Emergency Management-National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Hospital Incident Command System (HICS)

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1 Emergency Management-National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) Education Module: Level 1 Incident Command System Training This self-directed learning module contains information you are expected to know to protect yourself, our patients, and our guests. Target Audience: AVPs, Department Directors Contents Instructions... 2 Learning Objectives... 2 Module Content Job Aid Posttest This is an E-Learning Module is to educate the staff that could function as a member of the Incident Command System. Page 1 of 33

2 The material in this module is an introduction to important general information. Read this module. If you have any questions about the material, ask your Emergency Preparedness Manager. Complete the post test, this will appear in your LMS transcripts as completed Learning Objectives: When you finish this module, you will be able to: Describe the background of Incident Command System (ICS). Describe how ICS relates to the National Incident Management System (NIMS). Identify how ICS can be used by healthcare organizations Identify three purposes of ICS. Describe the five major management functions in ICS. Describe the role and function of the Command Staff. Describe the role and function of the Operating, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/Administration Sections. Describe scope of authority. Describe management by objectives. Describe the importance of preparedness plans and agreements. Describe the functions of organizational positions within the Incident Command System (ICS). Identify the ICS tools needed to manage an incident. Describe components of field, staff and section briefings/meetings. Explain how the modular organization expands and contracts. Define the five types of incidents. Page 2 of 33

3 ICS is widely used in the emergency services community by such agencies as fire, police, and emergency medical services. The formal adoption of ICS by healthcare organizations will result in many benefits including: Greater Efficiency Since ICS is designed for use by trained personnel to direct and coordinate efforts in a crisis situation, healthcare organization will be able to more efficiently manage both internal and external crises. Better Coordination Healthcare organizations are able to better coordinate with outside agencies and organizations during a crisis if ICS is implemented. More Effective Communication Healthcare organization are able to more effectively communicate with outside agencies and organizations when they use common terminology. Using common terminology for command and general staff positions facilitates consistent communication with external, local responders. The Incident Command System (ICS) An incident is an occurrence, caused by either human actions or a natural phenomenon that requires response actions to prevent or minimize loss of life, or damage to property and/or the environment. Examples of an incident include: Fire, both structural and wild land. Natural disasters, such as tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, ice storms or earthquakes. Human and animal disease outbreaks ( both intentional and unintentional) Search and rescue incidents. Terrorist incidents, use of weapons of mass destruction. Factors influencing the Activation of The ICS for Carolinas Healthcare System: Impacts to life, property, and financial stability Staff and patient (client, resident) safety Expected duration Number of resources needed Potential Hazards (chemical, physical, structural) Weather or environmental influences Potential Crime Scene Political sensitivity, external influences, & media relations Area involved, jurisdictional boundaries Availability of resources Cascading or expanding events/incidents Partnerships are often required among local, State and Federal agencies. These partners must work together in a smooth, coordinated effort under the same management system. Page 3 of 33

4 The Incident Command System, or ICS, is a standardized, all-hazard incident management concept. ICS allows its users to adopt an integrated organizational structure to match the complexities and demands of single or multiple incidents without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries. ICS has considerable internal flexibility. It can grow or shrink to meet different needs. This flexibility makes it a very cost effective and efficient management approach for both small and large situations. Healthcare s Use of ICS ICS is part of the organization s all-hazards emergency management program that includes mitigation (including prevention), preparedness, response, and recovery activities. ICS is used to manage the response and recovery activities of an incident. Using ICS concepts and principles enables organizations to meet one component of NIMS compliance, and promotes collaborative participation in a larger, national system. NIMS promotes a coordinated effort among all response agencies to better prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from events and incidents. Carolinas Healthcare System has incorporated ICS, known as HICS (Hospital Incident Command System) into their emergency management program to comply with both Federal and regulatory requirements. The Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) HICS provides guidance for developing a hospital Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) and for adopting a flexible incident management system, with the goal of helping hospitals of all sizes better prepare for and respond to both emergency and non-emergency incidents. Incident Command System (ICS) is based on Best Practices ICS is: A proven management system based on successful business and military practices. The result of decades of lessons learned in the organization and management of emergency incidents. ICS is designed to: Meet the needs of incidents of any kind or size. Allow personnel from a variety of agencies and organizations to meld rapidly into a common management structure. Page 4 of 33

5 Provide logistic and administrative support to operational staff. Be cost effective by avoiding duplication of efforts. Be flexible and adaptable to a wide range of situations Effectively manage resources and communications ICS consists of procedures for controlling personnel, facilities, equipment, and communications. It is a system designed to be used or applied from the time an incident occurs, or prior to an incident if it is planned or expected to impact the everyday function of the institution, until the requirement for management and operations no longer exists. ICS is separate from a hospital s day-to-day organizational structure and is intended to supersede that structure to streamline communications and decision making during an event. ICS is used during pre-planned and unplanned events, and is not intended to replace a hospital s existing organizational structure. The Incident Commander is responsible to the hospitals executive structure for their management of an event. Applications for the use of ICS Applications for the use of ICS by healthcare organizations include both planned events, such as exercises (NDMS) and incidents, such as bioterrorist attacks, weather incidents and utility outages. As the organization works through the NIMS compliance process, ICS will be incorporated within the overall emergency management program. Since ICS may be used for small or large events, it can grow or shrink to meet the changing demands of an incident or event. ICS Features ICS principles are implemented through a wide range of management features including the use of common terminology and clear text, and a modular organizational structure.ics helps ensure full utilization of all incident resources by: Maintaining a manageable span of control. Establishing pre-designated incident locations and facilities. Implementing resource management practices. Ensuring integrated communications. The ICS features related to command structures include: chain of command and unity of command, as well as unified command and transfer of command. Formal transfer of command occurs whenever leadership changes. Common Terminology and Clear Text The ability to communicate within the ICS is absolutely critical. An essential method for ensuring the ability to communicate is by using common terminology and clear text. Do not use radio codes, organization-specific codes, or jargon. ICS intent is to establish common terminology allowing diverse incident management and support entities to work together. Common terminology helps to define: Page 5 of 33

6 Organizational Functions: Major functions and functional units with incident management responsibilities are named and defined. Terminology for the organizational elements involved is standardized and consistent. Resource Descriptions: Major resources (personnel, facilities, and equipment/ supply items) are given common names and categorized by their capabilities. This helps avoid confusion and enhance interoperability. Incident Facilities: Common terminology is used to designate incident facilities. Position Titles: ICS management or supervisory positions are referred to by titles, such as Officer, Chief, Director, Supervisor, or Leader. Modular Organization The ICS organizational structure develops in a topdown, modular fashion that is based on the size and complexity of the incident. As incident complexity increases, the organizational structure expands from the top down as functional responsibilities are delegated. The ICS structure is flexible. When needed, separate functional elements can be established and subdivided to enhance internal organizational management and external coordination. As the ICS organizational structure expands, the number of management positions also expands to adequately address the requirements of the incident. Regardless of the size of the incident or Incident Management team, there is always an Incident Commander. For facilities within Carolinas Healthcare System, this is the Administrator on Call for the facility. Management by Objectives ICS is incorporated into the organization s Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for priority hazards. This guidance is used in the early phases, as part of the initial response phase; ICS is initiated through identifying an Incident Commander, who identifies objectives to guide response activities. The process consists of the following steps: Step 1: Understand organization policy and direction Step 2: Assess incident situation Step 3: Establish incident objectives. Step 4: Select appropriate strategy or strategies to achieve objectives. Page 6 of 33

7 Step 5: Perform tactical direction (applying tactics appropriate to the strategy, assigning the right resources, and monitoring their performance). Step 6: Provide necessary follow up (changing strategy or tactics, adding or subtracting resources, etc.). Incident Action Plan (IAP) An Incident Action Plan (IAP) can be an oral or written plan. It reflects the overall strategy for managing an incident within a prescribed timeframe called an Operational Period. An IAP includes the identification of operational resources and assignments and may include attachments that provide additional direction. At the simplest level, all Incident Action Plans must have four elements: What do we want to do and how are we going to do it? Who is responsible for doing it? How do we communicate with each other? What is the procedure if incident personnel are injured? Developing Incident Objectives The initial step in the incident action planning process is to develop the incident objectives. The Incident Commander must develop incident objectives within a short timeframe after assuming command. The incident objectives are achieved with clear strategies and tasks aimed at a desired goal. Objectives should be SMART: Specific, Measurable, Action oriented, Realistic, and Time sensitive Manageable Span of Control Span of control defines the number of individuals or resources that one supervisor can manage effectively during an event. Maintaining an effective span of control is particularly important on incidents where safety and accountability are a top priority. The type of incident, nature of the task, hazards and safety factors, and distances between personnel and resources all influence span of control considerations. Maintaining adequate span of control throughout the ICS organization is very important. Each individual can only effectively manage between three and seven other positions. Optimally, each individual will only manage five positions, depending on the nature of the event. Page 7 of 33

8 Incident Facilities The Hospital Command Center (HCC) is the location from which the Incident Commander oversees all incident operations. There is generally only one HCC for each incident or event, but location may change during the event. Every incident or event must have some form of an HCC. It may be located within the hospital building or outside of the building depending upon the event. The HCC will be positioned outside of the present and potential hazard zone but close enough to the incident to maintain command. Knowing where the HCC is, for your facility is imperative for managers and administrators to know. Some facilities also have alternative sites within the facility as back up. Staging Areas are temporary locations at an incident where personnel and equipment are kept while waiting for tactical assignments. Labor Pools is a specific type of staging area for medical and non-medical personnel within the ICS application for healthcare organizations. Emergency Operations Center (EOC) The EOC is a multi-agency coordination center that provides support and coordination to the on-scene responders. Resource Management ICS resources can be factored in two categories: Tactical Resources: Personnel and major items of equipment that are available or potentially available to the Operations function on assignment to incidents are called tactical resources. Tactical resources are always classified as one of the following: 1. Assigned: Assigned resources are working on an assignment under the direction of a Supervisor. 2. Available: Available resources are assembled, have been issued their equipment, and are ready for immediate assignments. 3. Out-of-service: Out-of-service resources are not ready for available or assigned status. Support Resources: All other resources required to support the incident. Food, communications equipment, tents, supplies, and fleet vehicles are examples of support resources. Page 8 of 33

9 Maintaining an accurate and up-to-date picture of resource utilizations is a critical component of resource management. HICS form 257 can be helpful in tracking support resources, while HICS forms 203, 204 and 252 can be helpful in tracking personnel resources. Integrated Communications The use of a common communications plan is essential for ensuring that responders can communicate with one another during an incident. Communication equipment, procedures, and systems must operate across jurisdictions (interoperability). There must be a plan in place for back-up communications both within the hospital facility and with community partners. Developing an integrated voice and data communications system, including equipment, systems, and protocols, must occur prior to an incident Every incident needs a Communications Plan. The plan can be simple and state orally, or it can be complex and written. An Incident Radio Communications Plan (ICS form 205) is a component of the written Incident Action Plan. Formal Communication Formal communication must be used when: Receiving and giving work assignments. Requesting support or additional resources. Reporting progress of assigned tasks. Information concerning the incident or event can be passed horizontally or vertically within the organization without restriction. This is known as informal communications. Informal Communication Informal communication: Is used to exchange incident or event information only. Is NOT used for o Formal request for additional resources. o Tasking work assignments. Examples of informal communication are as follows: The Food Unit Leader may directly contact the Resources Unit Leader to determine the number of person requiring feeding. The Cost Unit Leader may directly discuss and share information on alternative strategies with the Planning Section Chief. Communication Responsibilities To ensure sharing of critical information, all responders must: Brief others as needed. Debrief their actions. Communicate hazards to others. Page 9 of 33

10 Acknowledge messages. Ask if they do not know. Briefing Elements Provide complete briefings that include clearly state objectives and the following elements: Task: What is to be done? Purpose: Why is it to be done? End State: How it should look when done? Chain of Command and Unity of Command In the Incident Command System: Chain of command is an orderly line of authority within the ranks of the organization, with lower levels subordinate to, and connected to higher levels. Unity of command means every individual is accountable to only one designated supervisor to whom they report during an incident. The principles clarify reporting relationships and eliminate the confusion caused by multiple, conflicting directives. Incident managers at all levels control the actions of all personnel under their supervision. These principles do not apply to the exchange of information. Although orders must flow through the chain of command, members of the organization may directly communicate with each other to ask for or share information. The command function may be carried out in two ways: Single Command in which the Incident Commander has complete responsibility for the incident share incident management. A Single Command might be used when a hospital is managing an influx of patients resulting from a nearby passenger train derailment. Unified Command is when responsible agencies manage an incident together under a Unified Command. Advantages of Unified Command: A single set of objectives guides incident response. A collective approach is used to develop strategies to achieve incident objectives. Information flow and coordination are improved between all involved in the incident. All agencies have an understanding of joint priorities and restrictions. No agency s legal authorities will be compromised or neglected. Agencies efforts are optimized as they perform their respective assignments under a single Incident Action Plan. Maintains Unity of Command with each person answering to one supervisor Transfer of Command The process of moving the responsibility for incident command from one Incident Commander to another is known as Transfer of Command. Transfer of Command may take place when: Page 10 of 33

11 A more qualified person assumes command. Changing command makes good sense, e.g., an Incident Management Team (IMT) takes command of an incident from a local jurisdictional unit due to increased incident complexity. There is normal turnover of personnel on long or extended incidents, i/e., to accommodate work/ rest requirements. The incident response is concluded and incident responsibility is transferred back to the home agency. Accountability Accountability during incident operations is essential at all jurisdictional levels and within individual functional areas. Accountability refers to one s personal choice and willingness to contribute to the outcome of an incident. Individuals must abide by their organization s policies and guidelines and any applicable local, tribal, State, or Federal rules and regulations. The following guidelines must be adhered to: Check-In: All responders, regardless of organization affiliation, must report in to receive an assignment in accordance with the procedures established by the Incident Commander. Incident Action Plan: Response operations must be directed and coordinated as outlined in the IAP. Unity of Command: Each individual involved in incident operations will be assigned to only one supervisor. Span of Control: Supervisors must be able to adequately supervise and control their subordinates, as well as communicate with and manage all resources under their supervision. Resource Tracking: Supervisors must record and report resource status changes as they occur. Mobilization At any incident/event, the situation must be assessed and a response planned. Resources must be organized, assigned, and directed to accomplish the incident objectives, and managed to adjust to changing conditions. Information and Intelligence Management The analysis and sharing of information and intelligence is an important component of ICS. The incident management organization must establish a process for gathering, sharing, and managing incident-related information and intelligence. Intelligence includes national security and other types of classified information that is sensitive, operational information that comes from a variety of different sources, such as: Risk assessments. Medical intelligence (i.e., surveillance). Page 11 of 33

12 Weather information. Geospatial data. Structural designs. Toxic contaminant levels. Utilities and public works data. General Guidelines Roles and Authorities It is important to understand your role and responsibilities during an emergency. Prior to an event, you should discuss with your supervisor how your organizational unit supports the overall response effort. If you are assigned a role in the organization s ICS structure, then: Review your emergency assignment. Know who you will report to and what your position will be. Establish a clear understanding of your decision-making authority. Determine communications procedures for contacting your headquarters or home office (if necessary). Identify purchasing authority and procedures. Check-In at the Incident: Activities Check-In officially logs you in at the incident. The check-in process and information helps to: Ensure personnel accountability. Track resources. Prepare personnel for assignments and reassignments. Locate personnel time records and payroll documentation. Plan for releasing personnel. Organize the demobilization process. Check-In at the Incident: Locations Check in only once. Check-in locations may be found at several incident facilities, including: Incident Command Post/Hospital Command Center Staging Area/Labor Pool. Division/Group Supervisor (for direct assignment). Initial Incident Briefing After check-in, locate your incident supervisor and obtain your initial briefing. The briefing information helps you plan your tasks and communicate with others. Briefings received and given should include: Current situation assessment. Page 12 of 33

13 Identification of your specific job responsibilities. Identification of coworkers Location of work area. Location of Staging Area/Labor Pool. Identification of eating and sleeping arrangements, as appropriate. Procedural instructions for obtaining additional supplies, services, and personnel. Operational periods/work shifts. Required safety procedures and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), as appropriate. Five Major Management Functions There are five major management functions that are the foundation upon which the ICS organization develops. These functions apply whether you are handling a routine emergency, organizing for a major non-emergency event, or managing a response to a major disaster. The five major management functions are: Incident Command: Sets the incident objectives, strategies, and priorities, and has overall responsibility at the incident or event. Operations: Conducts tactical operations (such as patient care or clean-up) to carry out the plan. Develops the defined objectives and organization, and directs all tactical resources. Planning: Prepares and documents the Incident Action Plan to accomplish the objectives, collects and evaluates information, maintains resource status, and maintains documentation for incident records. Logistics: Provides support, resources, and all other services needed to meet the operational objectives. Finance/Administration: Monitors costs related to the incident. It provides accounting, procurement, time recording, and cost analyses. Organizational Structure ICS Sections Each primary ICS Section may be subdivided as needed. The ICS organization has the capability to expand or contract to meet the needs of the incident. A basic ICS operating guideline is that the person at the top of the organization is responsible until the authority is delegated to another person. Thus, on smaller incidents when these additional persons are not required, the Incident Commander will personally accomplish or manage all aspects of the incident organization. Page 13 of 33

14 ICS Position Titles To maintain span of control, the ICS organization can be divided into many levels of supervision. At each level, individuals with primary responsibility positions have distinct titles. Using specific ICS position titles serves three important purposes: Titles provide a common standard for all users. For example, if one agency uses the title Branch Chief, another Branch Manager, etc., this lack of consistency can cause confusion at the incident. The use of distinct titles for ICS positions allows for filling ICS positions with the most qualified individuals rather than by seniority. Standardized position titles are useful when requesting qualified personnel. For example, in deploying personnel, it is important to know if the positions needed are Unit Leaders, clerks, etc. General Staff Expansion of an incident may require the delegation of authority for the performance of the other management functions. The people who perform the other four management functions are designated as the General Staff. The General Staff is made up of four Sections: Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/ Administration. The General Staff reports directly to the Incident Commander. Functional Areas and Positions Incident Commander The Incident Commander is the only position that is always staffed in an incident regardless of its nature. Large incidents or events may require that other functions be set up as separate Sections within the organization. Upon arriving at an incident the higher ranking person will either assume command, maintain command as is, or reassign command to a third party. In some situations or agencies, a lower ranking but more qualified person may be designated as the Incident Commander. The Incident Commander: Has overall incident management responsibility delegated by hospital executive Page 14 of 33

15 Develops the incident objectives to guide the incident planning process. Approves the Incident Action Plan and all requests pertaining to the ordering and releasing of incident resources. Deputy Incident Commander The Incident Commander may have one or more Deputies. Deputies may be assigned at the Incident Command, Section, or Branch levels. The only ICS requirement regarding the use of a Deputy is that the Deputy must be fully qualified and equally capable to assume the position. The three primary reasons to designate a Deputy Incident Commander are to: Perform specific tasks requested by the Incident Commander. Perform the incident command function in a relief capacity (e.g., to take over the next operational period). In this case the Deputy will assume the primary role. Represent an Assisting Agency that may share jurisdiction or have future jurisdiction Command Staff The Command Staff is only activated in response to the needs of the incident and based upon the Incident Objectives. Command Staff carry out staff functions needed to support the Incident Commander. Command Staff includes: Public Information Officer (PIO): The PIO is responsible for interfacing with the public and media and/or with other agencies with incident-related information requirements. The PIO develops accurate and complete information on the incident's cause, size, and current situation; resources committed; and other matters of general interest for both internal and external consumption. The PIO may also perform a key public informationmonitoring role. Only one incident PIO should be designated. Assistants may be assigned from other agencies or departments involved. The Incident Commander approves the release of all incident-related information. Liaison Officer: is the point of contact for representatives of other governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and/or private entities. In either a single or Unified Command structure, representatives from assisting or cooperating agencies and organizations coordinate through the Liaison officer. Agency and/or organizational representatives assigned to an incident must have the authority to speak for their parent agencies and/or organizations on all matters, following appropriate consultations with their agency leadership. Assistants and personnel from other agencies or organizations (public or private) involved in incident management activities may be assigned to the Liaison officer to facilitate coordination. Individuals assigned to the Liaison Officer role may have to travel to a different location, including the scene of the event, to interact with other agencies. Page 15 of 33

16 Safety Officer: monitors incident operations and advises the Incident Commander on all matters relating to operational safety, including the health and safety of emergency responder personnel. The ultimate responsibility for the safe conduct of incident management operations rests with the Incident Commander or Unified Command and supervisors at all levels of incident management. The Safety Officer is responsible to the Incident Commander for the set of systems and procedures necessary to ensure ongoing assessment of hazardous environments, general operations safety, coordination of multiagency safety efforts, and implementation of measures to promote emergency responder safety The Safety officer has emergency authority to stop and/or prevent unsafe acts during incident operations. In a Unified Command structure, a single Safety officer should be designated. The Safety officer also ensures the coordination of safety management functions and issues across jurisdictions, across functional agencies, and with privatesector and nongovernmental organizations. Agency Representative An Agency Representative is an individual assigned to an incident from an assisting or cooperating agency. The Agency Representative is delegated authority to make decisions on matters affecting that agency's participation at the incident. Assisting Agency An Assisting Agency is defined as an agency or organization providing personnel, services, or other resources to the agency with direct responsibility for incident management. Cooperating Agency A Cooperating Agency is an agency supplying assistance other than direct operational or support functions or resources to the incident management effort. An Assisting Agency has direct responsibility for incident response, whereas a Cooperating Agency is simply offering assistance. Assistants In a large or complex incident, Command Staff members may need more Assistants to help manage their workloads. Each Command Staff member is responsible for organizing his or her Assistants for maximum efficiency. Assistants are subordinates of principle Command Staff positions. As the title indicates, Assistants should have a level of technical capability, qualifications, and responsibility subordinate to the primary positions. Assistants may also be assigned to Unit Leaders (e.g., at camps to supervise unit activities). Expanding Incidents An incident may start small and then expand. As the incident grows in scope and the number of resources needed increases, there may be a need to activate Teams, Divisions, Groups, Branches, or Sections to maintain an appropriate span of control. Page 16 of 33

17 The ability to delegate the supervision of resources frees up the Incident Commander to perform critical decision making and evaluation duties, and clearly defines the lines of communication to everyone involved in the incident. Operations Section The Operations Section: Directs and coordinates all incident tactical operations. Is typically one of the first organizations to be assigned to the incident. Expands from the bottom up. Have the most incident resources. May have Staging Areas and special organizations. The Operations Section Chief: Is responsible to the Incident Commander for the direct management of all incidentrelated operational activities. Establishes tactical objectives for each operational period based upon the overall Incident Objectives. Has direct involvement in the preparation of the Incident Action Plan. The Operations Section Chief may have one or more Deputies assigned. The assignment of Deputies from other agencies may be advantageous in the case of multi-jurisdictional incidents. Divisions and Groups Divisions are established to divide an incident into physical or geographical areas of operation. Groups are established to divide the incident into functional areas of operation. Within a hospital facility the divisions could be service lines or floors. It could also be function within the facility. Branches Branches may be used to serve several purposes, and may be functional or geographic in nature. Branches are established when the number of Divisions or Groups exceeds the recommended span of control of one supervisor to three to seven subordinates for the Operations Section Chief. Branches are identified by Roman numerals or functional name, Page 17 of 33

18 and are managed by a Branch Director. Branches could be thought of as patient care units, or departments. Planning Section The Planning Section has responsibility for: Maintaining resource status. Maintaining and displaying situation status. Preparing the Incident Action Plan (IAP). Assisting or developing alternative strategies Providing documentation services. Preparing the Demobilization Plan. Providing a primary location for Technical Specialists assigned to an incident. One of the most important functions of the Planning Section is to look beyond the current and next operational period and anticipate potential problems or events. Information and Intelligence The Planning Section is responsible for gathering and disseminating information and intelligence critical to the incident. Based on the incident needs, the Information and Intelligence function may be activated as a fifth General Staff section, as an element within the Operations or Planning Sections, or as part of the Command Staff. The analysis and sharing of information and intelligence are important elements of ICS. Intelligence includes not only national security or other types of classified information but also other operational information, such as risk assessments, medical intelligence (i.e., surveillance), weather information, geospatial data, structural designs, toxic contaminant levels, and utilities and public works data, which come from different sources. Traditionally, information and intelligence functions are located in the Planning Section. In exceptional situations, the Incident Commander may assign the information and intelligence functions to other parts of the ICS organization. Information and intelligence must be appropriately analyzed and shared with personnel, designated by the Incident Commander, who have proper clearance and a "need-to-know" to ensure that they support decision making. The information and intelligence function may be organized in one of the following ways: Within the Command Staff. Most appropriate in incidents with little need for tactical or classified intelligence in which incident-related intelligence is provided by supporting Agency Representatives, through real-time reach-back capabilities. Page 18 of 33

19 A Unit within the Planning Section. Most appropriate in an incident with some need for tactical intelligence and when no law enforcement entity is a member of the Unified Command. A Branch within the Operations Section. Most appropriate in incidents with a high need for tactical intelligence (particularly classified intelligence) and when law enforcement is a member of the Unified Command. A Separate General Staff Section. Most appropriate when an incident is heavily influenced by intelligence factors or there is a need to manage and/or analyze a large volume of classified or highly sensitive intelligence information. This option is particularly relevant to a terrorism incident, which intelligence plays a crucial role throughout the incident life cycle. The information and intelligence function is also responsible for developing, conducting, and managing information-related security plans and operations as directed by the Incident Action Plan. These include information on security and operational security activities, and the complex task of ensuring that sensitive information of all types (e.g., classified information, sensitive law enforcement information, proprietary and personal information, or export-controlled information) is handled in a way that safeguards the information and ensures that it gets to those who need access to it so that they can effectively and safely conduct their missions. The information and intelligence function has the responsibility for coordinating informationand operational-security matters with public awareness activities that fall under the responsibility of the Public Information Officer, particularly when public awareness activities may affect information or operations security. Planning Section Key Personnel The Planning Section will have a Planning Section Chief. The Planning Section Chief may have a Deputy. Technical Specialists are advisors with special skills required at the incident. Technical Specialists initially report to the Planning Section, work within that Section, or are reassigned to another part of the organization. Technical Specialists can be in any discipline required (e.g., aviation, environment, hazardous materials, training, human resources, etc.). Planning Section Units The major responsibilities of Planning Units are: Resources Unit: Responsible for all check-in activity and maintaining the status on all personnel and equipment resources assigned to the incident. Situation Unit: Collects and processes information on the current situation, prepares situation displays and situation summaries, develops maps and projections. Documentation Unit: Prepares the Incident Action Plan, maintains all incident-related documentation, and provides duplication services. Page 19 of 33

20 Demobilization Unit: The Demobilization Unit will assist in ensuring that an orderly, safe, and cost-effective movement of personnel is made when they are no longer required at the incident. Logistics Section A Logistics Section can reduce time and money spent on an incident. The Logistics Section is responsible for all support requirements, including: Communications IT/IS Support Food Services Supplies Employee Health & Wellbeing Transportation Labor pool & Credentialing Employee Family Care Logistics Unit functions, except for the Supply Unit, are geared to supporting personnel and resources directly assigned to the incident. Logistics Section: Service Branch The Service Branch may be made up of the following units: Communications Unit : responsible for developing plans for the effective use of incident communications equipment and facilities, installing and testing of communications equipment, supervision of the Incident Communications Center, distribution of communications equipment to incident personnel, and the maintenance and repair of communications equipment. lt/is: responsible for evaluating current inventories, repair and replacement of broken computer equipment. And placing requests and orders for replacement equipment with Finance Director. Coordinates the delivery of and set up of equipment for telehealth and Tele-Med. Monitor Operations for technology network issues and maintain current status in all areas. Page 20 of 33

21 Food Unit: responsible for supplying the food needs for the entire incident, including all remote locations (e.g., Camps, Staging Areas), as well as providing food for personnel unable to leave tactical field assignments. Logistics Section: Support Branch The Support Branch within the Logistics Section may include the following units: Supply Unit: responsible for ordering equipment, and supplies; receiving and storing all supplies for the incident; maintaining an inventory of supplies; and servicing nonexpendable supplies and equipment. Employee Health and Wellbeing: Ensure all injured staff are cared for and project the impact on operations. Track and trend employee injury and absenteeism. Institute tracking for all employees exposed to biological, chemical, or hazardous materials. Develop strategies for dealing within long hours worked, family separation and injury and illness exposure. Work with Medical branch director and pharmacy to supply needed medications. Transportation: Locate patient movement equipment for facilities (wheelchairs, stretchers, beds), coordinate requests with local EMS for patient movment, and coordinate movement of Staff utilizing local transportation or shuttle services. Review existing MOU s for coordination of assets for patient and staff movement. Labor pool & Credentialing: Inventory all existing personnel, both clinical and nonclinical. Coordinate the call back process. Implement the Emergency Credentialling process, coordinate the verfication of credentials and licensure, coordinate the orientation of volunteers, and monitor the performance of the volunteer personnel. Ensure provision of nutrition and hydration for personnel. Employee Family Care: review and support the locations and staffing for short term child or elder care, the provision of sleeping arrangements, food, water, sanitation services, locations for pet care available, outside contract services for housing (hotels, motels, shelters), and the overall welfare of staff family. Finance/Administration Section The Finance/Administration Section: Is established when incident management activities require finance and other administrative support services. Handles claims related to property damage, injuries, or fatalities at the incident. Not all incidents will require a separate Finance/Administration Section. If only on e specific function is needed (e.g., cost analysis), a Technical Specialist assigned to the Planning Section could provide these services. Finance/Administration Units Finance/Administration Units include the following: Page 21 of 33

22 Time Unit: responsible for equipment and personnel time recording. Procurement Unit: responsible for administering all financial matters pertaining to vendor contracts, leases, and fiscal agreements. Compensation/Claims Unit: responsible for financial concerns resulting from property damage, injuries, or fatalities at the incident. Cost Unit: responsible for tracking costs, analyzing cost data, making cost estimates, and recommending cost-saving measures. Leadership and Duty Leaders should know, understand, and practice the leadership principles. Leaders need to recognize the relationship between these principles and the leadership values. Duty is how you value your job. Duty begins with everything required of you by law and policy, but it is more than simply fulfilling requirements. A leader commits to excellence in all aspects of his or her professional responsibility. Commitment to Duty What can you do, personally, that demonstrates your commitment to duty to those you lead? As a leader: Take charge within your scope of authority. Be prepared to step out of a tactical role to assume a leadership role. Be proficient. Make sound and timely decisions. Ensure tasks are understood. Develop your subordinates for the future. Leadership and Respect Know your subordinates and look out for their well-being. The workers who follow you are your greatest resource. Not all of your workers will succeed equally, but they deserve respect. Keep your subordinates and supervisor informed. Provide accurate and timely briefings, and give the reason (intent) for assignments and tasks. Build the team. Conduct frequent briefings and debriefings with the team to monitor progress and identify lessons learned. Consider team experience, fatigue, and physical limitations when accepting assignments. Delegation of Authority Process Authority is a right or obligation to act on behalf of a department, agency, or jurisdiction. In most jurisdictions, the responsibility for the protection of the citizens rest with the chief elected official. Elected officials have the authority to make decisions, commit resources, obligate funds, and command the resources necessary to protect the population, stop the spread of damage, and protect the environment. In private industry, this same responsibility and authority rests with the chief executive officer. Page 22 of 33

23 Scope of Authority An Incident Commander s scope of authority is derived: From existing laws, agency policies, and procedures, and/or Through a delegation of authority from the agency administrator or elected official. Delegation of Authority The process of granting authority to carry out specific functions is called the delegation of authority. Delegation of authority: Grants authority to carry out specific functions. Is issued by the chief elected official, chief executive officer, or agency administrator in writing or verbally. Allows the Incident Commander to assume command. Does not relieve the granting authority of the ultimate responsibility for the incident. When Not Needed: A delegation of authority may not be required if the Incident Commander is acting within his or her existing authorities. An emergency manager may already have the authority to deploy response resources to a small flash flood. A fire chief probably has the authority (as part of the job descriptions) to serve as Incident Commander at a structure fire. When Need: If the incident is outside the Incident Commander s home jurisdiction. When the incident scope is complex or beyond existing authorities. If required by law or procedures. Elements When issued, delegation of authority should include: Legal authorities and restrictions. Financial authorities and restrictions. Reporting requirements. Demographic issues. Political implications. Agency or jurisdictional priorities. Plan for public information management. Process for communications. Plan for ongoing incident evaluation. The delegations should also specify which incident conditions will be achieved prior to a transfer of command or release. Page 23 of 33

24 Implementing Authorities Within his or her scope of authority, the Incident Commander establishes incident objectives, determines strategies, resources, and ICS structure. The Incident Commander must also have the authority to establish an ICS structure adequate to protect the safety for responders and citizens, to control the spread of damage, and to protect the environment. Management by Objectives ICS is managed by objectives. Objectives are communicated throughout the entire ICS organization through the incident planning process. Management by objectives includes: Establishing overarching objectives. Developing and issuing assignments, plans, procedures, and protocols. Establishing specific, measurable objectives for various incident management functional activities. Directing efforts to attain them, in support of defined strategic objectives. Documenting results to measure performance and facilitate corrective action. Establishing and Implementing Objectives These steps for establishing and implementing incidents objectives include: 1. Understand agency policy and direction. 2. Assess incident situation. 3. Establish incident objectives. 4. Select appropriate strategy or strategies to achieve objectives. 5. Perform tactical direction. 6. Provide necessary follow-up. Initial Response: Conduct a Size-Up A size-up is done to set the immediate incident objectives. The first responder to arrive assumes command and sizes up the situation by determining: Nature and magnitude of the incident Hazards and safety concerns o Hazards facing response personnel and the public o Evacuation and warnings o Injuries and casualties o Need to secure and isolate the area Initial priorities and immediate resource requirements Location of Incident Command Post and Staging Area Entrance and exit routes for responders Page 24 of 33

25 Overall Priorities Throughout the incident, objectives are established based on the following priorities: 1. Life Safety 2. Incident Stabilization 3. Property Preservation Effective Incident Objectives Incident objectives must be: Specific and state what s to be accomplished Measurable and include a standard and timeframe. Attainable and reasonable Realistic In accordance with the Incident Commander s authorities. Time sensitive: Evaluated to determine effectiveness of strategies and tactics. Preparedness Plans and Agreements The Incident Commander, and Command and General Staffs, should have a working knowledge of jurisdictional and agency preparedness plans and agreements. Preparedness plans may take many forms. The most common preparedness plans are: o Federal, State, or Local Emergency Operations Plans (EOPs). o Standard Operational Guidelines (SOGs). o Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). o Jurisdictional or agency policies. Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) EOPs are developed at the Federal, State, and local levels to provide a uniform response to all hazards that a community may face. The facilities within Carolinas Healthcare System have developed EOP s that aid leaders in guiding responses to events/incidents. Effective Meetings and Briefings Effective briefings and meetings are: An essential element to good supervision and incident management. Intended to pass along vital information required in the completion of incident response actions. These briefings are concise and do not include long discussions or complex decision making. They allow incident managers and supervisors to communicate specific information and expectations for the upcoming work period and to answer questions. Levels of Briefings Page 25 of 33

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