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1 Oracle Database PLSQL User's Guide and Reference 10g Release 2 (10.2) B June 2005

2 Oracle Database PLSQL User s Guide and Reference 10g Release 2 (10.2) B Copyright 1996, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Contributors: Shashaanka Agrawal, Cailein Barclay, Eric Belden, Dmitri Bronnikov, Sharon Castledine, Thomas Chang, Ravindra Dani, Chandrasekharan Iyer, Susan Kotsovolos, Neil Le, Warren Li, Bryn Llewellyn, Valarie Moore, Chris Racicot, Murali Vemulapati, John Russell, Guhan Viswanathan, Minghui Yang The Programs (which include both the software and documentation) contain proprietary information; they are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are also protected by copyright, patent, and other intellectual and industrial property laws. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of the Programs, except to the extent required to obtain interoperability with other independently created software or as specified by law, is prohibited. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the documentation, please report them to us in writing. This document is not warranted to be error-free. Except as may be expressly permitted in your license agreement for these Programs, no part of these Programs may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose. If the Programs are delivered to the United States Government or anyone licensing or using the Programs on behalf of the United States Government, the following notice is applicable: U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS Programs, software, databases, and related documentation and technical data delivered to U.S. Government customers are "commercial computer software" or "commercial technical data" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific supplemental regulations. As such, use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation of the Programs, including documentation and technical data, shall be subject to the licensing restrictions set forth in the applicable Oracle license agreement, and, to the extent applicable, the additional rights set forth in FAR , Commercial Computer Software Restricted Rights (June 1987). Oracle Corporation, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA The Programs are not intended for use in any nuclear, aviation, mass transit, medical, or other inherently dangerous applications. It shall be the licensee's responsibility to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy and other measures to ensure the safe use of such applications if the Programs are used for such purposes, and we disclaim liability for any damages caused by such use of the Programs. Oracle, JD Edwards, PeopleSoft, and Retek are registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation andor its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. The Programs may provide links to Web sites and access to content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle is not responsible for the availability of, or any content provided on, third-party Web sites. You bear all risks associated with the use of such content. If you choose to purchase any products or services from a third party, the relationship is directly between you and the third party. Oracle is not responsible for: (a) the quality of third-party products or services; or (b) fulfilling any of the terms of the agreement with the third party, including delivery of products or services and warranty obligations related to purchased products or services. Oracle is not responsible for any loss or damage of any sort that you may incur from dealing with any third party.

3 Contents Send Us Your Comments... xvii Preface... xix Audience... Documentation Accessibility... Structure... PLSQL Sample Programs... Related Documents... Conventions... xix xix xx xxi xxii xxii What's New in PLSQL?... xxv New Features in PLSQL for Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)... xxv New Features in PLSQL for Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)... xxvi 1 Overview of PLSQL Advantages of PLSQL Tight Integration with SQL Better Performance Higher Productivity Full Portability Tight Security Access to Pre-defined Packages Support for Object-Oriented Programming Support for Developing Web Applications and Pages Understanding the Main Features of PLSQL Understanding PLSQL Block Structure Understanding PLSQL Variables and Constants Declaring Variables Assigning Values to a Variable Bind Variables Declaring Constants Processing Queries with PLSQL Declaring PLSQL Subprograms Declaring Datatypes for PLSQL Variables %TYPE iii

4 %ROWTYPE Understanding PLSQL Control Structures Conditional Control Iterative Control Sequential Control Understanding Conditional Compilation Writing Reusable PLSQL Code Subprograms: Procedures and Functions Packages: APIs Written in PLSQL Inputting and Outputting Data with PLSQL Understanding PLSQL Data Abstraction Cursors Collections Records Object Types Understanding PLSQL Error Handling PLSQL Architecture In the Oracle Database Server Anonymous Blocks Stored Subprograms Database Triggers In Oracle Tools Fundamentals of the PLSQL Language Character Sets and Lexical Units Delimiters Identifiers Reserved Words Predefined Identifiers Quoted Identifiers Literals Numeric Literals Character Literals String Literals BOOLEAN Literals Datetime Literals Comments Single-Line Comments Multi-line Comments Restrictions on Comments Declarations Constants Using DEFAULT Using NOT NULL Using the %TYPE Attribute Using the %ROWTYPE Attribute Aggregate Assignment iv

5 Using Aliases Restrictions on Declarations PLSQL Naming Conventions Scope and Visibility of PLSQL Identifiers Assigning Values to Variables Assigning BOOLEAN Values Assigning a SQL Query Result to a PLSQL Variable PLSQL Expressions and Comparisons Logical Operators Order of Evaluation Short-Circuit Evaluation Comparison Operators Relational Operators IS NULL Operator LIKE Operator BETWEEN Operator IN Operator Concatenation Operator BOOLEAN Expressions BOOLEAN Arithmetic Expressions BOOLEAN Character Expressions BOOLEAN Date Expressions Guidelines for PLSQL BOOLEAN Expressions CASE Expressions Simple CASE expression Searched CASE Expression Handling Null Values in Comparisons and Conditional Statements NULLs and the NOT Operator Conditional Compilation How Does Conditional Compilation Work? Conditional Compilation Control Tokens Using Conditional Compilation Selection Directives Using Conditional Compilation Error Directives Using Conditional Compilation Inquiry Directives Using Predefined Inquiry Directives With Conditional Compilation Using Static Expressions with Conditional Compilation Setting the PLSQL_CCFLAGS Initialization Parameter Using DBMS_DB_VERSION Package Constants Conditional Compilation Examples Using Conditional Compilation to Specify Code for Database Versions Using DBMS_PREPROCESSOR Procedures to Print or Retrieve Source Text Conditional Compilation Restrictions Using PLSQL to Create Web Applications and Server Pages PLSQL Web Applications PLSQL Server Pages Summary of PLSQL Built-In Functions v

6 3 PLSQL Datatypes Overview of Predefined PLSQL Datatypes PLSQL Number Types BINARY_INTEGER Datatype BINARY_FLOAT and BINARY_DOUBLE Datatypes NUMBER Datatype PLS_INTEGER Datatype PLSQL Character and String Types CHAR Datatype LONG and LONG RAW Datatypes RAW Datatype ROWID and UROWID Datatype VARCHAR2 Datatype PLSQL National Character Types Comparing UTF8 and AL16UTF16 Encodings NCHAR Datatype NVARCHAR2 Datatype PLSQL LOB Types BFILE Datatype BLOB Datatype CLOB Datatype NCLOB Datatype PLSQL Boolean Types BOOLEAN Datatype PLSQL Date, Time, and Interval Types DATE Datatype TIMESTAMP Datatype TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Datatype TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE Datatype INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH Datatype INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND Datatype Datetime and Interval Arithmetic Avoiding Truncation Problems Using Date and Time Subtypes Overview of PLSQL Subtypes Defining Subtypes Using Subtypes Type Compatibility With Subtypes Constraints and Default Values With Subtypes Converting PLSQL Datatypes Explicit Conversion Implicit Conversion Choosing Between Implicit and Explicit Conversion DATE Values RAW and LONG RAW Values Differences between the CHAR and VARCHAR2 Datatypes Assigning Character Values Comparing Character Values vi

7 Inserting Character Values Selecting Character Values Using PLSQL Control Structures Overview of PLSQL Control Structures Testing Conditions: IF and CASE Statements Using the IF-THEN Statement Using the IF-THEN-ELSE Statement Using the IF-THEN-ELSIF Statement Using CASE Statements Searched CASE Statement Guidelines for PLSQL Conditional Statements Controlling Loop Iterations: LOOP and EXIT Statements Using the LOOP Statement Using the EXIT Statement Using the EXIT-WHEN Statement Labeling a PLSQL Loop Using the WHILE-LOOP Statement Using the FOR-LOOP Statement How PLSQL Loops Iterate Dynamic Ranges for Loop Bounds Scope of the Loop Counter Variable Using the EXIT Statement in a FOR Loop Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements Using the GOTO Statement Restrictions on the GOTO Statement Using the NULL Statement Using PLSQL Collections and Records What are PLSQL Collections and Records? Understanding PLSQL Collections Understanding Nested Tables Understanding Varrays Understanding Associative Arrays (Index-By Tables) How Globalization Settings Affect VARCHAR2 Keys for Associative Arrays Understanding PLSQL Records Choosing Which PLSQL Collection Types to Use Choosing Between Nested Tables and Associative Arrays Choosing Between Nested Tables and Varrays Defining Collection Types and Declaring Collection Variables Declaring PLSQL Collection Variables Initializing and Referencing Collections Referencing Collection Elements Assigning Collections Comparing Collections Using Multilevel Collections vii

8 Using Collection Methods Checking If a Collection Element Exists (EXISTS Method) Counting the Elements in a Collection (COUNT Method) Checking the Maximum Size of a Collection (LIMIT Method) Finding the First or Last Collection Element (FIRST and LAST Methods) Looping Through Collection Elements (PRIOR and NEXT Methods) Increasing the Size of a Collection (EXTEND Method) Decreasing the Size of a Collection (TRIM Method) Deleting Collection Elements (DELETE Method) Applying Methods to Collection Parameters Avoiding Collection Exceptions Defining and Declaring Records Using Records as Procedure Parameters and Function Return Values Assigning Values to Records Comparing Records Inserting PLSQL Records into the Database Updating the Database with PLSQL Record Values Restrictions on Record Inserts and Updates Querying Data into Collections of Records Performing SQL Operations from PLSQL Overview of SQL Support in PLSQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators Managing Cursors in PLSQL Implicit Cursors Attributes of Implicit Cursors Guidelines for Using Attributes of Implicit Cursors Explicit Cursors Declaring a Cursor Opening a Cursor Fetching with a Cursor Fetching Bulk Data with a Cursor Closing a Cursor Attributes of Explicit Cursors Querying Data with PLSQL Selecting At Most One Row: SELECT INTO Statement Selecting Multiple Rows: BULK COLLECT Clause Looping Through Multiple Rows: Cursor FOR Loop Performing Complicated Query Processing: Explicit Cursors Querying Data with PLSQL: Implicit Cursor FOR Loop Querying Data with PLSQL: Explicit Cursor FOR Loops Defining Aliases for Expression Values in a Cursor FOR Loop Using Subqueries viii

9 Using Correlated Subqueries Writing Maintainable PLSQL Queries Using Cursor Variables (REF CURSORs) What Are Cursor Variables (REF CURSORs)? Why Use Cursor Variables? Declaring REF CURSOR Types and Cursor Variables Passing Cursor Variables As Parameters Controlling Cursor Variables: OPEN-FOR, FETCH, and CLOSE Opening a Cursor Variable Using a Cursor Variable as a Host Variable Fetching from a Cursor Variable Closing a Cursor Variable Reducing Network Traffic When Passing Host Cursor Variables to PLSQL Avoiding Errors with Cursor Variables Restrictions on Cursor Variables Using Cursor Expressions Restrictions on Cursor Expressions Example of Cursor Expressions Constructing REF CURSORs with Cursor Subqueries Overview of Transaction Processing in PLSQL Using COMMIT in PLSQL Using ROLLBACK in PLSQL Using SAVEPOINT in PLSQL How Oracle Does Implicit Rollbacks Ending Transactions Setting Transaction Properties with SET TRANSACTION Restrictions on SET TRANSACTION Overriding Default Locking Doing Independent Units of Work with Autonomous Transactions Advantages of Autonomous Transactions Defining Autonomous Transactions Comparison of Autonomous Transactions and Nested Transactions Transaction Context Transaction Visibility Controlling Autonomous Transactions Using Autonomous Triggers Calling Autonomous Functions from SQL Performing SQL Operations with Native Dynamic SQL Why Use Dynamic SQL with PLSQL? Using the EXECUTE IMMEDIATE Statement in PLSQL Specifying Parameter Modes for Bind Variables in Dynamic SQL Strings Using Bulk Dynamic SQL in PLSQL Using Dynamic SQL with Bulk SQL Examples of Dynamic Bulk Binds Guidelines for Using Dynamic SQL with PLSQL Building a Dynamic Query with Dynamic SQL ix

10 When to Use or Omit the Semicolon with Dynamic SQL Improving Performance of Dynamic SQL with Bind Variables Passing Schema Object Names As Parameters Using Duplicate Placeholders with Dynamic SQL Using Cursor Attributes with Dynamic SQL Passing Nulls to Dynamic SQL Using Database Links with Dynamic SQL Using Invoker Rights with Dynamic SQL Using Pragma RESTRICT_REFERENCES with Dynamic SQL Avoiding Deadlocks with Dynamic SQL Backward Compatibility of the USING Clause Using Dynamic SQL With PLSQL Records and Collections Using PLSQL Subprograms What Are Subprograms? Advantages of PLSQL Subprograms Understanding PLSQL Procedures Understanding PLSQL Functions Using the RETURN Statement Declaring Nested PLSQL Subprograms Passing Parameters to PLSQL Subprograms Actual Versus Formal Subprogram Parameters Using Positional, Named, or Mixed Notation for Subprogram Parameters Specifying Subprogram Parameter Modes Using the IN Mode Using the OUT Mode Using the IN OUT Mode Summary of Subprogram Parameter Modes Using Default Values for Subprogram Parameters Overloading Subprogram Names Guidelines for Overloading with Numeric Types Restrictions on Overloading How Subprogram Calls Are Resolved How Overloading Works with Inheritance Using Invoker's Rights Versus Definer's Rights (AUTHID Clause) Advantages of Invoker's Rights Specifying the Privileges for a Subprogram with the AUTHID Clause Who Is the Current User During Subprogram Execution? How External References Are Resolved in Invoker's Rights Subprograms The Need for Template Objects in Invoker's Rights Subprograms Overriding Default Name Resolution in Invoker's Rights Subprograms Granting Privileges on Invoker's Rights Subprograms Granting Privileges on an Invoker's Rights Subprogram: Example Using Roles with Invoker's Rights Subprograms Using Views and Database Triggers with Invoker's Rights Subprograms Using Database Links with Invoker's Rights Subprograms Using Object Types with Invoker's Rights Subprograms x

11 Calling Invoker's Rights Instance Methods Using Recursion with PLSQL What Is a Recursive Subprogram? Calling External Subprograms Controlling Side Effects of PLSQL Subprograms Understanding Subprogram Parameter Aliasing Using PLSQL Packages What Is a PLSQL Package? What Goes In a PLSQL Package? Advantages of PLSQL Packages Understanding The Package Specification Referencing Package Contents Restrictions Understanding The Package Body Some Examples of Package Features Private Versus Public Items in Packages How Package STANDARD Defines the PLSQL Environment Overview of Product-Specific Packages About the DBMS_ALERT Package About the DBMS_OUTPUT Package About the DBMS_PIPE Package About the HTF and HTP Packages About the UTL_FILE Package About the UTL_HTTP Package About the UTL_SMTP Package Guidelines for Writing Packages Separating Cursor Specs and Bodies with Packages Handling PLSQL Errors Overview of PLSQL Runtime Error Handling Guidelines for Avoiding and Handling PLSQL Errors and Exceptions Advantages of PLSQL Exceptions Summary of Predefined PLSQL Exceptions Defining Your Own PLSQL Exceptions Declaring PLSQL Exceptions Scope Rules for PLSQL Exceptions Associating a PLSQL Exception with a Number: Pragma EXCEPTION_INIT Defining Your Own Error Messages: Procedure RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR Redeclaring Predefined Exceptions How PLSQL Exceptions Are Raised Raising Exceptions with the RAISE Statement How PLSQL Exceptions Propagate Reraising a PLSQL Exception Handling Raised PLSQL Exceptions Exceptions Raised in Declarations xi

12 Handling Exceptions Raised in Handlers Branching to or from an Exception Handler Retrieving the Error Code and Error Message: SQLCODE and SQLERRM Catching Unhandled Exceptions Tips for Handling PLSQL Errors Continuing after an Exception Is Raised Retrying a Transaction Using Locator Variables to Identify Exception Locations Overview of PLSQL Compile-Time Warnings PLSQL Warning Categories Controlling PLSQL Warning Messages Using the DBMS_WARNING Package Tuning PLSQL Applications for Performance Initialization Parameters for PLSQL Compilation How PLSQL Optimizes Your Programs When to Tune PLSQL Code Guidelines for Avoiding PLSQL Performance Problems Avoiding CPU Overhead in PLSQL Code Make SQL Statements as Efficient as Possible Make Function Calls as Efficient as Possible Make Loops as Efficient as Possible Do Not Duplicate Built-in String Functions Reorder Conditional Tests to Put the Least Expensive First Minimize Datatype Conversions Use PLS_INTEGER for Integer Arithmetic Use BINARY_FLOAT and BINARY_DOUBLE for Floating-Point Arithmetic Avoiding Memory Overhead in PLSQL Code Be Generous When Declaring Sizes for VARCHAR2 Variables Group Related Subprograms into Packages Pin Packages in the Shared Memory Pool Improve Your Code to Avoid Compiler Warnings Profiling and Tracing PLSQL Programs Using The Profiler API: Package DBMS_PROFILER Using The Trace API: Package DBMS_TRACE Controlling the Trace Reducing Loop Overhead for DML Statements and Queries with Bulk SQL Using the FORALL Statement How FORALL Affects Rollbacks Counting Rows Affected by FORALL with the %BULK_ROWCOUNT Attribute Handling FORALL Exceptions with the %BULK_EXCEPTIONS Attribute Retrieving Query Results into Collections with the BULK COLLECT Clause Examples of Bulk-Fetching from a Cursor Limiting the Rows for a Bulk FETCH Operation with the LIMIT Clause Retrieving DML Results into a Collection with the RETURNING INTO Clause Using FORALL and BULK COLLECT Together Using Host Arrays with Bulk Binds xii

13 Writing Computation-Intensive Programs in PLSQL Tuning Dynamic SQL with EXECUTE IMMEDIATE and Cursor Variables Tuning PLSQL Procedure Calls with the NOCOPY Compiler Hint Restrictions on NOCOPY Compiling PLSQL Code for Native Execution Before You Begin Determining Whether to Use PLSQL Native Compilation How PLSQL Native Compilation Works Dependencies, Invalidation and Revalidation Real Application Clusters and PLSQL Native Compilation Limitations of Native Compilation The spnc_commands File Setting up Initialization Parameters for PLSQL Native Compilation PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_DIR Initialization Parameter PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_SUBDIR_COUNT Initialization Parameter PLSQL_CODE_TYPE Initialization Parameter Setting Up PLSQL Native Library Subdirectories Setting Up and Testing PLSQL Native Compilation Setting Up a New Database for PLSQL Native Compilation Modifying the Entire Database for PLSQL Native or Interpreted Compilation Setting Up Transformations with Pipelined Functions Overview of Pipelined Table Functions Writing a Pipelined Table Function Using Pipelined Table Functions for Transformations Returning Results from Pipelined Table Functions Pipelining Data Between PLSQL Table Functions Optimizing Multiple Calls to Pipelined Table Functions Fetching from the Results of Pipelined Table Functions Passing Data with Cursor Variables Performing DML Operations Inside Pipelined Table Functions Performing DML Operations on Pipelined Table Functions Handling Exceptions in Pipelined Table Functions Using PLSQL With Object Types Declaring and Initializing Objects in PLSQL Declaring Objects in a PLSQL Block How PLSQL Treats Uninitialized Objects Manipulating Objects in PLSQL Accessing Object Attributes With Dot Notation Calling Object Constructors and Methods Updating and Deleting Objects Manipulating Objects Through Ref Modifiers Defining SQL Types Equivalent to PLSQL Collection Types Manipulating Individual Collection Elements with SQL Using PLSQL Collections with SQL Object Types Using Dynamic SQL With Objects xiii

14 13 PLSQL Language Elements Assignment Statement AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION Pragma Block Declaration CASE Statement CLOSE Statement Collection Definition Collection Methods Comments COMMIT Statement Constant and Variable Declaration Cursor Attributes Cursor Variables Cursor Declaration DELETE Statement EXCEPTION_INIT Pragma Exception Definition EXECUTE IMMEDIATE Statement EXIT Statement Expression Definition FETCH Statement FORALL Statement Function Declaration GOTO Statement IF Statement INSERT Statement Literal Declaration LOCK TABLE Statement LOOP Statements MERGE Statement NULL Statement Object Type Declaration OPEN Statement OPEN-FOR Statement Package Declaration Procedure Declaration RAISE Statement Record Definition RESTRICT_REFERENCES Pragma RETURN Statement RETURNING INTO Clause ROLLBACK Statement %ROWTYPE Attribute SAVEPOINT Statement SELECT INTO Statement SERIALLY_REUSABLE Pragma SET TRANSACTION Statement xiv

15 SQL Cursor SQLCODE Function SQLERRM Function %TYPE Attribute UPDATE Statement A Obfuscating PLSQL Source Code What is Obfuscation?... A-1 Tips When Obfuscating PLSQL Units... A-1 Limitations of Obfuscation... A-2 Limitations of the wrap Utility... A-2 Limitations of the DBMS_DDL wrap Function... A-2 Obfuscating PLSQL Code With the wrap Utility... A-2 Input and Output Files for the PLSQL wrap Utility... A-3 Running the wrap Utility... A-3 Obfuscating PLQL Code With DBMS_DDL Subprograms... A-4 Using the DBMS_DDL create_wrapped Procedure... A-4 B How PLSQL Resolves Identifier Names What Is Name Resolution?... B-1 Examples of Qualified Names and Dot Notation... B-2 Additional Examples of How to Specify Names With the Dot Notation... B-3 Differences in Name Resolution Between PLSQL and SQL... B-3 Understanding Capture... B-4 Inner Capture... B-4 Same-Scope Capture... B-5 Outer Capture... B-5 Avoiding Inner Capture in DML Statements... B-5 Qualifying References to Object Attributes and Methods... B-6 References to Attributes and Methods... B-6 References to Row Expressions... B-7 C PLSQL Program Limits D PLSQL Reserved Words and Keywords Index xv

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17 Send Us Your Comments Oracle Database PLSQL User s Guide and Reference 10g Release 2 (10.2) B Oracle welcomes your comments and suggestions on the quality and usefulness of this publication. Your input is an important part of the information used for revision. Did you find any errors? Is the information clearly presented? Do you need more information? If so, where? Are the examples correct? Do you need more examples? What features did you like most about this manual? If you find any errors or have any other suggestions for improvement, please indicate the title and part number of the documentation and the chapter, section, and page number (if available). You can send comments to us in the following ways: Electronic mail: FAX: (650) Attn: Server Technologies Documentation Manager Postal service: Oracle Corporation Server Technologies Documentation Manager 500 Oracle Parkway, Mailstop 4op11 Redwood Shores, CA USA If you would like a reply, please give your name, address, telephone number, and electronic mail address (optional). If you have problems with the software, please contact your local Oracle Support Services. xvii

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19 Preface This guide explains the concepts behind the PLSQL language and shows, with examples, how to use various language features. This Preface contains these topics: Audience Documentation Accessibility Structure PLSQL Sample Programs Related Documents Conventions Audience PLSQL, Oracle's procedural extension of SQL, is an advanced fourth-generation programming language (4GL). It offers software-engineering features such as data encapsulation, overloading, collection types, exceptions, and information hiding. PLSQL also supports rapid prototyping and development through tight integration with SQL and the Oracle database. Anyone developing PLSQL-based applications for Oracle should read this book. This book is intended for programmers, systems analysts, project managers, database administrators, and others who need to automate database operations. People developing applications in other languages can also produce mixed-language applications with parts written in PLSQL. To use this guide effectively, you need a working knowledge of the Oracle database, the SQL language, and basic programming constructs such as IF-THEN comparisons, loops, procedures, and functions. Documentation Accessibility Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation accessible, with good usability, to the disabled community. To that end, our documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be xix

20 accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program Web site at Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text that consists solely of a bracket or brace. Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites. TTY Access to Oracle Support Services Oracle provides dedicated Text Telephone (TTY) access to Oracle Support Services within the United States of America 24 hours a day, seven days a week. For TTY support, call Structure This document contains: Chapter 1, "Overview of PLSQL" Summarizes the main features of PLSQL and their advantages. Introduces the basic concepts behind PLSQL and the general appearance of PLSQL programs. Chapter 2, "Fundamentals of the PLSQL Language" Focuses on the small-scale aspects of PLSQL, such as lexical units, scalar datatypes, user-defined subtypes, data conversion, expressions, assignments, block structure, declarations, and scope. Chapter 3, "PLSQL Datatypes" Discusses PLSQL's predefined datatypes, which include integer, floating-point, character, Boolean, date, collection, reference, and LOB types. Also discusses user-defined subtypes and data conversion. Chapter 4, "Using PLSQL Control Structures" Shows how to control the flow of execution through a PLSQL program. Describes conditional, iterative, and sequential control, with control structures such as IF-THEN-ELSE, CASE, and WHILE-LOOP. Chapter 5, "Using PLSQL Collections and Records" Discusses the composite datatypes TABLE, VARRAY, and RECORD. You learn how to reference and manipulate whole collections of data and group data of different types together. Chapter 6, "Performing SQL Operations from PLSQL" Shows how PLSQL supports the SQL commands, functions, and operators for manipulating Oracle data. Also shows how to process queries and transactions. Chapter 7, "Performing SQL Operations with Native Dynamic SQL" xx

21 Shows how to build SQL statements and queries at run time. Chapter 8, "Using PLSQL Subprograms" Shows how to write and call procedures and functions. It discusses related topics such as parameters, overloading, and different privilege models for subprograms. Chapter 9, "Using PLSQL Packages" Shows how to bundle related PLSQL types, items, and subprograms into a package. Packages define APIs that can be reused by many applications. Chapter 10, "Handling PLSQL Errors" Shows how to detect and handle PLSQL errors using exceptions and handlers. Chapter 11, "Tuning PLSQL Applications for Performance" Discusses how to improve performance for PLSQL-based applications. Chapter 12, "Using PLSQL With Object Types" Discusses how to manipulate objects through PLSQL. Chapter 13, "PLSQL Language Elements" Shows the syntax of statements, parameters, and other PLSQL language elements. Also includes usage notes and links to examples in the book. Appendix A, "Obfuscating PLSQL Source Code" Describes how to use the standalone wrap utility and subprograms of the DBMS_DDL package to obfuscate PLSQL source code, enabling you to deliver PLSQL applications without exposing your source code. Appendix B, "How PLSQL Resolves Identifier Names" Explains how PLSQL resolves references to names in potentially ambiguous SQL and procedural statements. Appendix C, "PLSQL Program Limits" Explains the compile-time and runtime limits imposed by PLSQL. Appendix D, "PLSQL Reserved Words and Keywords" Lists the words that are reserved for use by PLSQL. PLSQL Sample Programs You can install the PLSQL sample programs from the Oracle Database Companion CD. The demos are installed in the PLSQL demo directory, typically ORACLE_HOMEplsqldemo. For the exact location of the directory, see the Oracle installation guide for your system. These samples are typically older ones based on the SCOTT schema, with its EMP and DEPT tables. Most examples in this book have been made into complete programs that you can run under the HR sample schema, with its EMPLOYEES and DEPARTMENTS tables. The Oracle Technology Network Web site has a PLSQL section with many sample programs to download, at These programs demonstrate many language features, particularly the most recent ones. You can use some of the programs to compare performance of PLSQL across database releases. xxi

22 For examples of calling PLSQL from other languages, see Oracle Database Java Developer's Guide and Pro*CC++ Programmer's Guide. Related Documents Conventions For more information, see these Oracle resources: For additional information on PLSQL, see the Oracle Technology Network (OTN), at If you want to access information for a specific topic on OTN, such as "PLSQL best practices", enter the appropriate phrase in the search field on the OTN main page at For articles on technical topics, see "Technical Articles Index" on OTN, at For various aspects of PLSQL programming, in particular details for triggers and stored procedures, see Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals. For information about PLSQL packages provided with the Oracle database, see Oracle Database PLSQL Packages and Types Reference. For information on object-oriented programming using both PLSQL and SQL features, see Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Object-Relational Features. For information about programming with large objects (LOBs), see Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Large Objects. For SQL information, see the Oracle Database SQL Reference and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide. For basic Oracle concepts, see Oracle Database Concepts. Many of the examples in this book use the sample schemas, which are installed by default when you select the Basic Installation option with an Oracle Database installation. Refer to Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself. Printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You must register online before using OTN; registration is free and can be done at If you already have a username and password for OTN, then you can go directly to the documentation section of the OTN Web site at For information on additional books This section describes the conventions used in the text and code examples of this documentation set. It describes: Conventions in Text Conventions in Code Examples xxii

23 Conventions in Text We use various conventions in text to help you more quickly identify special terms. The following table describes those conventions and provides examples of their use. Convention Meaning Example Bold Italics UPPERCASE monospace (fixed-width) font lowercase monospace (fixed-width) font lowercase italic monospace (fixed-width) font Bold typeface indicates terms that are defined in the text or terms that appear in a glossary, or both. Italic typeface indicates book titles or emphasis. Uppercase monospace typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. Such elements include parameters, privileges, datatypes, Recovery Manager keywords, SQL keywords, SQL*Plus or utility commands, packages and methods, as well as system-supplied column names, database objects and structures, usernames, and roles. Lowercase monospace typeface indicates executable programs, filenames, directory names, and sample user-supplied elements. Such elements include computer and database names, net service names and connect identifiers, user-supplied database objects and structures, column names, packages and classes, usernames and roles, program units, and parameter values. Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown. Lowercase italic monospace font represents placeholders or variables. When you specify this clause, you create an index-organized table. Oracle Database Concepts Ensure that the recovery catalog and target database do not reside on the same disk. You can specify this clause only for a NUMBER column. You can back up the database by using the BACKUP command. Query the TABLE_NAME column in the USER_TABLES data dictionary view. Use the DBMS_STATS.GENERATE_STATS procedure. Enter sqlplus to start SQL*Plus. The password is specified in the orapwd file. Back up the datafiles and control files in the disk1oracledbs directory. The department_id, department_name, and location_id columns are in the hr.departments table. Set the QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED initialization parameter to true. Connect as oe user. The JRepUtil class implements these methods. You can specify the parallel_clause. Run old_release.sql where old_release refers to the release you installed prior to upgrading. Conventions in Code Examples Code examples illustrate SQL, PLSQL, SQL*Plus, or other command-line statements. They are displayed in a monospace (fixed-width) font and separated from normal text as shown in this example: SELECT USERNAME FROM DBA_USERS WHERE USERNAME = 'MIGRATE'; The following table describes typographic conventions used in code examples and provides examples of their use. Convention Meaning Example [ ] Anything enclosed in brackets is optional. DECIMAL (digits [, precision ]) { } Braces are used for grouping items. {ENABLE DISABLE} A vertical bar represents a choice of two options. {ENABLE DISABLE} [COMPRESS NOCOMPRESS] xxiii

24 Convention Meaning Example... Ellipsis points mean repetition in syntax descriptions. In addition, ellipsis points can mean an omission in code examples or text. Other symbols Italics UPPERCASE lowercase You must use symbols other than brackets ([ ]), braces ({ }), vertical bars ( ), and ellipsis points (...) exactly as shown. Italicized text indicates placeholders or variables for which you must supply particular values. Uppercase typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. We show these terms in uppercase in order to distinguish them from terms you define. Unless terms appear in brackets, enter them in the order and with the spelling shown. Because these terms are not case sensitive, you can use them in either UPPERCASE or lowercase. Lowercase typeface indicates user-defined programmatic elements, such as names of tables, columns, or files. Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown. CREATE TABLE... AS subquery; SELECT col1, col2,..., coln FROM employees; acctbal NUMBER(11,2); acct CONSTANT NUMBER(4) := 3; CONNECT SYSTEMsystem_password DB_NAME = database_name SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees; SELECT * FROM USER_TABLES; DROP TABLE hr.employees; SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees; sqlplus hrhr CREATE USER mjones IDENTIFIED BY ty3mu9; xxiv

25 What's New in PLSQL? This section describes new features of PLSQL release 10g, and provides pointers to additional information. The following sections describe the new features in PLSQL: New Features in PLSQL for Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) New Features in PLSQL for Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) See Also: Information and examples related to new PLSQL features on the PLSQL home page on Oracle Technology Network (OTN): Oracle By Example - Using Oracle Database 10g PLSQL New Features on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN, including bulk binding enhancements and debugging PLSQL with JDeveloper: plsqlplsql.htm New Features in PLSQL for Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) These are the new features for Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2). Conditional Compilation This feature enables you to selectively include code depending on the values of the conditions evaluated during compilation. For example, conditional compilation enables you to determine which PLSQL features in a PLSQL application are used for specific database releases. The latest PLSQL features in an application can be run on a new database release while at the same time those features can be conditionalized so that the same application is compatible with a previous database release. Conditional compilation is also useful when you want to execute debugging procedures in a development environment, but want to turn off the debugging routines in a production environment. See "Conditional Compilation" on page Dynamic Wrap DBMS_DDL wrap subprograms obfuscate (hide) dynamically generated PLSQL code units in an Oracle database so that implementation details are hidden from users. See Appendix A, "Obfuscating PLSQL Source Code". xxv

26 PLS_INTEGER Datatype Update The range of the PLS_INTEGER datatype is to , represented in 32 bits. See "PLS_INTEGER Datatype" on page 3-4. New Features in PLSQL for Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) These are the new features for Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1). Improved Performance PLSQL performance is improved across the board. Most improvements are automatic, with no action required from you. Global optimization of PLSQL code is controlled by the PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL initialization parameter. The default optimization level improves performance for a broad range of PLSQL operations. Most users should never need to change the default optimization level. Performance improvements include better integer performance, reuse of expression values, simplification of branching code, better performance for some library calls, and elimination of unreachable code. The new datatypes BINARY_FLOAT and BINARY_DOUBLE can improve performance in number-crunching applications, such as processing scientific data. Native compilation is easier and more integrated, with fewer initialization parameters to set, less compiler configuration, the object code is stored in the database, and compatibility with Oracle Real Application Clusters environments. The FORALL statement can handle associative arrays and nested tables with deleted elements. You can now use this performance construct in more situations than before, and avoid the need to copy elements from one collection to another. Enhancements to PLSQL Native Compilation The configuration of initialization parameters and the command setup for native compilation has been simplified. The only required parameter is PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_DIR. The parameters related to the compiler, linker, and make utility have been obsoleted. Native compilation is turned on and off by a separate initialization parameter, PLSQL_CODE_TYPE, rather than being one of several options in the PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS parameter, which is now deprecated. The $ORACLE_HOMEplsqlspnc_commands file contains the commands and options for compiling and linking, rather than a makefile. The spnc_commands file. A new script, dbmsupgnv.sql, has been provided to recompile all the PLSQL modules in a database as NATIVE. The dbmsupgin.sql script recompiles all the PLSQL modules in a database as INTERPRETED. A package body and its specification do not need to be compiled with the same setting for native compilation. For example, a package body can be compiled natively while the package specification is compiled interpreted, or vice versa. Natively compiled subprograms are stored in the database, and the corresponding shared libraries are extracted automatically as needed. You do not need to worry about backing up the shared libraries, cleaning up old shared libraries, or what happens if a shared library is deleted accidentally. Any errors that occur during native compilation are reflected in the USER_ERRORS dictionary view and by the SQL*Plus command SHOW ERRORS. See "Compiling PLSQL Code for Native Execution" on page xxvi

27 FORALL Support for Non-Consecutive Indexes You can use the INDICES OF and VALUES OF clauses with the FORALL statement to iterate over non-consecutive index values. For example, you can delete elements from a nested table, and still use that nested table in a FORALL statement. See "Using the FORALL Statement" on page New IEEE Floating-Point Types New datatypes BINARY_FLOAT and BINARY_DOUBLE represent floating-point numbers in IEEE 754 format. These types are useful for scientific computation where you exchange data with other programs and languages that use the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point. Because many computer systems support IEEE 754 floating-point operations through native processor instructions, these types are efficient for intensive computations involving floating-point data. Support for these types includes numeric literals such as 1.0f and 3.141d, arithmetic operations including square root and remainder, exception handling, and special values such as not-a-number (NaN) and infinity. The rules for overloading subprograms are enhanced, so that you can write math libraries with different versions of the same function operating on PLS_INTEGER, NUMBER, BINARY_FLOAT, and BINARY_DOUBLE parameters. See "PLSQL Number Types" on page 3-2. Change to the BINARY_INTEGER Datatype Staring with Oracle 10g release 1, the BINARY_INTEGER datatype was changed to be identical to PLS_INTEGER so the datatypes can be used interchangeably. See "BINARY_INTEGER Datatype" on page 3-2. Note: Prior to Oracle 10g release 1, PLS_INTEGER was more efficient than BINARY_INTEGER, so you might prefer to use the PLS_INTEGER datatype if your code will be run under older database releases. However, the PLS_INTEGER datatype has a different overflow behavior than the BINARY_INTEGER datatype in releases prior to Oracle 10g release 1. Prior to Oracle 10g release 1, when a calculation with two BINARY_INTEGER datatypes overflowed the magnitude range of BINARY_INTEGER, the result was assigned to a NUMBER datatype and no overflow exception was raised. See "PLS_INTEGER Datatype" on page 3-4. Improved Overloading You can now overload subprograms that accept different kinds of numeric arguments, to write math libraries with specialized versions of each subprogram for different datatypes. See "Guidelines for Overloading with Numeric Types" on page Nested Table Enhancements Nested tables defined in PLSQL have many more operations than previously. You can compare nested tables for equality, test whether an element is a member of a nested table, test whether one nested table is a subset of another, perform set operations such as union and intersection, and much more. See "Assigning Collections" on page 5-12 and "Comparing Collections" on page xxvii

28 Compile-Time Warnings Oracle can issue warnings when you compile subprograms that produce ambiguous results or use inefficient constructs. You can selectively enable and disable these warnings through the PLSQL_WARNINGS initialization parameter and the DBMS_WARNING package. See "Overview of PLSQL Compile-Time Warnings" on page Quoting Mechanism for String Literals Instead of doubling each single quote inside a string literal, you can specify your own delimiter character for the literal, and then use single quotes inside the string. See "String Literals" on page 2-6. Implicit Conversion Between CLOB and NCLOB You can implicitly convert from CLOB to NCLOB or from NCLOB to CLOB. Because this can be an expensive operation, it might help maintainability to continue using the TO_CLOB and TO_NCLOB functions. Regular Expressions If you are familiar with UNIX-style regular expressions, you can use them while performing queries and string manipulations. You use the REGEXP_LIKE operator in SQL queries, and the REGEXP_INSTR, REGEXP_REPLACE, and REGEXP_SUBSTR functions anywhere you would use INSTR, REPLACE, and SUBSTR. See "Summary of PLSQL Built-In Functions" on page 2-38 and "Do Not Duplicate Built-in String Functions" on page Flashback Query Functions The functions SCN_TO_TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_TO_SCN let you translate between a date and time, and the system change number that represents the database state at a point in time. See Example 3 2, "Using the SCN_TO_TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_TO_SCN Functions" on page See "Summary of PLSQL Built-In Functions" on page xxviii

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