1 Peer Reviewed Title: Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence Journal Issue: Opolis, 2(1) Author: Newman, Peter Kenworthy, Jeffrey Publication Date: 2006 Permalink: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2b76f089 Copyright Information: All rights reserved unless otherwise indicated. Contact the author or original publisher for any necessary permissions. escholarship is not the copyright owner for deposited works. Learn more at escholarship provides open access, scholarly publishing services to the University of California and delivers a dynamic research platform to scholars worldwide.
2 Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence Peter Newman Murdoch University Jeffrey Kenworthy Murdoch University Opolis Vol. 2, No. 1, pp All Rights Reserved. Abstract A major goal of urban design, especially in centers, is to reduce automobile dependence in order to address issues of viability and sustainability. Long-term data from cities around the world appear to show that there is a fundamental threshold of urban intensity (residents and jobs) of around 35 per hectare 1 where automobile dependence is significantly reduced. This article seeks to determine a theoretical base for what the data show. It suggests that below the threshold intensity of urban activity, the physical constraints of distance and time enforce car use as the norm. The basis of these physical constraints is outlined and the link between density and access to services that provide amenity is established, including the service levels of public transport. A design technique for viability of centers is suggested as well as how a city can restructure itself to overcome automobile dependence. Keywords: Automobile Dependence, New Urbanism Introduction The era of designing cities as if car access alone was sufficient appears to have ended. Virtually every city plan today attempts to create options that reduce traffic and the need for cars. Yet, the urban design parameters and concepts for doing this still are not very clear. New Urbanism, and much new urban development in the United States and Australia, is being rationalized through the use of urban design to reduce automobile dependence. These design techniques assert the importance of the pedestrian catchment, or Ped Shed, to define a neighborhood center. Such approaches then aim for sufficient density to create a largely self-sufficient local center with an emphasis on legible and permeable streets (e.g., Calthorpe 1993). However, it is never clear how much activity should be included in this area to make it walkable and more serviceable by public transport. There has been growing public awareness of the damaging impacts of cars on cities in the past few decades. Car dependence and large ecological footprints as well as the loss of many urban qualities including walkability, viable public transport, jobs 1 One hectare equals 2.47 acres. There are 259 hectares in a square mile.
3 36 Opolis Volume 2, Number 1: Winter 2006 Figure 1. Activity Intensity versus Private Passenger Transport Energy Use in 58 Higher-Income Cities, , ,000 y = x R 2 = MJ PER ANNUM 80,000 60,000 40,000 20, ACTIVITY INTENSITY (persons+jobs per ha) access, and other urban amenities have been tied together. Now, obesity levels, stress levels and children s mental health development have been linked to automobile dependence (Gee and Takeuchi 2004; Hillman 1997). Urban sprawl is a political reality addressed by developers and governments. Surveys reveal a desire for governments to find alternatives (summarized in Newman 2003). The need to address car dependence through better infrastructure options is clear, but the urban design implications are not. Figure 2. Activity Intensity versus Passenger Car Use in 58 Higher-Income Cities, 1995 PASSENGER CAR PASSENGER KMS PER CAPITA 30,000 y = x R 2 = ,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5, ACTIVITY INTENSITY (PERSONS + JOBS PER HA)
4 Newman & Kenworthy: Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence 37 Urban design thinking on automobile dependence is focusing on making centers work. Viable centers cannot be car dependent. The domination of car parks and traffic defeats walkability and precludes the higher-order functions that centers need. Viable thus is taken to mean a center that is not dominated by cars, but is sustainable in long-term economic, social, and environmental amenities (Government of Western Australia 2003; Department of Infrastructure, Planning, and Natural Resources 2004). Many developments, however, despite promising a reduction of car dependence, are not delivering. New Urbanist developments, focused on town centers and permeable street systems, too often do not work. There is a large gap between New Urbanist rhetoric and reality. This article tries to describe the minimum level of urban intensity and why it appears to be understandable in terms of human movement and activity. Finally, it will outline how to design for reduced automobile dependence in viable centers and how a car-dependent city can be restructured. Data on automobile dependence Since the term automobile dependence was defined in 1989 (Newman and Kenworthy 1989), researchers have been attempting to gather data on urban car use to gain perspective on the issue. Data have now been collected on over 100 urban systems from around the world over the period from 1960 to 2000 (Newman and Kenworthy 1999; Kenworthy et al. 1999; Kenworthy and Laube 2001). The link between urban intensity and automobile dependence has been confirmed repeatedly, as demonstrated by Figures 1 and 2. The vertical axis can be car use or it can be transport energy use (which can include public transport energy use as well) and the horizontal axis can be population per urban hectare or jobs per urban hectare or both together called activity intensity. The same-shaped graph emerges. Figure 1 shows the relationship between per-capita, private-transport energy use and activity intensity in 58 higher-income metropolitan areas around the world (Kenworthy and Laube 2001). Figure 2 uses the same data, but graphs car use instead of energy use against activity intensity. It reveals an even stronger statistical relationship because it eliminates scatter introduced by factors related to energy use per se (e.g., variable fuel efficiency of car fleets in different cities). When activity intensity is used on the horizontal axis, the point on the graph where rapid acceleration in car usage appears to occur seems to be around 35 people and jobs per hectare; the error band is around 30 to 40 per hectare. 2 The same relationship can be found within cities. Detailed data are presented below on local government areas 3 (LGAs) in Sydney and Melbourne showing the sharp reduction in car use and thus transport energy, as density reaches certain cut-off levels (Figures 3 and 4). Interestingly, the two data sets used were collected just over 20 years apart, yet show an identical relationship between transport and land use intensity, even when the central business district 2 Note that the density figures referred to here are genuine urban density in that they use total urbanized land as the denominator (residential, commercial, industrial land, local parks and open spaces, plus roads and any other urban land uses). The denominator excludes large areas of undeveloped land such as urban zoned yetto-be-developed land, regional scale open spaces, agriculture and forestry land, etc. The relationships shown in this article will not work with other measures of density such as residential density because they are irrelevant to transport issues. 3 Local government areas are collections of government-defined neighborhoods that can range widely in population size.
5 38 Opolis Volume 2, Number 1: Winter 2006 Figure 3. Per Capita Passenger Transport Energy Use versus Activity Intensity in Melbourne Local Government Areas, ANNUAL PER CAPITA PASSENGER TRANSPORT ENERGY USE (MJ PER PERSON) y = x R 2 = A C T I V I T Y I N T E N S I T Y ( P E R S O N S + J O B S P E R H A ) areas are removed to allow the suburban areas to stand out more clearly. As Figures 5 and 6 show, the same clear patterns emerge despite the fact that in this 20-year period the inner, denser local areas have become significantly wealthier than the outer areas. Wealth seems to be much less of an issue in determining transport activity than urban design. The interesting cut-off point at around 35 people and jobs per hectare is not something that has escaped the notice of others who have collected urban data. Calthorpe (1993) came to a similar figure based on his impressions of what makes Figure 4. Per Capita Passenger Transport Energy Use versus Activity Intensity in Sydney Local Government Areas, ANNUAL PER CAPITA PASSENGER TRANSPORT ENERGY USE (MJ PER PERSON) y = 58290x R 2 = ACTIVITY INTENSITY (PERSONS+JOBS PER HA)
6 Newman & Kenworthy: Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence 39 Figure 5. Per Capita Passenger Transport Energy Use versus Activity Intensity in Melbourne Local Government Areas, TRANSPORT ENERGY PER CAPITA (GJ per ANNUM y = x R 2 = ACTIVITY INTENSITY (PERSONS + JOBS PER HA) a viable center. Holtzclaw et al. (2002) compiled detailed data on San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Chicago with the same pattern of sharp increases in car use below this kind of density. Data have been examined for cities as different as Paris (INRETS 1995), New York (Newman and Kenworthy 1989), and San Francisco (Holtzclaw 1990). Data for the latter two are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Naess (1993 a, 1993b) developed similar data for Scandinavian cities. Jeffrey Zupan, quoted in Owen (2004), states the following about the idea of a critical threshold density: Figure 6. Per Capita Passenger Transport Energy Use versus Activity Intensity in Sydney Local Government Areas, 2002 TRANSPORT ENERGY PER CAPITA (GJ per ANNUM) y = x R 2 = ACTIVITY INTENSITY (PERSONS + JOBS PER HA)
7 40 Opolis Volume 2, Number 1: Winter 2006 Table 1. Urban Density versus Gasoline Use for the San Francisco Region Urban Center Gasoline Use (MJ per capita) Urban Density (persons per ha) Central San Francisco 17, Inner city (City of San Francisco) 33, Middle Suburb with strong sub-center 45, (Rockridge/Berkeley) Middle Suburb with no sub-center (Walnut Creek) 49, Outer Suburb (Danville-San Ramon) 67,090 5 Table 2. Urban Density versus Gasoline Use for the New York Region Urban Center Central City (New York County, including Manhattan) Gasoline Use (MJ per capita) Urban Density (persons per ha) 11, Inner city (City of New York) 20, Whole city (Tri-State Metropolitan Region) 44, Outer Suburbs 59, Table 3. Differences in Wealth and Travel Patterns from the Urban Core to the Fringe in Melbourne Percentage of Households earning >A$70,000 per year Core Inner Middle Fringe Car Use (trips/day/capita) Public Transport (trips/day/capita) Walk/bike (trips/day/capita) Source: Newman and Kenworthy Note: Core areas are the central business district and immediately adjacent areas. Inner areas are the next ring of suburbs developed before 1939 (pre-automobile suburbs developed on the basis of transit). Middle suburbs are the post World War II suburbs surrounding the inner area and beyond, apart from the fringe suburbs, which are those far-flung outer areas of the metropolitan region developed at very low densities.
8 Newman & Kenworthy: Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence 41 Figure 7. Urban Density versus Transit Use in the Los Angeles Region, 1990 ANNUAL TRANSIT BOARDINGS PER CAPITA y = x x R 2 = U RBAN D EN SITY (PERSO N S PER H A) The basic point is that you need density to support public transit. In all cities, not just in New York, once you get above a certain density two things happen. First, you get less travel by mechanical means, which is another way of saying you get more people walking and biking; and second, you get a decrease in trips by auto and an increase in trips by transit. That threshold tends to be around seven dwellings per acre. Once you cross that line, a bus company can put buses out there, because they know they re going to have enough passengers to support a reasonable frequency of service. Seven dwellings per acre at a reasonable dwelling occupancy is equivalent to around 35 to 40 persons per hectare. All these studies reveal similarly shaped relationships to those seen in the figures on Sydney and Melbourne between travel patterns (as reflected by per capita passenger-transport energy use) and intensity of urban activity. Finally, when transit use patterns within cities are analyzed, such as in data obtained by the authors for planning zones across the Los Angeles region, urban density can be used to explain 96 percent of the variance in per capita transit use (Figure 7). The question becomes: What is behind this? 4 Questions of wealth do not appear to drive this phenomenon as there is an inverse relationship between urban intensity and household income in Australian cities and a variety of wealth patterns across all the cities cited above. As the data on Melbourne in Table 3 indicate, poorer 4 Brindle (1994) suggested that attempts to link transport and density were flawed by a statistical problem involving per capita relationships on both axes. Evill (1995) explained how the graphical relationship was quite correct. If the per capita factor is removed from both, then you just relate transport for the whole city to the area of the city. This is no difference when it comes to policy on how to reduce transport energy (reduce the area for the city, i.e., increase its density), but it is harder to follow. The emphasis on ecological footprint of cities today perhaps makes it easier to see by just presenting transport energy and area of the city, but in terms of planning for people and jobs it is easier to see as a simple direct relationship.
9 42 Opolis Volume 2, Number 1: Winter 2006 households drive more, while using public transport and walking less. There obviously are other factors than the intensity of activity that affect transport. Such factors include the network of services provided, income, prices, and cultural factors. But all of these can be linked back to the intensity of activity. Thus, although many discussions have tried to explain transport in non land use terms (e.g., Brindle 1996; Mindali, Raveh, and Saloman 2004), the data suggest that the physical layout of a city does have a fundamental impact on movement patterns. The role of this article is to go the next step and explain how the relationship between transport and activity intensity works. Our analyses show that factors such as culture, climate, politics, income, prices, and education do not provide consistent insights to explain car dependence (Newman and Kenworthy 1989, 1999). Urban design, reflected chiefly in population and job densities, emerged as the most significant determinant of the travel patterns in cities around the world. This research seeks to pursue a more fundamental explanation in terms of the physical design of cities and in particular for this article, the design and intensity of activity in centers. Explaining car dependence in terms of access to amenities in centers explain why walking cities in history were just 5 to 8 kilometers in diameter, transit cities could spread to 20 to 30 kilometers, and automobile cities could spread to 50 to 60 kilometers. Due to the different speeds of walking, transit, and cars, these cities, regardless of physical size, were all one hour wide in diameter. Large urban areas today are combinations of these city types with most journeys being within that onehour-wide locus. In the 33 international cities with available journey-to-work trip time data (Newman and Kenworthy 1999; Kenworthy et al. 1999), the Marchetti Constant largely holds in terms of averages of half an hour or less. In those cities where travel time has begun to exceed that figure, transport issues are big on the political agenda. The biological or psychological basis of the Marchetti Constant seems to be a need for a more reflective or restorative period between home and work, but it cannot go too long before people become very frustrated due to the need to be more occupied rather than just moving between activities. The link between obesity and car dependence is that if the whole travel time budget is taken up by driving, little time for walking will be Figure 8. Ped Sheds for Different Scale Centers 3000 ha If there is a universal pattern linking density and movement, it is likely to be understood in terms of a universal principle that shapes urban activity. This principle can be found in the Marchetti Constant. The Marchetti Constant explains how cities throughout history have functioned on the basis of an average one hour per day travel-time budget (Marchetti 1994). This principle shows a remarkable consistency in the United Kingdom over six centuries of urban life (SACTRA 1994). It can be used to 1 km 300 ha 3 km
10 Newman & Kenworthy: Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence 43 found. Building cities where walking is part of the travel-time budget is a major reason for creating less car-dependent cities. Time constraints mean that people will arrange their location and their mode of travel accordingly. Overcoming automobile dependence thus becomes a question of whether people can access the amenities of a city without a car. In particular for an urban center, it becomes whether the time available for car travel is less than the time it would take to access the urban center using a bike, walking, or riding public transit. This element can be assessed using the Ped Shed model to create circles of activity for 10 minutes of walking or 30 minutes of walking. Ten minutes is the accepted time people will take to get to public transport or to a local amenity before that trip exceeds the whole travel-time budget. Thirty minutes covers the whole travel-time budget for those walking to urban services, and particularly jobs, within the Ped Shed. Other nodes can be used in that 30-minute Ped Shed, but this is the fundamental area within which urban amenities need to be provided without requiring personal, motorized transport. Thus two types of centers can be examined using this technique. The Local Center is essentially a Transit-Oriented Development with sufficient intensity of activity to make it an effective and viable transit center, supported by local services that bring people there as part of its multiple urban functions. The Town Center (Regional Center or Sub Center) is a place providing viable services for a region within a city. The Local Center is defined by its 10- minute Ped Shed and the Regional Center by its 30-minute radius (Figure 8). The latter is an area that can be reached by walking for most urban services. The key notion in this article is that car dependence can be overcome through critical design elements that create diversity of urban amenities within the 10- to 30-minute Ped Shed. The most fundamental factor will be the intensity of urban development. The question therefore becomes: What are the factors that underlie the minimum threshold of intensity of 35 jobs plus people per hectare? Urban center viability and size of population/ jobs in ped sheds A 10-minute Ped Shed creates an area of approximately 220 to 550 hectares based on 5 to 8 kilometers per hour walking speed. Thus, around 300 hectares at 35 people and jobs per hectare means there is a threshold of approximately 10,000 residents plus jobs within this 10-minute walking area. The range would be from about 8,000 to 19,000, with jobs and residents being interchangeable for transport demand. Some centers will have a lot more jobs than others, but the key is having a combined minimum activity intensity. This suggests the approximate minimum base of people that appears to be necessary for a reasonable Local Center and a public transport service to support it (Pushkarev and Zupan 1997; Ewing 1996; Frank and Pivo 1994; Seskin et al. 1996; Cervero et al. 2004). Either way, the number suggests a cut-off point below which services become non-competitive without predominant car access that extends the catchment area of the center. Many new car-dependent suburbs have densities more like 12 jobs/people per hectare and hence have only one-third of the population and jobs required for a viable center. When a center is built for such suburbs it tends to have low job densities. Hence, the Ped Shed never reaches the kind of intensity that will enable walkable environments. Many New Urbanist devel-
11 44 Opolis Volume 2, Number 1: Winter 2006 Figure 9. Amenity and Distance Amenity to and the distance Central of suburbs Business District of Suburbs in North West and South West of the Perth GPO Perth s Western Corridor North West 16 South West Distance from the Perth GPO Distance from the Perth GPO North West South Wes opments are emphasizing legibility and permeability of street networks, not density of activity. Hence we should not be surprised when the centers they design are not able to attract viable commercial arrangements and have weak public transport. However, centers can be built in stages with much lower numbers to begin with as long as the goal is seen to be to reach these kind of densities ultimately through infill at higher intensities. If a 30-minute Ped Shed for a Town Center is used, the area of the catchment extends to between 2,000 and 5,000 hectares. Thus, 35 people and jobs per hectare over 3,000 hectares provide approximately 100,000 residents and jobs within this 30- minute walking area. The range again is from around 70,000 to 175,000 people and jobs. This number could be the basis of a viable Town Center based on standard servicing levels. Any less than this means services in such a center become impractical. Of course, many driving trips within a walking Ped Shed still occur. But only shorter car trips are needed, making the center less car-dependent. Footloose jobs, particularly those related to the global economy, theoretically can go anywhere in a city and can determine the success of a center. However, there is considerable evidence that such jobs are locating in dense centers of activity due to the need for networking and quick face-to-face meetings of professionals. Such employment can be encouraged to locate in centers by the kind of high-diversity, walking-scale environments supported by the analysis in this article. Supporting data on amenity/density There is an obvious link between the ability to provide urban intensification (i.e., greater density) and urban amenity, both economic and psychological. Markets in the development of land are primarily determined by access to amenity, and if amenity is high then density can be easily created. If amenity is low, density generally is hard to provide. However, there is a chicken and egg issue, as amenity often is not provided without a minimum of density to support it.
12 Newman & Kenworthy: Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence 45 Figure 10. Amenity and Distance to the Central Business District of Suburbs in Perth s Eastern Corridor North East 17 South East The link between transport, access to urban amenities, and intensity of urban activity in Ped Sheds can be seen in a study of Perth (Newman et al. 2003). In this study, transport patterns and amenity were determined by suburb. Amenity was determined by the scale of local services for jobs, education, health, public transport, open space, etc. 5 Amenity was found to be closely linked to density with the highest value found in the higher density inner areas that are close to the 35 per hectare urban activity intensity. The extra information provided by this study is the cross-city data, which is found to decrease with distance from the Central Business District (also closely linked to density) and is quite distinct within the two main corridors of Perth the Western Corridor and the Eastern Corridor (Figures 9 and 10). In particular, the only viable area in terms of amenities (apart from the areas that focus on Perth city) is the Fremantle Regional Center, where sufficient intensity of urban activity is associated with high amenity and low transport energy use. Some differences can be seen around Joondalup and Rockingham Regional Centers (also on the Western Corridor), but no difference over the background is observable in the Eastern Corridor, where several Regional Centers are supposed to exist but appear to lack the necessary density of activity. The data on amenity in centers confirms the link to density. In Perth, only the inner suburbs such as Subiaco and the subcenter of Fremantle are above the 35 5 Scaling was done from 1 to 5 for each of 12 parameters based on data from each suburb. These were added with and without weighting, though this made little difference. The majority of 5 scales for each amenity parameter were found in the western suburbs of Perth. The 12 areas are schools, tertiary education, shops, lack of crime, health facilities, public open space, sports facilities, entertainment/cultural facilities, community facilities, employment, public transport, and rising property values. If a place had top scores on a range from 1 to 5 on all parameters, it would rate at around 60. The highest values are around 25 as not every place can have all amenities and some are in conflict.
13 46 Opolis Volume 2, Number 1: Winter 2006 people and jobs per hectare level. Thus, the commercial reality of running a public transport service or locating in a center depends on this kind of activity intensity. Further evidence could be collected on the viability cut-offs that are found across various cultures and economies, although these differences are likely to be lessened by the physical practicalities that lie behind all urban activity. Thus, by providing at least 10,000 people and jobs in a 10-minute walk radius or 100,000 in a 30-minute walk radius the amenities of a city can be provided. Thus, public transport, walking, and cycling become viable, and car dependence is sharply diminished. If such numbers are not reached, almost total car dependence appears to be required for the viable provision of urban amenities. When this occurs, the centers that result are less able to attract the amenities and density that together make a center viable. Of course, these goals can be approached over a period of time. Urban design and minimum activity intensity Urban design can build in threshold levels to reduce car dependence by creating Ped Sheds of 300 hectares (i.e., a radius of 1 kilometer) based around every Local Center/public transport node or 3,000 hectares (i.e., a radius of about 3 kilometers) based around every Town Center. Each Ped Shed should target redevelopment to reach thresholds of around 10,000 people plus jobs in each Local Center or public transport node, and around 100,000 people plus jobs in each Town Center. Without reaching or exceeding these thresholds, the generation of considerable car traffic will be impossible to prevent. The design of a Ped Shed of urban development can be at different gradients of intensity and still be able to reach the minimum scale of intensity for reducing cardependence. Two extremes are outlined in Figure 11. Figure 11. Options for Achieving Minimum Activity Densities in Centers A Urban Intensity B Distance from Centre Notes: Option A has a high-intensity urban core with lower-intensity development further out. Option B has medium-intensity development across most of the area scaling slightly with distance. Option A is likely to be associated with a center that has an urban rail node and Option B a bus or light rail node.
14 Newman & Kenworthy: Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence 47 Figure 12. A Conceptual Plan for Reconstructing an Automobile City Note: Based on Sydney, showing how a series of transit cities can be formed around Town Centers and Local Centers with a bus or light rail node. The link between urban center intensity and public transport As outlined above, urban amenity is enhanced if there is sufficient intensity of urban activity. However there is a Catch 22. If some urban amenities are provided first, they can attract increased urban development. Density creates amenities, but also amenities attract density. This is particularly obvious when the amenities are associated with a public transport node. An urban rail node can provide faster access and quieter urban environments than a bus node. Rail nodes attract large pedestrian flows. The attractions for people and jobs are thus vastly increased around urban rail centers (see Newman 2001; Dittmar and Ohland 2004). For automobile dependence to be overcome, Ped Sheds with an urban rail node will have the potential for much higher densities. If only a bus node is provided, medium densities need to be designed across the Ped Shed area. Higher urban intensities not only are possible but are likely to be needed around an urban rail node. It is not only more feasible to provide higher urban intensities (due to the amenities), it will require more people to ensure viability (Transportation Research Board 2004).
15 48 Opolis Volume 2, Number 1: Winter 2006 Reconstructing an Automobile City Cities across North America and Australia, which developed around car dependence over the past 50 years, now are trying to transform into places where more transport options are available for the future. This usually involves a new or refurbished transit system, usually rail, and a set of centers to focus urban activity. One new rail line and a few centers are unlikely to change a city much because they lack breadth and penetration. However, based on the Marchetti idea, it is possible to restructure the expanses of an automobile city into a series of linked transit cities. Transit cities are 20 to 30 kilometers in diameter. It is best to try to create a series of these with a rail and bus service that feeds into a Town Center. Along the lines feeding in to the Town Center would be a number of Local Centers. The whole city would be made up of transit cities joined together and linked by a fast rail service. Most people in the city could then live within the framework of local services in the Local Center. Main services, including work, would be located in the Town Center. Some higher-level services would remain in other Town Centers, especially the historic central business district, and these would be accessible by rail. However, the key to sustainability is to generate these Local Centers and Town Centers as genuinely viable places in each of the transit city sections of the city-region. This theory recently has been applied to the development of the Metropolitan Plan for the Sydney Region (www.dinpr.nsw. gov.au), which envisions six distinct transit cities, each around 20 to 30 kilometers in diameter and each having a major Town Center and a series of Local Centers. This approach is shown conceptually in Figure 12. By focusing the plan on these six areas and knowing the kind of intensity of activity that could make them viable, it becomes feasible to determine where to direct growth and where new transit infrastructure will assist the development of a more sustainable city. Conclusions Considerable variations in urban design and development are found around the world. But there is a widespread desire to find ways of minimizing car use in urban centers to make them more viable. This article tries to show that achieving less automobile dependence will require a certain minimum of urban intensity (residents and jobs). The value of the 35-per-hectare minimum has been found to have some basis in the literature and the authors own data. It has been explained in theory through the traveltime budget and the levels of amenities required to ensure that people do not have to rely on a car. The redevelopment or new development of urban areas can facilitate the reduction of automobile dependence if Ped Sheds of 300 hectares (1 kilometer radius) are used around Local Centers/public transit nodes, and 3,000 hectares (3 kilometer radius) around Town Centers. These should have minimum development goals of 10,000 and 100,000 people plus jobs, respectively. An automobile-dependent city can be restructured around a series of transit cities of 20 to 30 kilometers in diameter, with a Town Center as its focus and Local Centers linked along the transit services feeding the Town Center. Although linked across the city for many functions, these transit cities with their centers can provide a level of self-sufficiency that can form the basis for a far less car-oriented city.
16 Newman & Kenworthy: Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence 49 Author Peter Newman is the Professor of City Policy and Director of the Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, at Murdoch University. He is Chair of the Western Australian Sustainability Roundtable advising the Premier on how to implement their Sustainability Strategy. Peter s book with Jeff Kenworthy Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence, was launched in the White House in 1999 and his 2001 co-authored book is called Back on Track: Rethinking Australian and New Zealand Transport. In 2004 he was made a Sustainability Commissioner in New South Wales. Dr Jeff Kenworthy is Professor in Sustainable Cities in the Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy at Murdoch University in Perth. Professor Kenworthy teaches courses and supervises postgraduate research students in the area of urban sustainability. He has 27 years experience in urban transport and land use policy with over 200 publications in the field. He is particularly noted for his international comparisons of cities around the theme of reducing automobile dependence. References Brindle, R. E Lies, Damned Lies and Automobile Dependence Some Hyperbolic Reflections. Australian T r a n s p o r t R e s e a r c h F o r u m 9 4, Melbourne. Brindle, R. E Transport and Urban Form: The Not So Vital Link, in Transport and Liveable Cities. District8/ITE Australia Section Inaugural Regional Conference, Melbourne. the American Dream. Boston: Harvard University Press. Cervero R. et al Transit Oriented Development in America: Experiences, Challenges and Prospects. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources Planning for a Better Future. Metropolitan Strategy Discussion Paper. Sydney: Author. Dittmar, H. and G. Ohland The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit- Oriented Development. Washington, DC: Island Press. Evill, B Population, Urban Density, and Fuel Use: Eliminating Spurious Correlation. Urban Policy and Research 13(1): Ewing, R Transit Oriented Development in the Sun Belt. Transportation Research Record Washington, DC: National Research Council. Frank, L. and G. Pivo Relationships Between Land Use and Travel Behavior in the Puget Sound Region. Washington State Department of Transportation, WA- RD Gee, G. C. and D. T. Takeuchi Traffic Stress, Vehicular Burden and Well-being: A Multi-Level Analysis Social Science and Medicine 59: Government of Western Australia Hope for the Future: A Vision for Quality of Life in Western Australia, The State Sustainability Strategy. Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Perth, Western Australia. Calthorpe, P The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community and
17 50 Opolis Volume 2, Number 1: Winter 2006 Hillman, M Health Promotion: The Potential of Non-Motorised Transport. In T. Fletcher and A. McMichael (eds), Health at the Crossroads: Transport Policy and Human Health. London: Wiley. Holtzclaw, J Explaining Urban Density and Transit Impacts on Auto Use. Report to Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club, San Francisco. Holtzclaw, J., R. Clear, H. Dittmar, D. Goldstein, and P. Haas Location Efficiency: Neighbourhood and Socio- Economic Characteristics Determine Auto Ownership and Use Studies in Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Transportation Planning and Technology 25(1): INRETS Budgets Energie Environnement des Déplacements (BEED) en Ile-de-France - Analyse de la Dépense Energétique et des Emissions Polluantes Liées à la Mobilité des Franciliens. Rapport de Convention ADEME-INRETS n RB, Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité, Arceuil, Paris. Kenworthy, J. and F. Laube The Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport. International Union of Public Transport, Brussels, and Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Perth. Kenworthy, J., F. Laube, P. Newman, P. Barter, T. Raad, C. Poboon, and B. Guia An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities, Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. Marchetti, C Anthropological Invariants in Travel Behaviour. Technical Forecasting and Social Change 47(1): Mindali, O., A. Raveh, and I. Saloman Urban Density and Energy Consumption: A New Look at Old Statistics. Transportation Research, Part A 38: Naess, P. 1993a. Energy Use for Transport in 22 Nordic Towns. NIBR Report No 2. Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research. Naess, P. 1993b. Transportation Energy in Swedish Towns and Regions. Scandinavian Housing and Planning Research 10: Newman, P Railways and Reurbanisation in Perth. In J. Williams and R. Stimson (eds), Case Studies in Planning Success. New York: Elsevier. Newman, P. W. G Global Cities, Transport, Energy and the Future: Will Ecosocialisation Reverse the Historic Trends? In N. P. Low and B. J. Gleeson (eds), Making Urban Transport Sustainable. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave-Macmillan. Newman, P. W. G. and J. R. Kenworthy Cities and Automobile Dependence: An International Sourcebook. Aldershot, UK: Gower. Newman, P. W. G. and J. R. Kenworthy Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence. Washington, DC: Island Press. Newman, P. and J. Kenworthy Melbourne in an International Comparison of Urban Transport Systems: Marvellous or Mediocre. Paper for Melbourne Metropolitan Strategy, Department of Sustainability and Natural Resources, Melbourne. Newman P., A. Thorpe, S. Greive, and R. Armstrong Locational Advantage and Disadvantage in Public Housing,
18 Newman & Kenworthy: Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence 51 Rent Assistance and Housing Loan Assistance in Perth. Final Report, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Melbourne. Owen, D Green Manhattan: Why New York is the Greenest City in the U.S. The New Yorker, October 18. Pushkarev, B. and J. Zupan Public Transportation and Land Use Policy. Bloomington, IN, and London: Indiana Press. SACTRA Trunk Roads and the Generation of Traffic. Department of Transport, London, UK, December. Seskin, S. et al TCRP Report 16: Transit and Urban Form, Vol 1. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. Transportation Research Board Transit-Oriented Development: State of the Practice, and Future Benefits. TCRP H-27. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.
Department of State Development, Infrastructure and Planning State Planning Policy state interest guideline State transport infrastructure July 2014 Great state. Great opportunity. Preface Using this state
A Driving Factor in Moving to Opportunity EVELYN BLUMENBERG AND GREGORY PIERCE In 1992, the US Congress authorized the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing voucher program to operate in five large metropolitan
CANADA S COOLEST CITIES Calgary & CMA Cool Factor: imaginecalgary Sustainable Energy Solutions Canada s Coolest Cities looked at the question: What are Canada s large cities doing to encourage low-carbon
3 VISION, DESIGN PRINCIPLES & OVERALL PLANNING STRATEGY The overall planning strategy for the Bank Street CDP is to ensure that future development is undertaken in a coordinated and planned approach, supported
, CEO Infrastructure & Cities Sector, Siemens The Mobility Opportunity Improving urban transport to drive economic growth Answers for infrastructure and cities. We are in the "urban millennium" Population
Development of Shanghai Integrated Transport (2010-2015) XIAO Hui and GU Yu Abstract This article summarises the general situation of Shanghai s integrated transport system and then determines the trends
27th Australasian Transport Research Forum, Adelaide, 29 September 1 October 2004 Paper title: Author(s) name(s): Organisation(s): Urban form impacts on travelling choices: a study of four suburbs in metropolitan
French Association of Public Transport Authorities Mobility management in Ile-de- France (Paris region) The urban mobility plan Washington, September, 2006 Chantal Duchène, Director General, Groupement
Sustainable Travel Demand Goodbody Economic Consultants Ballsbridge Park, Ballsbridge, Dublin Tel: 353-1-641-0482 Fax: 353-1-668-2388 www.goodbody.ie e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org In Association With
des s Publics From Mobility to Accessibility: Addressing the Barrier Effect of Railway Infrastructure in Urban South Africa Sisa Maboza Rail Planner Passenger Rail Agency of SA Contents des s Publics 1.
Support to the Casey Overpass Study Central Transportation Planning Staff Support Staff to the Boston Region MPO Overview of the Regional Travel Demand Model Set May 18, 2011 OVERVIEW The model set that
Appendix J Santa Monica Travel Demand Forecasting Model Trip Generation Rates SANTA MONICA TRAVEL DEMAND FORECASTING MODEL TRIP GENERATION RATES SUBMITTED BY: 201 Santa Monica Blvd., Suite 500 Santa Monica,
Metropolitan Setting l GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Los Angeles lies at the heart of one of the most complex metropolitan regions in the United States. As a major center of commerce, finance, and industry in
PARIS SUBURBAN RAIL SUMMARY (COMMUTER RAIL, REGIONAL RAIL) October 2003 Europe s largest public transport system is in Paris, which has 9.7 million people and a population density of 9,100 per square mile.
APA Transportation Planning Division 2011 Student Paper Competition GIS Analysis of Population and Employment Centers in Metro Denver Served by RTD s FasTracks Patrick Picard 2208 E. 17 th Ave., Apt. #4
Overview of the Travel Demand Forecasting Methodology Prepared by the Central Transportation Planning Staff (CTPS) Authors: Scott A. Peterson, Manager Ian Harrington, Chief Planner March 29, 2008 1 OVERVIEW
Performance Measures for a Sustainable Transportation Network Pasadena s Approach Frederick C. Dock, Ellen Greenberg, Mark Yamarone Abstract. As California cities move into the second decade of the 21st
ENVIRONMENT DESIGN GUIDE April 2010 GEN 83 Page 1 THE COSTS OF URBAN SPRAWL INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORTATION Roman Trubka, Peter Newman, and Darren Bilsborough This is one of three companion papers taken
Smart Growth -- As Seen From the Air Convenient Neighborhood, Skip the Car John W. Holtzclaw Consultant, Natural Resources Defense Council; and Chair, Sierra Club Transportation Com. 1508 Taylor, San Francisco
Transport for Canberra Transport for a sustainable city 2012 2031 Australian Capital Territory, Canberra 2012 This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part
A new Garden Neighbourhood for West Guildford An opportunity for Smart Growth university of surrey November 2013 A new Garden Neighbourhood for West Guildford Preface Since the County and Borough Councils
Proceedings, International Cycling Safety Conference 2012 7-8 November 2012, Helmond, The Netherlands Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove * * European Cyclists Federation
TCRP Report 153: Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Part 2: Station Typology and Mode of Access Planning Tool Jamie Parks, AICP Kittelson & Associates, Inc. Acknowledgements
Commuter Choice Certificate Program Current course offerings (subject to change) Core 1 Commuter Choice Toolbox Required Courses Rideshare Options Audience: This 2 credit required course is targeted to
February 2008 Chicago sgreen Dividend Joe Cortright email@example.com Senior Policy Advisor, CEOs for Cities Chicago has placed an increasing emphasis on pursuing green policies in recent
Social Inclusion Definition A socially inclusive society is defined as one where all people feel valued, their differences are respected, and their basic needs are met so they can live in dignity (Cappo,
Feasibility of Car-Sharing Service in Hangzhou, China 1 Project Members 2 Project Goals 3 In depth feasibility study of launching a car sharing service in Hangzhou Provide possible ways of implementing
CROYDON MAJOR ACTIVITY CENTRE PARKING STUDY December 2011 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Strategic Context The Croydon Town Centre has been classified as a Major Activity Centre (MAC) in the Melbourne 2030 metropolitan
Objectively assessing walkability of local communities: using GIS to identify relevant environmental variables Evie Leslie, Ester Cerin, Lorinne du Toit, Neville Owen, Adrian Bauman Thanks to the Cancer
Mid-Coast Corridor Transit Project San Diego, California New Starts Engineering (Rating Assigned November 2015) Summary Description Proposed Project: Light Rail Transit 10.9 Miles, 9 Stations Total Capital
Transit [take transit: We live in the City, people. We can t expect to have parking. ] The ability of people to travel by transit is not only an equity issue, it is a matter of economic vitality for the
The New Mobility: Using Big Data to Get Around Simply and Sustainably The New Mobility: Using Big Data to Get Around Simply and Sustainably Without the movement of people and goods from point to point,
TRANSIT STRATEGIES STOP CONSOLIDATION Transit stops are the places where people access transit service, and greatly impact many elements of passengers transit experiences. They are typically thought of
12 TH INTERNATIONAL EMME/2 CONFERENCE SAN FRANCISCO INTEGRATING LAND USE AND TRANSPORT PLANNING PROCEDURES WITH EMME/2 IN CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA by Kostas Rontiris : Director, VKE Engineers, P O Box 1462
26 Connecting SEQ 2031 Part B Priorities for taking action Part B Priorities for taking action 27 4. Six priorities for action Connecting SEQ 2031 contains more than 150 strategic policies, actions and
Design Principle Safety and Surveillance Safety and Surveillance Active frontages and people friendly design enhance safety and surveillance Subiaco Square, Perth Source: TPG Town Planning & Urban Design
Integrated Public Transport Service Planning Guidelines Sydney Metropolitan Area December 2013 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 3 1.1 Purpose 3 1.2 Background 3 1.3 Travel in Sydney Metropolitan Area 5 1.4 Objectives
TRAVEL BEHAVIOR ISSUES RELATED TO NEO-TRADITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS A REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH SUSAN HANDY University of Texas School of Architecture Goldsmith Hall Austin, TX 78712-1160 At first glance, it may
Multifamily Housing: Sustainable Development in Efficient, Walkable Communities by the Greater Charlotte Apartment Association Multifamily rental housing is a critical piece of the housing market in the
5 Performance Measures This page left blank intentionally. 5 2 Moving Forward Monterey Bay 2035 Introduction The investments identified in the 2035 MTP/SCS are expected to result in significant benefits
Summary: Urban structure and travel behaviour TØI Report 1178/2011 Author(s): Øystein Engebretsen and Petter Christiansen Oslo 2011, 64 pages Norwegian language Travel behaviour in urban areas is determined
Sustainable urban mobility: visions beyond Europe 2 nd October 2013 Brest Udo Mbeche, UN-Habitat The Global Report for Human Settlements Published every two years under a UN General Assembly mandate. Aims
1 Transportation Alternatives Transportation alternatives involve a variety of components: Location Alternatives - when and where service is provided - general location as well as level of service on the
Demand for Long Distance Travel April 2011 Demand for long distance travel 1 Structure of this paper 1.1 This paper is structured as follows: Section 2 sets out past trends in the demand for long distance
Los Angeles Union Station, CA Sustainable Neighborhood Assessment April 22-23, 2014 Sustainable Neighborhood Assessment Through the Sustainable Neighborhood Assessment Tool developed by Global future development
1 Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility 2 1 UrbanizationUrbanization Rapid pace, largely uncontrolled growth, taking place mainly in developing countries 3 Global Urbanization Trends World
Portland Metro Rideshare Market Research and Implementation Plan Task B: Market Analysis Technical Memorandum July 2005 UrbanTrans Consultants Parsons Brinckerhoff / PB Consult Inc. Portland Metro Rideshare
NACTO Bike SHARE equity Practitioners paper # April walkable Station spacing is key to successful, equitable bike share Across the United States, bike share programs offer new transportation options for
Mid-Coast Corridor Transit Project San Diego, California New Starts Project Development (Rating Assigned November 2014) Summary Description Proposed Project: Light Rail Transit 10.9 Miles, 9 Stations Total
4.6. ECOCITY Tübingen - Derendingen 4.6.1 General information The attractive university town of Tübingen is located in south-western Germany and faces a high demand for housing, especially to keep young
Total Lawson Development ACTPLA 16 January 2009 Document No.: Prepared for ACTPLA Prepared by Maunsell Australia Pty Ltd Level 2, 60 Marcus Clarke Street, Canberra ACT 2600, Australia T +61 2 6201 3000
Ideal Public Transport Fares Mike Smart 29 April 2014 Sapere Research Group Limited www.srgexpert.com Energy & natural resources Regulated industries Health policy & analysis Public administration & finance
The Diminishing Returns to Density: Built form and soft infrastructure costs Murtaza Haider Visiting Scholar Institute on Municipal Finance and Governance Munk School of Global Affairs University of Toronto
Urban Geography Unit Test (Version A) 1. What function do the majority of the world s ten most populated cities serve? a. a fortress city to resist foreign invasion b. a port city for transporting people
Market Analysis for Padre Boulevard Initiative in the Town of South Padre Island, TX Prepared for Gateway Planning Group Spring 2010 TXP, Inc. 1310 South 1st Street; Suite 105 Austin, Texas 78704 (512)
Developing Africa: Toward Customer Oriented Urban Transport Policy Wendell Cox, Demographia CODATU XV Addis Abeba 23 October 2012 THE SUBJECT --- POLICY, NOT PROJECTS, MODES OR REGULATION --- OBJECTIVES
District of Columbia Zoning Requirements for Parking Study Project Review Project Overview Kickoff May 2007 Review of Existing Conditions: Zoning, Reports, Data Review of Best Practices Review of On-Street
Global Cities and Housing The Sydney Case in its Australian and International Context Vivienne Milligan Context Demography and urban settlement patterns Economic conditions Governance, policy and institutions
Capturing Value Uplift Benefiting from the Private Sector April 2013 Contents Understanding the wealth effect of Infrastructure Current Initiatives Transit Oriented Development The Challenge: Move away
21.04 LAND USE This section contains objectives and strategies for land use, under the themes of: Housing and community Retail, entertainment and the arts Office and commercial use Industry Education and
Improving accessibility in growing Australian cities Dr Jan Scheurer Kristen Bell Centre for Urban Research School of Global Urban and Social Studies RMIT University Growing cities and public transport
Smart Growth and Sustainable Cities: 1) New Urbanism: Anti-car, Anti- Suburbia Planning for the US; 2) Sustainable Europe; 3) The New Asian City Dick G. Winchell, Ph.D., FAICP, Professor of Urban Planning,
Econ 137 Urban Economics Lecture Notes III Guillermo Ordonez, UCLA Questions for Lecture Notes III Is there a land use pattern? What is it like? What determines the price of land? What determines the pattern
Vehicle Trip Reduction Impacts of Transit-Oriented Housing Robert Cervero, University of California, Berkeley G. B. Arrington, PB Placemaking Abstract A survey of 17 transit-oriented developments (TOD)
Transit Technology Alternatives Fixed Guideway Systems (see http://www.apta.com/research/info/define/index.cfm) Heavy rail - HR Heavy Rail is a system that is totally separated from its surroundings and
DRAFT MASTER PLAN - 2015 An Integrated Planning Approach... Amenities Housing Transport Solid Waste Land Use Industry Slums Logistics Agriculture Natural Areas Hi-Tech Population Heritage Water Small Industry...
Jupiter TOD Market Overview Jupiter, FL ERA Real Estate & Economic Advisors Washington, D.C. Why a Market Overview? Understand current market conditions and impacts on near-term redevelopment opportunities
DEVELOPMENT BRIEF FOR LAND AT ALLOA ROAD, TULLIBODY 1.0 Introduction and Purpose 1.1 Clackmannanshire Council is seeking to dispose of a site at Alloa Road, Tullibody for redevelopment. The site extends
MARSEILLE: DEFINED BY GEOGRAPHY FAST FACTS Metropolitan (Labor Market) Population 1,500,000 Urbanized Area* Population 1,350,000 Urbanized Land Area: Square Miles 170 Urbanized Land Area: Square Kilometers
MOVING PEOPLE Solutions for Policy Thinkers Sustainable transport in Australian cities: targeting vehicle kilometres of travel Bus and Coach Industry Policy Paper 2 MOVING PEOPLE Solutions for Policy Thinkers
TDC Heavy Vehicle Forecasts - February 2010 Release 2008/09 HOUSEHOLD TRAVEL SURVEY SUMMARY REPORT 2010 Release 0 About the Transport Data Centre The Transport Data Centre (TDC), of Transport NSW, provides
JUNE 2015 MOBILITY IN CITIES DATABASE SYNTHESIS REPORT INTRODUCTION After a period of erosion, public transport is on a growing trend again, particularly in developed economies, where urban sprawl tends
Lichfield District Council Sustainability Appraisal of the Lichfield Local Plan: Strategy Post Adoption Statement February 2015 U R S U S C O N S U L T I N G L T D Quality Management URSUS Consulting Ltd
Comprehensive Plan Policies that support Infill and Mixed Use Introduction A comprehensive plan provides a broad vision for the future growth of a community. It is often formulated using community visioning
INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS, BROWNFIELDS VS. GREENFIELDS EXCERPT, ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC, FISCAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BROWNFIELDS TAX CREDIT PROGRAM, EVANS PAULL, REDEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS,
DRAFT Technical Memorandum To: Eric Hecox/CWCB From: Jacob Bornstein/CWCB, Kevin Reidy/CWCB, Nicole Rowan/CDM Date: March 03, 2010 Subject: Calculating Per Capita Water Demand Savings from Density Increases
This document is scheduled to be published in the Federal Register on 11/04/2015 and available online at http://federalregister.gov/a/2015-28079, and on FDsys.gov 4910-06-P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Application Number 095804/FO/2011/N1 Date of Appln 21st Mar 2011 Committee Date 2nd Jun 2011 Ward Cheetham Ward Proposal Location Applicant Agent Installation of 929 square metre mezzanine floor area to
The space occupied by motor vehicles in Sydney: a possible public health advocacy tool Physicians Conference May 2009 Stephen Conaty Sydney South West Area Health Service Public Health Unit Assumptions
Near Westside Neighborhood and University Avenue Corridor Transportation Study Public Workshop #2 September 12 and 23, 2013 Presentation Outline: Brief Review of Study Scope, Background, and Current Conditions
ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN TRANSPORT POLICY - HOW IS THE SITUATION IN DENMARK, THE NETHERLANDS AND SWEDEN? Professor Emin Tengström, Aalborg University Introduction Environmental sustainability has
15 BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND HERITAGE 15/07/2013 VC100 Planning should ensure all new land use and development appropriately responds to its landscape, valued built form and cultural context, and protect places
UNNOTICED LESSONS FROM LONDON ROAD PRICING AND PUBLIC TRANSIT BY KENNETH A. SMALL OBSERVERS OF CITY LIFE have long looked to mass transit to create urban vitality. Transit is supposed to promote a healthy