A Framework for Enhancing Resilience of Community by Expediting Post Disaster Recovery

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1 A Framework for Enhancing Resilience of Community by Expediting Post Disaster Recovery Abhijeet DESHMUKH 1 and Makarand HASTAK 2 1 PhD student, school of civil engineering, Purdue University (550 Stadium Mall Drive, School of Civil Engineering, West Lafayette, IN , United States 2 Professor and Head, Construction Engineering & Management, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN, , This paper presents a framework for increasing resilience of a community by expediting disaster recovery through capacity building and enhancing infrastructure performance. The framework provides a unique approach to integrate the results available from loss assessment tools and locally available data such as existing capacities, capacities required and important social and economic activities. The research is based on the interrelationship between communities, industries and related critical infrastructure. Provision of necessary serviceability level of related critical infrastructure to sustain important social and economic activities and mitigating losses through capacity building will help in recovering within a desired time frame. The proposed framework will enable the development of a decision making model that will allow city managers, emergency planners and industry people to recognize the important critical infrastructure, their role in disaster preparedness and capacities required for minimizing social and economic impact which will further help in developing mitigation strategies. The decision making model will utilize relevant information related to infrastructure and community attributes available from loss assessment tools such as HAZUS-MH and local data for develop effective mitigation strategies to recover within the required time frame. Key Words: resilience, recovery phases, social and economic impact, infrastructure, disasters. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent studies have shown that the world is becoming vulnerable to numerous natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, etc. It is also predicted that the frequency of such events will increase in the coming years making the communities across the world highly vulnerable to disasters. The impact of natural disasters is further escalated by failures of critical infrastructure in the region. Such failures are closely related to the conditions of critical infrastructure. The majority of infrastructure throughout the U.S. has been weakened due to age and deteriorated conditions, making them vulnerable to natural disasters. The 2009 ASCE Report Card for infrastructure gives an average grade of D to U.S. infrastructure signifying a need for urgent rehabilitation ASCE 1). Leavitt et al. 2) have argued that the failure of multiple infrastructure systems escalated the impact of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. Flood protection systems such as levee, canal systems, etc., were constructed to safeguard New Orleans. However, these systems were poorly maintained and did not withstand the impact of the hurricane resulting in widespread damage to New Orleans. Disasters and aging interdependent infrastructure will increase impact making communities less resilient to disasters Leavitt et al. 2)

2 This observation was apparent during the 2010 Haiti earthquake which had a catastrophic magnitude of 7.0 Mw. Its epicenter was near the town of Leogane, approximately 16 miles west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital (Fig.1). The earthquake occurred at 4:53 PM local time on January 12; and, by January 24, at least 52 aftershocks, including one measuring 5.9 Mw, were recorded USGS 3). The earthquake caused major damage to Port-au-Prince, Jacmel, and other settlements in the region. Amongst the widespread devastation and damage throughout Port-au-Prince, vital infrastructure, i.e., civil, civic and social infrastructure necessary to respond to the disaster was severely damaged or destroyed including all hospitals in the capital, the international airport, and the Port-au-Prince seaport. The main highway linking Port-au-Prince with Jacmel remained blocked for ten days after the earthquake, hampering delivery of aid to Jacmel NY Times 4). In this research, infrastructure will be classified into three different types, i.e., civil infrastructure such as utility systems, transportation systems, etc., civic infrastructure such as hospitals, emergency centers, etc. and social infrastructure such as religious centers, homes, etc. the earthquake including healthcare, transportation, telecommunications, water supply, utilities, and waste disposal. It took nearly two weeks for the medical relief and supplies to reach the disaster affected areas in Haiti Des Roches et al. 5). Haiti was not resilient enough to restore livelihood and recover as desired, from the aftermath of the earthquake. Fig.1 Map of Haiti Soon after the earthquake, many countries and international donor organizations pledged to provide monetary aid to Haiti as debt relief and it was expected that with the inflow of abundant resources, Haiti would undergo an expedited recovery smoothly transitioning between recovery phases, i.e., from emergency phase to short term recovery and from short term recovery to long term recovery. Due to inefficient provision of infrastructure services, even today there are more than 500,000 people living in temporary shelter and are victims of food security TIME 6). Additionally, Haiti did not have enough resources, i.e., machines and equipment, skilled manpower, security personnel, medical relief and supplies, etc. to support not only the recovery and restore the necessary infrastructure required but also to sustain the important activities required to restore the livelihoods of the people. In this research, the resources available in post disaster situation are identified as the capacity of the community. Ability of the community to acquire and utilize additional capacity for mitigating impacts in post disaster situation is defined as capacity building. The United Nations damage assessment and loss assessment (DALA) methodology and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) -MH are some of the loss damage and loss assessment tools used to assess the damage in terms of physical, social and economic aspects. The information provided is helpful in seeking external funds from donor organizations but does not provide an approach on how the damages can be minimized by using the existing capacities of the community. This paper proposes a research framework for enhancing resilience of community through enhancement of infrastructure services and necessary capacity building. The research framework provides an approach to integrate the inform HAZUS-MH and locally available data in terms of technical, social and economic aspects for expediting community recovery. This research is based on the thesis that the resilience of a community can be enhanced by (i) improving the serviceability of infrastructure necessary and (ii) building required capacity to sustain (i) activities specific to recovery phase (i.e., emergency response, short term recovery or long term recovery) and (ii) activities critical for community livelihood that make social and economic contribution that will minimize the duration of overall recovery. The activities specific to recovery phases such as debris removal, sheltering of survivors, etc. are crucial for minimizing the direct impact of a natural disasters. In this research, these activities are defined as recovery activities. Similarly, activities such as commuting, shopping, businesses when performed make social and -363-

3 economic contribution. These activities are defined as sustaining activities. In this research, resilience of a community to natural disasters is defined as the ability of a community to expedite community recovery by improving the serviceability of related infrastructure and effective capacity building to mitigate phase specific social and economic impacts. 2. PRIOR RESEARCH WORK (1)Emergence of Resilient Communities Recently, post disaster management agencies have been researching ways that would enable communities to recover with little or no external assistance Manyena 7). This was one of the several reasons for United Nations to adopt the concept of resilience in the Hyogo Framework for Action : Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. Adapting and recovering from the impacts of the disaster is a core essence of resilience. (2)Defining and Quantifying Resilience UNISDR 8) has resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. They have provided a 10 point checklist that will help communities prepare, plan and adapt better to disasters. Communities especially in the developing countries will be greatly benefitted and better prepared to minimize disaster related social and economic impacts. In United States, the September 2001 attacks led to focus the efforts on ensuring the optimal delivery of infrastructure services following a disruptive event. The Critical Infrastructure Task force (CITF) recommended the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to focus on Critical Infrastructure Resilience (CIR) as their primary objective. The concept of resilience is not new in the field of research and because the concept of resilience has been used in many fields, it has made it difficult to have a common definition Mayunga 9), Cutter et al. 10). Resilience has some attributes such as capacity, capability or ability of the system to cope with a disruptive event Mayunga 9), Vugrin 11), Manyena 7), Cutter et al. 10). (3)Quantifying Resilience Several methodologies have been proposed to quantify and measure resilience of different systems such as infrastructure and communities to disasters. Bruneau et al.12) have proposed a conceptual framework to quantify seismic resilience of communities. The framework assesses community resilience by measuring degraded quality of infrastructure over time and uses three complementary measures, i.e., reduced failure probabilities, reduced consequences from failures and reduced time to recovery. Miles and Chang13) have developed a simulation model based on fragility curves to measure seismic resilience of communities. They have developed a simulation model, ResilUS that uses markov chains to model recovery with respect to time for assessing seismic resilience of community. The model is based on the relationship between the recovery parameters and recovery activities of infrastructure and services. This model evaluates losses at the business level rather using the census data. Resilience can be measured using various indicators of a community Cutter et al.10). A unique approach to measure resilience using existing capacities of communities is proposed by Cutter et al.10). They have proposed a methodology to evaluate resilience of communities in the present condition based on a set of indicators. However, Cutter et al.10) have pointed out that national data source is often outdated and unable to gauge the impacts at local level. Also, if local data is used, it might be difficult to provide comparative results. Resilience can also be quantified using vulnerability of an organization Dalziell and McManus14). They suggest that the systems resilience can be enhanced by increasing their adaptive capacity either by incorporating system redundancy in design that will enable the system to sustain the required function or by increasing -364-

4 The research mentioned earlier focuses on the attributes of a community such as ability and capacity of a community to respond and adapt to the disruptive event. However, the research does not emphasize the role of recovery effort necessary for any system to respond and adapt to a disruptive event. Vugrin et al.11) have proposed a framework to measure resilience. The framework comprises of two components, i.e., systemic impact ollowing disruption. The framework proposed by the author is unique as it is one of its kinds to include recovery effort in measuring resilience. Community resilience is a complex process because of the dynamic interaction between various entities. Literature also emphasizes the importance of infrastructure systems in post disaster situation and impact of infrastructure performance on community development. There is modest knowledge on categorizing recovery process based on the impacts arising over time and mitigating them by enhancement of related infrastructure services. As mentioned earlier, a community will have different recovery phases and each phase will have a specific need. Some activities and indicators are very critical and need to be performed for minimizing social and economic impact at a specific time. The impacts of the communities can be minimized if the performance of infrastructure is enhanced up to a certain necessary level that would be sufficient for the community to transit from one recovery phase to other within the desired time. This research will help in identifying the factors affecting the duration of recovery. AZUS-MH and UN damage and loss assessment (DALA) methodology provide a damage and loss assessment report. This information when complemented by a specific approach on prioritizing losses and restoring related infrastructure services using required capacity will enable the decision makers to prepare better recovery strategies. (4)Disaster Impact Mitigation Support System (DIMSuS) The underpinnings of this research are based on the previous research of Oh15) and Deshmukh et al.16). Oh15) has developed a disaster impact mitigation support system (DIMSuS) for identifying region specific disaster mitigation strategies based on the inter-relationships between infrastructure and communities and associated industries in terms of technical, social, and economic dependencies. DIMSuS comprises of criticality, vulnerability, and severity modules which are the key metrics for the framework to understand how critical infrastructure, industries, and communities are inter-related and how impacts due to natural hazards can be measured. The information obtained from using DIMSuS is useful for a specific scenario. However, DIMSuS does not provide a time based analysis to mitigate the impact on community due to reduced infrastructure services and capacity building. 3. DIFFERENT PHASES OF RECOVERY A disaster affected community undergoes different phases of recovery. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in the United States classifies the recovery phase of a disaster affected community into three temporal phases: emergency response phase, relief phase and recovery phase Comerio17). Mayunga9) has classified the recovery phases into four categories, i.e., pre disaster, disaster, restoration and long term recovery. Emergency response is focused on addressing the immediate humanitarian needs of the actions in these phases include evacuation, emergency rescue, provision of food, water, shelter, etc. The duration of the phase can last from 24 hours to 1 week Comerio17). The emergency phase is followed by the short term recovery phase that involves rehabilitation and would focus on restoration of both critical and civic infrastructure services to help sustain community livelihood and businesses which typically lasts 1 week to 6 months Comerio17)

5 Post Disaster Recovery Phases Recovery Recovery Activities Debris Removal Sheltering of survivors Reconstruction Emergency Phase Short Term Recovery Sustaining Activities Businesses Livelihood Commuting Access to medical services Long Term Recovery Fig.2 Phases in Community Recovery Time Finally, the community will undergo long term recovery that involves the construction of destroyed buildings and infrastructure which may last between 6 months to 10 years Comerio17). Additionally, provision of proper hygiene, food and water throughout the recovery and reconstruction phase minimizes the occurrence of epidemics and diseases in the disaster affected areas. (1)Post Disaster Recovery Phases (a)attributes of Community Recovery and Utilization of Capacities In post disaster recovery, impacts will be prioritized and mitigated based on their urgency. These impacts can be categorized under different recovery phases. As discussed earlier, a post disaster recovery consists of three main phases, i.e., emergency phase, short term recovery and long term recovery. Community recovery is favorable when the impacts are mitigated within desired time. This is possible when: The community is able to mitigate the impacts arising as primary impacts with proper utilization of the existing capacities and available serviceability level of the infrastructure. The community is able to enhance the serviceability level of infrastructure up to the necessary level that would enable minimizing the secondary impacts within desired time. (b)traits of Resilient Community Timely mitigation of impacts in one phase will lead to the transition of a community from one phase to the other. Thus, a community will undergo an effective and within time, post disaster recovery. Such communities portray the traits of a resilient community. Depending on the intensity and type of disaster, Comerio17) have provided a time frame for each phase for community recovery (Table 1). In this research, the above mentioned phases are analogous to emergency phase, short term recovery and long Table 1 Duration of recovery phases Disaster Type and Intensity Phase Small and concentrated Disaster Large and complex Emergency 24hrs 1 week Relief Phase 1 week Up to 6 months Overlap Recovery Phase Few months to as long as 10 years term recovery (Fig.2). The ideal recovery period for each phase is assumed to be within the observed periods with respect to small and large disasters. For example, the ideal recovery rate for the emergency phase is considered to be between 24 hrs and 1 week. Additionally, the serviceability level of infrastructure system required at the end of each phase will be obtained from the restoration curves developed using ATC18). Restoration curves are described on the percentage of an infrastructure component that is expected to be operational as a function of time after disasters. However, the community may be unable to recover within the desired time because of the following: The community may not have enough capacities required to mitigate the impacts within time. The available infrastructure services are insufficient to provide assistance to mitigate the impacts

6 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (1) Data Types and Modes of Data Collection Relevant data sources, data types and different aspects of data would be identified and the relationship between community and industry sustenance will be established with the attributes of the related critical infrastructure. Fig.3 Research Framework Based on the research needs, data types will be of technical, social and economic aspects (Fig.3). Identification of post-disaster circumstances of critical infrastructure. Collection of data points affected by disasters such as serviceability level of basic critical infrastructure, relationship between social/economic impacts of communities and reliance with critical infrastructure. Arising impacts of community in every phase. o Social/Economic impacts, activities and functions of communities. Emergency Response and required infrastructure for recovery and restoration o Identification of infrastructure and its service enhancement by emergency agencies, governments and non-profit organization. Data for the research will be collected through survey, personal interviews and results generated from HAZUS-MH for a particular disaster. Government officials responsible for emergency preparedness, engineers, policy makers, nonprofit organization personnel will be interviewed to collect the necessary post disaster recovery data. (2) Use of HAZUS-MH This research aims at taking advantage of the already existing HAZUS-MH tool. HAZUS-MH uses the national database for transportation, utility systems and census data for communities Scawthorn et al.19). The datasets obtained from HAZUS-MH are obtained by conducting analysis for a given region affected by a disaster. A hypothetical situation was created in which Marion County, Indiana is stuck by an earthquake of intensity 8.5Mw at a depth of 5.5km. Based on the data available through HAZUS-MH, a damage assessment report was generated. Some of the results obtained from the analysis are listed below: Fig.4 Households without service (result obtained from HAZUS-MH using hypothetical situation) The information available from HAZUS-MH, for example, as shown in Fig.4 can be used in aiding recovery process of the community. For example, the damage to the buildings and debris generated can be estimated. The important activity of the community such as rebuilding houses may only be executed once the debris from the site is removed

7 Therefore, the debris removal may be an important activity of the community in the emergency phase and can be expedited if the roads and bridges are made functional after the disaster to enable the transportation of debris outside the community. Based on the above relationship, a decision model will be developed that will incorporate the results from HAZUS-MH and will aid the decision makers at various administration level to prepare better community recovery strategies by allocating resources efficiently for enhancing infrastructure performance. Additionally, the results generated in HAZUS-MH include infrastructure functional and performance loss, physical damage which are obtained as a function of time. 5. DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION MAKING MODEL (1)Assessing the enhancement of Resilience and Capacity Building If additional capacities could be provided and the services of infrastructure enhanced, the recovery rate in each phase would be expedited. A hypothetical situation is explained where a community is undergoing through a post disaster recovery. The above research concept is explained using the emergency phase. The information with respect to infrastructure, community and capacity available in the emergency phase only are illustrated in Table 2. The assessment of enhancement of resilience and capacity building is explained via the following steps. Important Activities in post disaster community a. Evacuation and rescue mission b. Provision of basic supplies c. Temporary shelter, etc.. Infrastructure Types Civil Table 2 Emergency phase for the hypothetical situation a. Water b. Electricity c. Transportation systems Civic a. Hospitals b. Emergency centers Social a. Homes, etc. Post Disaster Serviceability (Measured in Terms of damage) (obtained from HAZUS-MH) Gap in required serviceability 50% 5% Resources Available Resour ces Capacity (#) Resources Required (to mitigated impacts within ideal time) Trucks 2 4 EMS vehicles Hospital beds Duration of the phase with available resources Exceeding the ideal recovery period (a) Step1: Identification of impacts and important social and economic activities. The important activities of each phase will be identified. For example, some of the important activities of the emergency phase may include, rescue missions, provision of medical services, temporary shelter, debris removal, etc. (b) Step2: Identification of related infrastructure and capacities required Once the important activities have been identified, the related critical infrastructure and capacities necessary to sustain the activities. Additionally, the existing serviceability level of infrastructure in post disaster situation and the capacities to enhance the serviceability will be identified. As shown in Table 2, the activities can be sustained using 50% serviceability level of water system. Also, the resources required to mitigate the impacts are indicated in the resources column. For example, the community hospital has 150 beds to accommodate the victims. At the same time, the hospital will be able to function using 50% of the water system services. (c) Step3: Estimation of time required to mitigate the impacts and sustain activities Based on the available capacities and infrastructure serviceability level, time required to sustain activities completely will be determined. This will also help in determination of the duration of a given phase. Based on the capacities available, the emergency phase might complete in 10 days using the serviceability level of various infrastructure systems and the existing capacities which exceeds the desired completion period. (d) Step4: Estimation of additional capacities and infrastructure services enhancement required for phase completion within desired time The timely execution and completion of recovery phases may require the enhancement of services of critical infrastructure and acquisition and utilization of additional capacities. The infrastructure services may not be sufficient to enable phase completion within the desired time. For example, the bridges may be able to provide 30% serviceability that might not be sufficient to sustain the major activities efficiently. An additional 30% of bridge serviceability might be required to complete the emergency -368-

8 Infrastructure performance Pre disaster situation t0 Ideal Recovery Period t1 t4 t2 Enhanced Recovery Rate (Capacity Building) Post disaster situation Recovery e Rate with available capacities t0 = time when the recovery starts, t1 = Ideal Recovery time, t2 = Ideal Recovery time, t3 = recovery time based on available capacities and infrastructure services, t4 = recovery time based on capacity building and enhance of infrastructure performance Fig.5 Assessing enhancement of resilience t3 Time (t) phase within the desired time. Similarly, the community has 2 trucks and 2 cranes to support activity of the emergency phase. The available capacities might be insufficient to complete the activities within the required time. In order to do so, a total of 4 trucks and 5 cranes might be required to mitigate the impacts in required time. Thus, addition of 2 trucks and 3 cranes is required to build the necessary capacity for sustaining the activities. (e) Step5: Enhancement of resilience and capacity building Capacity Building during recovery and enhancement of infrastructure serviceability will expedite recovery focusing on the reduction in the recovery period. Based on the proposed thesis, Fig.5 illustrates an approach for assessing resilience by expediting community recovery. The reduction in time due to capacity building and enhancement of infrastructure serviceability will enhance the resilience of the community to disasters. 6. EXPECTED RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Based on the phase specific impacts, mitigation strategies can be proposed that will enable communities to better respond to natural disasters. o Prioritizing rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure towards impacts of affected communities and industries with respect to the recovery phase. o Focused towards provision of rapid disaster relief by identification of most critical infrastructure which connects areas affected by disasters. o Current situation of resource allocation and capacity building (i.e., medical supplies, mobile field hospitals, food, drinking water, temporary shelters and basic utilities, etc.) based on the affected or limited infrastructure. o Provide information for the long term planning for city redevelopment based on prioritized critical infrastructure and their location. o Identifying and fortifying the existing critical infrastructure to protect communities and industries against potential disasters in the future. This paper proposes a research framework for developing a decision model that will enable communities to expedite post disaster recovery by capacity building that will facilitate enhancement of critical infrastructure performance necessary to sustain important activities in the post disaster period. Additionally, this research will also develop a framework to strategically allocate required resources for expediting recovery process. The research will provide a scientific approach in integrating results from loss assessment methodologies that exists today in a decision making model that would enable effective allocation of available resources for not only addressing the impacts of the community by enhancing the performance of related critical infrastructure. Additionally, this research will integrate data available from loss assessment tools such as DALA methodology and HAZUS-MH developed by FEMA with the locally available data such as existing capacities, important social and economic contributing activities that will enable decision makers to prepare better mitigation strategies and expedite the recovery process. The foundation of this research is based on the previous work done by Oh15) and Deshmukh16) that focuses on identifying the importance of restoring critical infrastructure for minimizing social and economic impacts

9 REFERENCE 2) Leavitt, W. and Kiefer, J.: Infrastructure Interdependency and the Creation of a Normal Disaster: The Case of Hurricane Katrina and the City of New Orleans, Public Works Management Policy 2006; vol. 10 pp , ) United States Geological Survey (USGS): Magnitude 7.0 Haiti Region, < accessed April ) NY Times. Haiti Relief Effort Faces accessed on April 10, ) DesRoches, R., Comerio, M., Eberhard, M., Mooney, W. and Rix, G.: An overview of the 2011 Haiti Earth Earthquake Spectra 27, pp. S1-S21, m/time/world/article/0,8599, ,00.html>, accessed on April 10, ) Manyena B.: The concept of resilience revisited, Disasters vol.30, pp , ) United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR).: Building a Local Government Alliance For Disaster Risk Reduction: The Incheon Declaration,. Summary from August 2009, Incheon 9) Mayunga, J.S.: Understanding and applying the concept of community Academy for Social Vulnerability and Resilience Building, Munich, Germany,22-28 July, ) Cutter S, Burton C. and Emrich C. (2010). Disaster Resilience Indicators for Benchmarking Baseline Conditions, Journal Homeland Security Emergency Management, vol. (7), pp1 24, ) Vugrin E., Warren E., Ehlen M., and Camphouse R.,: A Framework for Assessing the Resilience of Infrastructure and Economic Systems, In K. Gopalakrishnan and S. Peeta (Ed.), Sustainable and Resilient Critical Infrastructure Systems, pp.(77-115). Springer, ) Bruneau, M., Chang, S., Eguchi, R., seismic resilience of communities, Earthquake Spectra, vol. 19, , ) Miles, S. and Chang, S.: ResilUS: A Community Based Disaster Resilience Model, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, Volume 38, Number 1, pp (15), ) Dalziell, E. and McManus, S.: Resilience, Vulnerability, and Adaptive Capacity: Implications for System Performance, International Forum on Engineering Decision Making, Stoos, Switzerland, ) Oh, E.: Impact Analysis of Natural Disasters on Critical Infrastructure, Associated Industries, and Communities, PhD Dissertation, Purdue University, USA, ) Deshmukh, A. Oh, E. and Hastak, M.: Impact of flood damaged critical infrastructure on communities and industries, Built Environment Project and Asset Management, Vol. 1 Iss: 2, pp , ) Comerio, M.: Disaster hits home: new policy for urban housing recovery. Berkeley: University of California Press ) Applied Technology Council (ATC): Earthquake Damage Evaluation Data for California, Redwood City, CA, ) Scawthorn, C., F., Flores, P., Blais N., Seligson, H., Tates, E., Chang, S., Mifflin, E., Thomas, W., Murphy, J., Jones, C. and Lawrence M.: HAZUS-MH Flood Loss Estimation Methodology. II. Damage and Loss Assessment, Natural Hazards Review, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp ,

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