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1 Exploring Disaster Recovery Coordination: Stakeholder Interfaces, Goals and Interdependencies Emmanuel Raju DOCTORAL DISSERTATION by due permission of the Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, Sweden. To be defended at K:F, Kemi Centrum, Lund Tuesday, 17 th December 2013, at am Faculty opponent Professor David Alexander, University College London 1

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3 Exploring Disaster Recovery Coordination: Stakeholder Interfaces, Goals and Interdependencies Emmanuel Raju 3

4 Supervisor Professor Kurt Petersen, Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University Co-Supervisors Associate Professor Henrik Tehler, Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University Associate Professor Per Becker, Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University Assessment Committee Professor David Alexander, University College London (Opponent) Associate Professor Björn Ivar Kruke,University of Stavanger, Norway Associate Professor Fredrik Bynander, Uppsala University, Uppsala Associate Professor Christine Wamsler, Lund University, Lund Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE Lund, Sweden Lund University Centre for Risk Assessment and Management (LUCRAM) Lund 2013 Report 1053 ISSN ISRN LUTVDG/TVBB 1053 SE ISBN (Print) ISBN (PDF) Copyright Emmanuel Raju and the Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, 2013 Printed in Sweden by Media-Tryck, Lund University Lund 2013 A part of FTI (the Packaging and Newspaper Collection Service) 4

5 Table of Contents Summary 7 Sammanfattning 8 Acknowledgements 9 1 Introduction 11 2 Scope 15 Aim and Research Question 15 Appended Papers 16 Limitations 17 Research Process 18 Thesis Outline 18 3 Theoretical Framework 21 Disaster Recovery 22 Coordination 24 Values and Social Interfaces 26 Interdependencies in Disaster Recovery 28 Summary 30 4 Methodology 31 Approach 31 Literature Reviews 34 Data Collection Methods 34 Data Analysis 37 5

6 5 Research Contributions 39 Background and Summary of Research Papers 39 Addressing the Research Question 46 Summary 56 6 Discussion 59 Social Interfaces and Values 60 Coordination: Temporary or Long Term? 62 Interdependencies in Disaster Recovery 63 What is Coordination? 65 Research Generalisability 66 Recovery Coordination: A Governance Issue? 69 Reflections on the Research Process 71 Ideas for Future Research 72 7 Conclusions 73 References 75 Papers I-V 6

7 Summary The number of disasters across the world have been increasing. With the increasing number of stakeholders taking part in all activities of disaster risk management, one of the key challenges is coordination. There has been an immense focus on this issue in disaster response management. This thesis highlights a knowledge gap in disaster recovery, particularly referring to coordination. This thesis explores factors affecting coordination, specifically in disaster recovery. It is based on cases from Tamil Nadu, India in the aftermath of the tsunami of 2004; and from repeated flooding from 2006 to 2008 in the Western Cape region in South Africa. The main findings of the thesis, the factors affecting recovery coordination are as follows: (1) Variety of stakeholders, and differing levels of participation; (2) The meaning of Coordination; (3) Values; (4) Goals and Mandates; (5) Role of the Government; and (6) Interdependencies between Stakeholders. Although there may be numerous factors affecting coordination, the identified factors are a result of a combination of themes emerging from the data itself and from the analysis of the author. Coordination in disaster recovery presents a different set of characteristics in comparison to disaster response. Further, along with complexity of disaster recovery, the sheer numbers of stakeholders complicates the coordination problem. With different stakeholders having different meanings and opinions of coordination, it affects the nature of collaboration in recovery. Differing goals and mandates of stakeholders in disaster recovery, along with having different values presents an impact on the overall results of recovery coordination. This is reflected in minimal collaboration and lack of joint programming in disaster recovery. Further, the process is affected by an excessive number of parallel coordination structures that emerge in the aftermath of disasters. This is also exemplified by a general lack of institutionalizing plans for disaster recovery coordination. The findings also indicate that there are different types of dependencies between stakeholders involved in disaster recovery. The thesis elaborates that coordination in disaster recovery settings is primarily associated with information sharing. Therefore, the discussion lays emphasis on the need for coordination beyond information sharing and the need for more collaborative efforts. 7

8 Sammanfattning Antalet katastrofer runt om i världen har ökat. Med det ökande antalet aktörer som deltar i katastrofriskhanteringen har en av nyckelutmaningarna blivit koordinering. Denna fråga har varit i fokus avseende hantering av katastrofer i den akuta fasen. Denna avhandling lyfter fram ett kunskapsgap avseende återuppbyggnaden efter katastrofer, i synnerhet utmaningen med koordinering. Denna avhandling utforskar faktorer som påverkar koordinering, framförallt under återuppbyggnad efter katastrofer. Avhandlingen baserar sig på studier från Indien i efterdyningarna av tsunamin 2004 och från upprepade översvämningar mellan 2006 och 2008 i Västra Kapprovinsen i Sydafrika. Resultaten lyfter fram ett antal faktorer som påverkar koordinering. Dessa är: (1) Mångfalden av aktörer och olika nivåer av deltagande, (2) Betydelsen av begreppet koordinering, (3) Värden och värderingar, (4) Mål och mandat, (5) Statens roll, och (6) Ömsesidiga beroenden mellan aktörer. Även om det kan finnas andra faktorer som påverkar koordinering är det de ovan identifierade som framkommit direkt från data från studierna och författarens analys. Koordinering under återuppbyggnaden efter katastrofer har andra karakteristika än koordinering under akut hantering. Vidare bidrar, jämte den inneboende komplexiteten i återuppbyggnad efter katastrofer, även det stora antalet aktörer som är involverade till problem med koordinering. Att olika aktörer lägger olika innebörd i begreppet och har olika åsikter om koordinering påverkar också. Olika aktörers skilda mål och mandat under återuppbyggnaden efter katastrofer tillsammans med att de har olika värderingar påverkar resultatet av koordinering, vilket speglas i låg grad av samarbete och gemensam planering under återuppbyggnadsskedet. Vidare påverkas koordineringen av förekomsten av parallella koordineringsstrukturer som uppkommer efter en katastrof. Detta visar sig också i en generell brist på institutionaliserade planer för koordinering under återuppbyggnaden efter katastrofer. Avhandlingens resultat visar också på förekomsten av flera olika typer av beroenden mellan aktörer som är involverade i hanteringen. I avhandlingen lyfts fram att koordinering i samband med återuppbyggande efter katastrofer främst har att göra med informationsutbyte. Därför betonas i diskussionen behovet av koordinering bortom informationsutbyte i form av mer utvecklat faktiskt samarbete. 8

9 Acknowledgements It would have been impossible for me to come this far without the support of many people. Many thanks to all my supervisors Kurt Petersen, Henrik Tehler and Per Becker who have been a great support from the beginning. Kurt, thank you for always being so positive and encouraging. Henrik, I owe a lot to you for guiding me through many reflections and for your patience especially during the last days of the thesis. Per, thank you for being a friend and supervisor; always open to discussions and for constant support through the PhD work. Very special thanks to Christian Uhr for leading the discussions during my final seminar and for all the constructive feedback. Many thanks to all my friends and colleagues at Brandteknik for the wonderful working environment. The Risk Group has always been very supportive. Thank you for all the journal clubs and peer review sessions, after work discussions, and for reading the many drafts of this thesis. The many visits to Tamil Nadu in India have always been inspiring with new thoughts and ideas. A special thanks to Annie George and Parivelan. Annie and your team, for always guiding me and for all the support, and interesting coffee conversations during my fieldwork. Pari, thanks for always being willing to help and for your constant support throughout. In South africa, it has been a pleasure working with Dewald and the team at the African Centre for Disaster Studies. Friends have always been a great source of motivation. Many thanks to all of you in India in Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai and Mumbai. I would not have come this far if not for all the encouragment. Radhe, you are dearly missed! These four years have been amazing. Life in Sweden would surely not be the same without Naresh and Neenu. For all the conversations, the madness and for always being there, thanks a ton to the entire TC family. This journey would not have been so exciting without the encouragement and love of my family. Amma and Appa, I fall short of words to express my gratitude. I am deeply grateful for all the smiles and for walking this path with me. Teena and Angelo, thanks a million for everything. Thank you all. Lund, November 10, 2013 Emmanuel 9

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11 1 Introduction In the wake of recovery Globally the number of natural disasters affecting us has increased in the last decades (Guha-sapir et al. 2012) and the shape and dynamics of crises and disasters is changing (Boin 2009: 367). Many at-risk areas have to cope with new disasters before they have recovered from previous ones (IFRC 2000). Disasters have become more severe and the challenge of integrating disaster risk reduction, climate change and international development has grown (Schipper and Pelling 2006). Consequently, international stakeholders have placed an immense focus on natural disasters and particularly on disaster response. This thesis explores the factors that affect disaster recovery coordination specifically. It was inspired by personal visits and my experience of tsunami-affected regions in India in In the past ten years, Asia has been worst affected by disasters (Guha-sapir et al. 2012). One such disaster was the Indian Ocean tsunami of I visited Tamil Nadu in This was the worst-affected mainland state in India, and I met many stakeholders working in recovery operations. Personal conversations with stakeholders involved in the coordination of these activities drew my attention to the complexity of disaster recovery. As I travelled along the affected coastline, I listened to the different experiences of stakeholders involved in both relief and recovery. During this visit, the city of Chennai caught my attention; this is an urban context where disaster recovery issues seemed to be particularly complex, involving issues of land rights and housing. Although the recovery effort that followed the 2004 tsunami is one of the best-funded in history (TEC 2006; Telford and Cosgrave 2007), my visit in 2008 (four years after the disaster) showed that there were communities in Chennai that were still waiting for a decision on issues of housing reconstruction. During this time, despite the involvement of many stakeholders and high levels of funding, communities had continued to live in temporary shelters or damaged houses. This observation has also been highlighted by Mulligan and Nadarajah (2012). With so many stakeholders on board, disaster response and recovery requires many jurisdictions and organizations in planning and coordinating (Berman and Korosec 2005). There is a clear agreement between scholars and practitioners on the importance of coordination in disaster situations. However, the lack of coordination between 11

12 agencies is one perennial finding of post-disaster inquiries (Handmer and Dovers 2007: 152). Factors such as insufficient importance being given to local governance and a lack of participatory approaches have been identified as challenges for disaster recovery (IRP 2007). Coordination in such contexts is complex (Kruke and Olsen 2005; Comfort et al. 2001) and has not received much attention from disaster recovery scholars. The complexity and diversity of these factors as well as the interaction with many different types of actors being involved only begins to explain why there has been such neglect of disaster recovery in writing, policy and practice typically, until after a disaster happens (IRP 2007:22). With so many stakeholders, many important questions about coordination (e.g. who leads the process and to what extent) have only been raised after the disaster has happened (Bennett et al. 2006). Furthermore, reports have highlighted that it is not sufficient to organize coordination meetings, but the ground rule of functioning must also be formulated (ibid: 36). Although coordination has been identified as a critical element for success in all functions of disaster risk management, Moore et al. (2003) highlighted that there have been few attempts to evaluate inter-organizational coordination. Comfort et al. (2004: 63) raised a pertinent question: Why is coordination so admired in theory, but so difficult to achieve in practice? Time and time again scholars have highlighted the challenges and problems of disaster coordination, but most studies have focused on coordination of the disaster response (e.g. Quarentelli 1997; Granot 1997; Drabek and McEntire 2002). The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami (which I will look at in detail in this thesis) was one such example, and attracted massive attention (Telford and Cosgrave 2007). The sudden and overwhelming needs following a disaster lead to both international attention and vast challenges for coordination (Katoch 2006). In such situations, many public and private; national (also local and regional) and international stakeholders are involved in various disaster relief operations (Granot 1997; Scheinder 1992; Kory 1998; Katoch 2006), and there is even competition to be the organisation that responds first to the disaster (Stephenson 2005: 337). As multiple actors are involved in disaster situations, institutional convergence and co-ordination at all levels is one of the biggest challenges (Menon 2007: 48) and global response aspirations mitigate against linking relief and rehabilitation to long-term development (Telford 2006: 4). Although the Holy Grail of disaster relief is to coordinate and cooperate in an effective response (Quarantelli 1997; Granot 1997; Drabek and McEntire 2002), it is difficult to achieve in practice (Comfort 2004). Post-tsunami recovery was further affected by a lack of understanding of local issues and insufficient coordination of resources (Koria 2009: 129). The literature also raises another crucial issue; large-scale recovery projects are rarely systematically evaluated to check whether their goals have been achieved (Labadie 2008). Although the literature encourages participatory reconstruction and recovery (e.g. Oliver-Smith 1991; IRP 2007; Duyne Barenstein and Iyengar 2010), my initial 12

13 literature review highlighted that research into recovery coordination is sparse. In the Indian context, the Gujarat earthquake in 2001 was one of the first disasters to establish coordination structures in collaboration with the government and civil society organizations. Coordination of the recovery process was largely understood as information management and processing (UNDP 2001: 5). During my preliminary visits for this thesis, stakeholders in Tamil Nadu said that coordination was a key factor in response and recovery, largely drawing upon the experiences and expertise of Gujarat. Conversations with stakeholders highlighted that coordination was one of the central themes for disaster recovery. Coordination structures were set up at all administrative levels by different stakeholders to facilitate effective relief and recovery. Given that disaster recovery in general is an under-researched area (Smith and Wenger 2006), coordination is a theme that is rarely discussed. A study of the Mozambique floods in 2000 highlighted that coordination worked better during the emergency period than during the recovery period (Moore et al. 2003: 316), and stated the need for further research into disaster recovery coordination. There is greater need for research on participatory planning specifically for post-disaster recovery (Chandrashekar 2010: 15). In the light of the issues presented above, this thesis focuses on coordination in disaster recovery. Therefore this thesis is driven by the need to understand and critically examine the facets of disaster recovery coordination. 13

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15 2 Scope Two roads diverged in a wood, and I I took the one less travelled by, And that has made all the difference Robert Frost Aim and Research Question Disaster recovery is a crucial aspect of disaster risk management. Although the boundaries cannot be clearly defined, the transition from disaster response to recovery raises questions about the nature and scope of coordination during recovery. This thesis is based on a case study from Tamil Nadu in India in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami and a case study from the Western Cape region of South Africa, which was repeatedly affected by floods. The Indian Ocean tsunami that devastated Asia in 2004 attracted massive international attention from the media and donors. In the wake of this disaster, and with the experience of the Gujarat earthquake of 2001, civil society organizations working in collaboration with the Government of Tamil Nadu and United Nations (UN) agencies set up an initial coordination body in the worst-affected district of Nagapattinam. Following the immediate impact of the disaster, coordination structures were established at the district and state level to facilitate relief and recovery activities. In South Africa, repeated flooding in the Western Cape region has led many governmental departments and non-governmental agencies to become involved in recovery efforts. Studies have highlighted that coordination has been a crucial issue in this region (Gows et al. 2005; Holloway et al. 2010). Although there was immense media attention in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami, in my earlier observations and notes from my visit in 2008 to Tamil Nadu, I had observed a quantitative decline in the number of organizations involved in these coordination platforms in comparison to disaster response. Similarly, in South Africa the government machinery has dealt with repeated flooding through ad-hoc planning bodies, and it is not clear how district municipalities can become involved and coordinate recovery efforts. 15

16 Following my visit to Tamil Nadu, and given the initial media reports of massive coordination efforts, I wondered what the level of coordination would be during recovery. What had happened to the coordination platforms that were established? How did coordination in 2008 compare to when the disaster struck in 2004? With these questions in mind, my research is aimed at building a better understanding of the factors affecting disaster recovery coordination. It aims to develop deeper knowledge in the field of multi-organizational coordination for disaster recovery. In order to understand the larger implications of coordination for the recovery process, this thesis aims to understand the various factors that influence or affect recovery coordination. To achieve this, my thesis aims to answer the following research question: What factors affect coordination in the disaster recovery process? As the thesis is based on scientific articles, the specific research question of each of the papers is used to answer the above research question. Appended Papers In order to answer this research question, my thesis is based on a synthesis of five peerreviewed journal articles. Three of the articles have been published and two have been submitted for publication. Paper I Raju, E Coordination from Disaster Response to Recovery in post-tsunami (2004) in India Submitted to an international peer-reviewed journal. Paper I is an exploration of operational differences in coordination during disaster response and recovery. Paper II Raju, E Housing Reconstruction in Disaster Recovery: A Study of Fishing Communities Post-tsunami in Chennai, India PLoS Currents: Disasters, (5) Paper II investigates housing reconstruction and relocation in disaster recovery and the interfaces emerging between the government and communities. Paper III Raju, E. and Becker, P Multi-Organisational Coordination for Disaster Recovery: The Story of Post-tsunami Tamil Nadu, India, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 4: Paper III explores the factors affecting coordination in the specific case of the tsunami. 16

17 Author Contributions: As the main author, I was responsible for designing and conducting the study. Also, I played a major role in data analysis and writing the paper. Paper IV Raju, E. and Van Niekerk, D Intra-governmental Coordination for Sustainable Disaster Recovery: A Case-study of the Eden District Municipality, South Africa International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 4: Paper IV investigates intra-governmental coordination following the flooding n the Eden District Municipality in South Africa. Author Contributions: As the main author, I was responsible for designing and conducting the study. Also, I played a major role in data analysis and writing the paper. Paper V Raju, E., Becker, P., and Tehler, H Exploring Interdependencies and Common Goals in Disaster Recovery Coordination Submitted to an international peer-reviewed journal. Paper V explores interdependencies in disaster recovery with a specific focus on posttsunami coordination in India. Author Contributions: As the main author, I was responsible for designing and conducting the study. Also, I played a major role in data analysis and writing the paper. Limitations This thesis is an exploratory study of disaster recovery coordination. It is a small step forward in identifying the factors affecting coordination. Due to time constraints, I am aware that it contains a limited number of case studies. This gives rise to the need to discuss issues of generalizability, which are partly addressed in Chapter 4 and later in Chapter 6. There is a greater need to address why the factors identified in the study arise. Furthermore, there is an important nexus between disaster response, disaster recovery and disaster risk reduction (DRR). This thesis focuses on recovery. Although there may be aspects of recovery coordination that have broader implications for DRR and long-term development, this would constitute a study in itself. 17

18 Research Process As mentioned in the Introduction (Chapter 1), this thesis began with observations and personal experiences from the tsunami that affected areas of India in These initial observations lead to a study on relocation and housing reconstruction in Chennai, India (Paper II). In Tamil Nadu (India), coordination seemed to work well during the response, although conversations with experts working in post-tsunami relief and recovery highlighted that coordination was a challenge for long-term recovery. Disaster recovery coordination emerged as a key theme, and it was reviewed in detail in the disaster studies literature. As highlighted earlier, although coordination appeared to be a consistent theme in the disaster response literature, international humanitarian organizations have highlighted that it is problematic in recovery. This paved way for the question of why coordination is different during response and recovery? The results are presented in Paper I; respondents highlighted issues to do with coordination structures and the stakeholders involved. This observation led me to examine the factors affecting coordination in disaster recovery, which are presented in Papers III and IV. Paper IV is the result of an exchange program to the African Centre for Disaster Studies in South Africa. Discussions about repeated flooding in the Western Cape Province of South Africa inspired a study of the factors affecting coordination within and between government departments. This case could serve as a case to see if the findings from the tsunami may have present more general conclusions. The papers presented in this thesis are the result of an iterative process. Papers I, II and III emerged from field observations and personal experience, together with questions about the impact of one of the best-funded disaster recovery programs (as mentioned in Chapter 1). Paper IV contributed to bringing in a different dimension from South Africa about intragovernmental coordination. The questions addressed in Paper V are driven by both data from Paper III and theoretical questions emerging from the concept of coordination (these will be discussed in Chapter 3). Finally, I acknowledge that my findings are based on a limited number of case studies and the issue of generalizability is addressed in the methodology chapter. Thesis Outline This thesis consists of seven chapters and a bibliography and is based on the five appended papers. The following is a brief synopsis of the remaining chapters. Chapter 3 Theoretical Framework: This chapter defines the main concepts, and presents the theoretical foundations that the research for this thesis is based upon. 18

19 Chapter 4 Research Methodology: This chapter outlines the scientific methods used to answer the research question. Chapter 5 Research Contributions: The first part of this chapter is a summary of the appended papers. The later part elaborates upon, and answers the research question. Chapter 6 Discussion: This chapter discusses the research findings in the light of the theoretical background. Furthermore, it presents ideas for future research. Chapter 7 Conclusions: Here, the main conclusions of the thesis are presented in short bullet points. 19

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21 3 Theoretical Framework Our best thoughts come from others. - Emerson This thesis explores the dimensions of disaster recovery coordination. This chapter considers the theoretical underpinnings of the research question and defines the concepts of coordination, disaster recovery, social interfaces and interdependencies which are crucial to the thesis. Furthermore, it highlights related research in the field of coordination and disaster recovery and explains the concept of social interfaces, which is used as a tool to understand stakeholder relations in disaster recovery. Disasters bring together multiple actors who often differ in terms of their sector, expertise and nationality (Kettl 2008), as well as their abilities, values, norms and goals (Alberts et al. 2010). Moreover, the sheer number of actors affects coordination (Kruke and Olsen 2005; Comfort et al. 2001; Balcik et al. 2010). They come from both the public and private sector (Tierney and Oliver-Smith 2012; Christoplos et al. 2010; Berke et al. 1993), and there is even competition to be the first organisation to respond to the disaster (Comfort et al. 2001). One of the key post-tsunami issues was that the number and diversity of actors made coordination simultaneously more expensive and less effective (Telford and Cosgrave, 2007: 11).These actors may be forced into new and unplanned roles and responsibilities by the unfamiliar, complex and dynamic character of the situation (Neal and Philips 1995; Scanlon 1999; Drabek and McEntire 2003). In other words, disasters give rise to new ways of functioning depending on the local context and the needs of the situation (Christoplos et al. 2010). In addition, these different actors have different organizational mandates and goals, and are thus engaged in various activities. For instance, Quarentelli (1997) points out that the government and private actors may have different interests, tasks and goals. Although the response to the 2004 tsunami has been the focus of numerous evaluations, which at least in theory may represent a shift towards greater accountability (Bennett et al. 2006), evaluations of the response to and recovery from subsequent disasters indicate that there has not been sufficient progress since then (e.g. Comfort 2007; Nolte et al. 2012; Groupe URD 2011; Grunewald et al. 2010). 21

22 Disaster Recovery Recovery is described as a complex process (Rubin et al. 1985; Lloyd-Jones 2006; Berke et al. 1993; Tierney and Oliver-Smith 2012). The various built, natural, and social environments, as well as institutions and economies are interrelated in complex ways (Tierney and Oliver-Smith 2012: ). It is synthesized by three consistent themes in the literature, namely its non-linearity, holistic and dynamic nature (Johnson and Hayashi 2012: 228). Therefore, we know that it is not linear, but must encompass the myriad complexities of various temporal and spatial scales (Tierney and Oliver-Smith 2012; Johnson and Hayashi 2012). Also, recovery is not a final, identifiable state, but evolves from decisions made over time and is achieved most readily when local organisations are free to respond to their specific circumstances (Olshansky 2006: 148). It is a field where there is little consensus between authors. Bates and Peacock (1989) argue that one of the reasons for this is the interdisciplinary nature of disaster research. Many scholars highlight that although physical reconstruction after a disaster is an important component of the process, it is not the only one (Smith and Wenger 2007) and Nigg (1995) frames disaster recovery as a social process. This thesis defines recovery as a differential process of restoring, rebuilding and reshaping the physical, social, economic and natural environment through pre-event planning and post event actions (Smith and Wenger 2006: 237). This definition emphasises that recovery is a process shaped by several conditions occurring both before and after the disaster. Disaster recovery is one of the least-well understood aspects of disaster risk management (Smith and Wenger 2007; Berke et al. 1993). This may be attributed to the huge focus on post-disaster relief, which leaves little room for attention to long-term recovery, or at best, a fragmented approach (Lloyd-Jones 2006). However, at present notions of recovery have evolved in ways that recognise the non-linear and often iterative character of recovery (Tierney and Oliver-Smith, 2012: 126). As there are no distinct boundaries between response and recovery, the Gujarat earthquake of 2001 showed that it is important to improve coordination between a wide range of local, regional, national and international partners (UNDP 2001: 5) during the transition. Lloyd- Jones (2006) highlights that despite huge improvements in the emergency response to natural disasters, permanent reconstruction is often inefficiently managed, uncoordinated and slow to get off the ground. Coordinating disaster recovery is one such process that requires communication and participation from many governmental departments. Coordination between entities corresponds to activities that cannot be undertaken in isolation and the multiple actors involved have at least partially differing values; usually no single individual or organisation can control the process (Robinson et al. 2000). Authors have highlighted that the failure to involve a wide range of 22

23 stakeholders and poor decision-making during disaster recovery leads to disasters that are even more destructive in the future (Smith and Wenger 2007). Berke and Campanella (2006: 194) outline the importance of disaster recovery planning in terms of providing a vision for the future; it frames future goals, builds long-term resilience and can represent a big picture of the community that is related to broader regional, state, and national disaster response and reconstruction policies. Moreover, consistent with Smith and Birkland (2012: 150) effective recovery goes along with planning and coordination, and cooperative partnerships among the actors involved in the disaster recovery network. Decisions taken during disaster recovery have long-term implications (Olshansky 2006). Furthermore, planners have an obligation to play a crucial role in recovery, as affected communities will reconstruct their lives whether or not planners participate (ibid: 147). Recovery is more than just reconstruction and it is not neatly separable from either the response or the mitigation processes of disasters (Dynes and Quarentelli, 1989: 2). Recovery is bound to conflict and bureaucracy, and studies have highlighted the need for research into the effects of institutional arrangements that may prove to be incentives or barriers to recovery (Berke, Wenger and Kartez, 1993). Rubin (2009) noted the disappointing fact that recovery had lacked attention from researchers for over twenty years; and as stated earlier a similar observation was made by Smith and Wenger (2007). Rubin (1985; 2009) identified leadership, the ability to act and knowledge as the three key elements of the recovery process. Moreover, Rubin (ibid.) highlighted intergovernmental relationships as crucial for effective recovery. In a compilation of case histories of recovery from disasters across the world, Johnson and Olshansky (2013) highlighted the key lessons learned by recovery organizations. The first of these is to ensure sufficient funding and its management. The second is to increase the flow of information between the various actors to ensure effective decisionmaking. The third is to enable collaboration and coordination between different levels of government, and finally to handle time constraints by prioritizing both immediate and long-term recovery needs. It is also a time to include planning for the future (e.g. Alexander 2002). A key disaster recovery principle involves taking a comprehensive integrated approach, and giving importance to stakeholder participation in the process (Smith 2004; Duxbury and Dickinson 2007). After Hurricane Mitch struck Nicaragua in 1998, one of the key issues was a failure of the international community to understand local institutional frameworks. One among the many factors that contribute to successful disaster recovery depends on how effectively many different sets of organizational relationships are able to be coordinated and managed (IRP 2007: 34). Furthermore, research has highlighted that multi-agency collaboration is crucial to effective decision making in all aspects of disaster risk management (Gopalakrishnan and Okada 2007: 366). It is already known that confusion during reconstruction may be due to the failure 23

24 of government agencies to coordinate their efforts (Schwab et al. 1998). Similarly, Duyne Barnstein (2010: 150) argues that local stakeholders, including state governments, civil society organisations and local communities, have more influence on reconstruction approaches and outcomes than international actors do. Coordination Like many other terms, coordination has been defined in many ways in different domains. It must also be noted that terms such as coordination, collaboration and cooperation are used interchangeably by researchers (Drabek and McEntire 2002; Kilby 2008; Nolte et al. 2012). Coordination requires a clearly articulated goal, a shared knowledge base, and a set of systematic information search, exchange and feedback processes (Comfort et al. 2004). According to Klein (2001: 70), coordination is the attempt by multiple entities to act in concert in order to achieve a common goal by carrying out a script they all understand. It should however be noted that coordination at policy level is very different to coordination at field level (Bennett et al. 2006). It may also be mutually agreed upon cooperation about how to carry out particular tasks (Quarentelli 1997: 48) and has also been seen as...the degree to which there are adequate linkages among organizational parts, i.e., among specific task performances as well as sub-units of the organization, so that organizational objectives can be accomplished (Hage et al. 1971: 2). Drabek and McEntire (2002: 199) define coordination as a collaborative process through which multiple organisations interact to achieve common objectives. Looking at these definitions, the aspects that stand out are common tasks and goals. Therefore, in this thesis, coordination is defined as the act of managing interdependencies between activities performed to achieve a goal (Malone and Crowton 1990: 361). With regard to coordination, Wildavsky (1973: 142) writes that many of the world s ills are attributed to lack of coordination in government. Yet, so far as we know there has never been a serious effort to analyse the term. Coordination in the public sector is considered to be a longstanding problem (Bouckaert et al. 2010) as different governmental organizations and agencies have specific functions (Boin et al. 2007). At the same time, disaster risk reduction and response and recovery-related activities are considered to be an additional function (Templehoff et al. 2009). Research into governmental coordination shows that complex issues which do not fit neatly within a department portfolio, or span the interests of several departments, tend to be neglected (Flinders 2002: 57). A key issue that lies at the heart of this thesis is the point that there has been little distinction between coordination at the operational level (who does what and where) and strategic coordination at the policy level (such as for joint advocacy) (Telford and Cosgrave 2007: 12). Furthermore, it is crucial that 24

25 the stakeholders involved in recovery may have to engage with governments or authorities in a collaborative manner (Telford 2006: 4). In this context, an Oxfam study of post-tsunami recovery efforts highlights that communities are keen to be equal partners in recovery. Furthermore it goes on to say that local knowledge, capacity and priorities were overlooked (Oxfam 2009: 21). Despite the general objective of coordination structures which aim to bring actors together around a mutual platform, there are numerous examples of parallel structures being created in disaster situations (Bennett et al. 2006; Aubrey 2010; da Silva 2010). Not only must actors be in contact with each other, they must also be willing to coordinate with each other. Telford and Cosgrave (2007: 12) attribute one of the major constraints on coordination to the absence of any agreed representative mechanism. The most basic activity that facilitates coordination is to share information (IFRC 2000; NRC 2008). Although information sharing is vital for coordination, it has limited effects on the overall efficiency of the total operation if it is not combined with more collaborative efforts (IFRC 2000; NRC 2008). The deepest, most beneficial and also most difficult level of coordination is jointplanning and programming (ibid.). Here, actors join forces at many levels, not only sharing information and helping each other to solve particular problems, but planning and implementing joint activities to reach shared goals. Nolte et al. (2012) argue that there are differences in coordination and collaboration activities. According to them, collaboration refers to activities that cross organizational boundaries... (ibid: 709). In other words, the functioning of coordination structures can be summarized as: facilitating clear and common goals, effective and ongoing information sharing, concrete inter-actor collaboration and joint planning and programs. Furthermore, project goals cannot be attained without interaction and collaboration (ibid). A review of post-disaster coordination mechanisms in India highlighted that during the tsunami, stakeholders who engaged in coordination had local knowledge of the areas affected. In addition the delegation of power and authority from the state to local government was well-handled. However, the report also highlighted that some communities were not directly linked to the coordination structures and there was a lack of synergy between coordination cells (Chatterjee et al. 2010: 29). A report on the impact of the 2004 tsunami in Indonesia stressed the need for ample resources for coordination. Furthermore, it highlighted that making coordination one more task along with many other disaster-related duties may undermine the efficiency of the process (BRR 2009). The literature highlights the need for more research in this area, and Johnson and Olshansky (2013) pose the important question of why the same institutional problems repeatedly occur. Donor-related issues, such as funding and project expectations, are also highlighted as factors that affect coordination (Kruke and Olsen 2005; Balcik et al. 2010). In this regard, although external funding is required for disaster recovery, it is only effective 25

26 when there is a certain amount of flexibility (Olshansky, 2006). It has been argued that shared incentives have a high impact on coordination (Nolte et al. 2012), which is another indication that donors have a substantial influence on the effectiveness of coordination. Moore et al. (2003) exemplify this in their study of coordination following the Mozambique floods in They state that international NGOs were sometimes under significant pressure to spend money in a short period of time, thus leading to short-term thinking and fewer relevant projects with long-term benefits. At the same time, the time pressure for recovery is very high (Olshansky 2012). Olshansky refers to this phenomena as time compression and argues that it may have implications for the power relationships between stakeholders, interaction patterns and the exchange of information as the thirst for information is greater than the system can provide (ibid: 176). Furthermore, time compression may have implications for institutional design (ibid: 177) during recovery, as new organizations are formed (Quarantelli 1989) or existing organizations reorganize their functions (Quarantelli 1989; Wachtendorf 2004; Johnson and Olshansky 2013). Institutional reorganisation can happen at different levels: national government (when disasters cross geographical and political jurisdictions); regional governments (who handle response and recovery); and other organizations that may be created to coordinate between government departments (Johnson and Olshansky 2013). The UNISDR (2010: 15) highlights that for infrastructure recovery though a majority of the actual recovery actions taken are likely to occur at the local level, managed by local officials, regional or national coordination mechanisms will be required to ensure proper distribution of the many resources, technical assistance, internal and external financial assistance, and other special programs that will fuel the process, and the same arguments may apply to the broader recovery process. For example, Bennett et al. (2006: 25) draw attention to attempts to centralize the recovery process under one authority in Sri Lanka. They also note that this centralization may hamper decisionmaking in recovery. Values and Social Interfaces In this thesis, values are defined as desirable trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that serve as guiding principles in the life of a person or other social entity (Schwartz 1994: 21). For example, communities attach great importance to cultural values and their continuity in post-disaster relocation and reconstruction (Oliver-Smith 1991). This conceptualization of values can be expressed as different social entities that have different priorities in disaster recovery. 26

27 A complex situation with different values and priorities may contribute to different forms of social interfaces. These are defined as critical points of intersection between different social fields, domains or life worlds, where social discontinuities based upon differences in values, social interest and power are found (Long 2001: 177). Furthermore, interfaces typically occur at points where different, and often conflicting, life worlds or social fields intersect (ibid.). Long (2001) contends that although interface interactions presuppose some degree of common interest, they also have a propensity to generate clashes due to conflicting interests and unequal power relations. Actors with different values, interests and power (e.g. government departments, local and international NGOs, fishing communities, community-based organizations and other stakeholders) must interact during the recovery process. One study of values in disaster risk reduction revealed that there may be substantial variation in what is considered valuable when a variety of stakeholders are involved (Becker 2012). Therefore, interface phenomena are often embedded in critical events that tie together a number of spatially distinct, institutionally complex and culturally distinct activities (Long 2001: 84). When values are different, a clash of cultural paradigms occurs (Long 2001: 70). As long ago as the 1980s, Rubin and Barbee (1985: 61) highlighted the role of values; they noted that upholding community values in post-disaster setting was observed to be a difficult task. More recent research (Becker and Tehler 2013: 9) has noted that it is important to understand the different perspectives of stakeholders with respect to values as having an explicit dialogue of what is valuable and important to protect also seems to mobilise stakeholders who may not usually consider themselves important for disaster risk management. In disaster recovery, it is important to address not only stakeholders, but also multiple other sectors. Dynes and Quarentelli (1989: 3) note that the emergency phase then is a time period when things get done because values and priorities are clear and resource allocation is based on observable needs. The recovery period is characterized by conflicting priorities. As I have highlighted, disaster recovery is complex, and Becker and Tehler s (2013: 9) analogy may be useful here as it is clear that each stakeholder only have one piece of this puzzle, and it is not until they come together and share their individual knowledge as the richer picture emerges. Long (2001) characterizes the key elements from an interface perspective, noting that social interfaces have a long-term impact on the community. Conflicting ideas and value systems arise from the multiplicity of actors in the process. Whenever these systems meet, there is potential for conflict or other social processes such as negotiation, accommodation, and cooperation. This thesis adopts the interface perspective in order to identify differences in the values of different stakeholders, as well as to highlight the complexity that arises from the participation of multiple stakeholders who are involved in housing relocation and disaster recovery. As social life is complex and heterogeneous, it is important to understand the long-term implications of short-term interventions (Pomeroy et al. 2006). Long (2001: 59) also uses the term social arenas to highlight 27

28 that these are either spaces in which contestation associated with different practices and values of different domains takes place or they are spaces within a single domain where attempts are made to resolve discrepancies in value interpretations and incompatibilities between actor interests. Long s interface concept provides further material for the analysis of large-scale post-disaster interventions involving heterogeneous actors. The concept of the social interface has not been used in the disaster research literature, although it does highlight other aspects such as: stakeholder participation (UNDP 2001); cultural conflicts (Oliver-Smith 1991); and social aspects (Nigg 1995). Regarding disaster participation, Chandrashekar (2010: 6) highlights that little is known about how this participation occurs or can be facilitated under timeconstrained circumstances such as post-disaster recovery. Interdependencies in Disaster Recovery Malone and Crowston (1994: 91) highlight that if there is no interdependence, there is nothing to coordinate. Earlier research on interdependencies has tended to focus on manufacturing settings and infrastructure studies (for example Thompson 1967; Rinaldi et al. 2001). Although the literature highlights the crucial role of coordination in disaster situations, many of the definitions given in the section on coordination directly or indirectly highlight interdependencies. Furthermore, it is known that stakeholders do not possess all the expertise required to handle a disaster. The main focus of this study is on interdependencies. Oxford English Dictionary (2013) defines the word interdependent as (of two or more people or things) dependent on each other. Interdependencies are in other words relations of mutual dependence, in contrast to dependencies that are relations in which only one side is dependent on the other. However, the two sides may still be interdependent, even if each dependency is unidirectional, as long as there is at least one dependency in each direction between them (Rinaldi et al., 2001:13-14). Though the strength of such interdependence is determined by the strength of the weakest aggregated dependencies of one side in relation to the other. According to Savage et al. (2010: 21) collaboration achieves results that cannot be accomplished in any other way and helps to deal with issues that cannot be handled by a single organization. An organization s commitment to collaboration is highly dependent on the degree of interdependence the organisation perceives that it has with the other stakeholders in dealing with the problem (Logsdon 1991: 24). Scotter et al. (2012: 284) argue that the degree of interdependence among organisations is dependent on the specific task they perform and it varies across tasks. 28

29 The world is becoming increasingly interconnected. For example Perrow (2007: 528) stated that everything is indeed connected, but most of the connections exhibit far more dependency than interdependency. Webb (2007: 431) highlighted that even the definition of disaster according to Fritz (1961) sees society as a system of interrelated and interdependent parts. Similarly, Perrow (2007) argued that we should not make the mistake of viewing dependencies as interdependencies. Recovery may be optimized by taking into account interdependencies between infrastructures and stakeholders (Tierney 2007). According to Rinaldi et al. (2001: 14) stakeholders are interdependent when each is dependent on the other and their study identified four types of infrastructure interdependencies: physical, cyber, geographic and logical. This classification may be extended to disaster settings. Extending their taxonomy, two stakeholders may be physically interdependent if the state of each is dependent on the material outputs of the other (ibid: 14). In disaster situations physical dependencies may relate to the sharing and exchange of resources. These physical dependencies have also been highlighted by Perrow (2007: 529). In this thesis, the term cyber interdependency used by Rinaldi et al. is called information interdependency. One actor may be dependent on another if they depend on information transmitted between them. Geographical interdependencies occur when there is physical proximity and a local event that affects one party also has impacts on others. Logical interdependencies arise when the states of these actors are influenced by any of the three interdependencies mentioned above (i.e. physical, information or geographical). This type of interdependency may be hard to grasp as it includes issues such as decisions taken about one or more of the stakeholders involved in recovery. In order to deal with social problems collaboratively, Logsdon (1991) highlights that both interdependency and interest in solving the problem are important. However, organisations may not be motivated to deal interdependently with social problems because they may not perceive their interdependence or, even if they do recognise that multiparty efforts are necessary, they may not be motivated to act (ibid: 26). Although other authors have stated that coordination occurs between actors with shared beliefs interdependencies may be the result of cause effect relationships or may be imposed by an authority (Zafonte and Sabatier 1998: 475). 29

30 Summary There is not much consensus on the definition of disaster recovery. However, considering different aspects and changing aspects of disasters, recovery in this thesis considers a holistic approach that encompasses physical, social, economic and natural environment (Smith and Wenger 2007:237) considering pre and post disaster events. Coordination has been used in many disciplines. Considering the variety of definitions, coordination in this thesis uses Malone and Crowston s (1990) definition emphasising the importance of interdependencies and goals. This thesis also uses the concept of social interfaces according to Long (2001), to explain different relationships between stakeholders which may be crucial for disaster recovery. This is dependent on the values that stakeholders possess, where values in this thesis are referred to as guiding principles (Schwartz 1994:21) of what is important to different actors. As highlighted that interdependencies are crucial in coordination, the framework by Rinaldi et al. (2001) is extended to recovery coordination to examine different types of interdependencies between stakeholders. 30

31 4 Methodology To unpathed waters, undreamed shores- Shakespeare Approach This thesis investigates the factors affecting disaster recovery coordination. Disaster studies clearly require an inter-disciplinary approach. In the words of Oliver-Smith (1996: 321), this is due to the increasing urgency of a number of research issues, disasters among them, with broad theoretical and practical significance. It is based on qualitative research and empirical data. Qualitative research (Flick 2006:11) puts it is of specific relevance to the study of social relations, owing to the fact of the pluralisation of life worlds. A qualitative approach was adopted as it is not based on a single theory, but a combination of different theories and concepts (from different disciplines- e.g. coordination theory; concept of social interfaces) and methodological approaches (Flick 2006); in other words the relationship between the research question and the task at hand (Silverman 2010). The appended papers are based on two case studies: the tsunami that affected Tamil Nadu in India in 2004; and the Eden District Municipality in South Africa. Case studies are particularly useful in new research areas (Patton and Applebaum 2003). Although disaster recovery is not a completely new area, it is clear that there is a lack of research. The tsunami proved to be a useful case study for many reasons. It was one of the best-funded disaster recovery programs in history. It attracted massive media attention and in broad terms the response was well-coordinated compared to previous disasters (Telford and Cosgrave 2007; Bennett et al. 2006). Furthermore, the tsunami saw the influx of hundreds of international and local organizations into the affected areas, along with United Nations agencies and the government. 31

32 Adapted from: Picture 1: Regions Affected by the Tsunami in Tamil Nadu, India Tamil Nadu has a long coastline of around 910 kilometers. The Tamil Nadu affected regions are highlighted in the black rectangular box. 32

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