-CGCM2 NCAR-CCSM3 NCAR-PCM1 UKMO-HADCM3 ~2.7 deg ~2.8 deg ~2.3 deg ~2.2 deg ~2.2 deg ~3.5 deg ~4.5 deg ~4.5 deg ~3.0 deg ~1.2 deg ~2.8 deg ~3.2 deg ~2.3 deg ~2.8 deg ~1.4 deg ~2.8 deg ~3.0 deg List of models, grid interval (atmosphere) and experiments used in this work. 20C indicates experiments for the 20c century, B1, A1B and A2, experiments for the 21st century under forcing deriving from the corresponding IPCC emission scenarios. The grid interval is approximate, as it may vary across latitudes and may be different in the longitude and latitude directions. More detailed information on models and experiments is available the PCMDI web site for.

19 Precipitation change (%) Temperature change (C) 4 ( ) minus ( ) Observed -4 MGME Observed 0.4 MGME DJF MAM JJA SON Observed (CRU data) and MGME ensemble average change in precipitation (upper panel) and surface air temperature (lower panel) for the four seasons over the full Mediterranean region (land only) minus Units are % of value for precipitation and degrees C for temperature. from Giorgi and Lionello, 2007

20 Temperature change (C, minus ), MGME ensemble average, A1B scenario DJF MAM JJA SON from Giorgi and Lionello, 2007

21 Precipitation change (%, minus ), MGME ensemble average, A1B scenario DJF MAM JJA SON from Giorgi and Lionello, 2007

22 0 Evolution in time of precipitation (upper panel) and temperature (lower panel) Precipitation Change (%) MGME ensemble average, A1B scenario Temperature change (C) DJF MAM JJA SON from Giorgi and Lionello, 2007

23 JJA temperature anomalies (relative to ) Black lines: observations, Coloured lines: models Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003 Stott, Stone & Allen, Nature, Dec. 2004

24 5 degs Risoluzione 5

25 4 degs Risoluzione 4

26 3 degs Risoluzione 3

27 2 degs Risoluzione 2

28 1 degs Risoluzione 1

29 0.5 degs Risoluzionem 0.5

30 0.2 degs Risoluzione 0.2

31 0.1 degs Risoluzione 0.1

32 From Zampieri et al DJF JJA

33 From Zampieri et al DJF JJA

34

35 Precipitation annual cycle of monthly means averaged over the Northern Adriatic region. Different lines correspond to CRU data in red color for period , to CTR ensemble mean, in green, computed for period over the PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES and SMHI data, to SCN-A2 ensemble mean, in blue, computed for period over the PRUDENCE data, and to SCNA1B and scn-a1b, in violet for period and light blues for period , respectively, computed over ENSEMBLES and SMHI data. From Zampieri et al. 2009

36 From Giorgi,, GRL, 2006

37 Large warming (very likely) and reduced precipitation (likely, with rather large spatial variability) are the projected consequence of anthropogenic climate change in large parts of the Mediterranean (including Middle east) Models are not flawless. Regionalization is important for the Mediterranean area.

38 Future water availability Milly et al 2005 A1B scenario, mid 21st century relative to GCMs, hatched > 90% agreement

39 Mediterranean ecosystems have been strongly modified years of sheap breeding years of wheat cultivation yrs of olive/fruit trees Palestine 200 A.D. > 5 million people Le Houérou 1981 Slide courtesy of H.Hoff MEA 2005

40 25000 Population in the Middle East and Northern Africa Cyprus Gaza Strip Israel Lebanon Syria Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Tunisia

41 urban population: 44% in 1950, 64% in 2000, 74% in 2025

42 Conclusions The geographic Mediterranean region is climatically inhomogeneous and characterized by a strong time variability There is a clear warming signal, affecting also extreme indicators. Precipitation trends are an issue (they appear not so robust as for temperature, there is a data problem) Climate projections in the Mediterranean region need high space resolution. Capability of models to reproduce present climate patterns and trends are not adequate, especially for precipitation Models agree that the Mediterranean region is a hot spot for climate change: Large warming and strong precipitation decrease are projected by most models Water scarcity is a major issue that, if not properly managed, might become dramatic in future Societal factors are at least as important as (likely more than ) climate change physical drivers for availability of future water resources

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