Arrested for DUI in Connecticut?

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2 Arrested for DUI in Connecticut? (Useful Info Revealed That May Help You Defend Your Charges) By Steven Tomeo, Esq.

3 DISCLAIMER: This publication is intended to be informational only. No legal advice is being given, and no attorney-client relationship is intended to be created by reading this material. If you are facing legal issues, whether criminal or civil, seek professional legal counsel to get your questions answered. The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo 57 Pratt Street, Suite 805 Hartford, CT Phone: (800) Website: The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 2

4 Client Testimonials Steve represented me in a tough case. He tried to get the charges dismissed due to a bad stop and a lack of probable cause. We had to make the argument but knew that our position was weak. A full DMV hearing was held where we tried to develop evidence from the arresting officer to help my case. The prosecutor would not reduce the charges or dismiss it. In the end, Steve applied me for the Alcohol Education Program. He did not just walk me down the aisle. He went all out for me. The case was dismissed and I did not have to pay for the AEP. Mark T... I was in the Alcohol Education Program and picked up another DUI with some other charges in another court. Steve persuaded the authorities to let me remain in the AEP and that case was dismissed. Then he settled the other DUI for me. I was able to save my job. I would have lost everything if I had to go to jail for 30 days like others in my position told me they had to do. Robert G... I picked up several DUIs back to back. The prosecution had strong cases. However, Steve was able to put together a plea bargain agreement that called for no jail time. While waiting for the final court date I picked up a driving under suspension, alcohol related offense. The result looked like a year without a license; however, Steve was able to structure another plea bargain agreement that in the end resulted in a 45 day license suspension agreement rather than a much longer one. This enabled me to save my new job. John B The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 3

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introducing Attorney Steven Tomeo... 6 Why Does Experience Count in the Area of DUI Defense?... 8 An Attorney s Reputation Is Important: Good Working Relationships with the Judges and Prosecutors in the State Is Always Beneficial for Clients... 9 Have DUI Laws Evolved Over Time? Connecticut Offers an Alcohol Education Program for First Ever Offense DUI Charges If You Are Arrested, You Will Have to Go through the Criminal Justice System Common Misconceptions about Being Charged with a DUI Is Self-Representation or a Court-Appointed Public Defender Viable Options to Defend Your DUI Charge? What Will Transpire after You Have Been Arrested and Charged with DUI? Entering a Pro Forma Plea Is Your DUI Case Likely to Be Resolved at the Judicial Pretrial? What to Avoid if You Have Been Charged with a DUI A DUI Charge and Your Driver s License and Driving Privileges in Connecticut How Long Might Your Driver s License Be Subject to Suspension? The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 4

6 The Administrative Per Se Hearing at the Connecticut DMV If Your License Is Suspended, Is It Possible to Apply for Limited Driving Privileges? Are Drug-Related DUI Charges becoming More Prevalent? Information about Breath Tests and Their Accuracy. Is Breath Testing For Ethanol Accurate? The Penalties for Criminal Convictions CT DMV License Suspension and Administrative Per Se Hearing Common Concerns and Questions after a DUI Arrest What Defense Work with a DUI Charge? Connecticut s Alcohol Education Program Do Severe Penalties Deter Drunk Drivers? What Issues Prevent People from Retaining an Attorney to Defend a DUI Charge? Will the Cost of a DUI Conviction Outweigh the Cost of Retaining an Attorney to Defend the Charge? What Is Reasonable to Expect from Your Attorney? The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 5

7 INTRODUCING ATTORNEY STEVEN TOMEO Steven A. Tomeo is a graduate of Farleigh Dickinson University in Teaneck, New Jersey and the Ohio Northern College of Law, Ada, Ohio. He began practicing law in Ohio where he was a special counsel to the Ohio Attorney General, worked as a Police Prosecutor and was engaged in the private practice of law. Steve was admitted to the Ohio Bar in 1969 and was engaged in the private practice of law in Ohio for a number of years. He moved to Connecticut and was admitted to the Connecticut Bar in 1978 where he was engaged in the general practice of law in Danielson, Connecticut for over twenty (20) years. In 2002, he moved his practice to New London, Connecticut and limited it to DUI law. Since then, he has opened several other offices in the State of Connecticut. His other offices are in Pomfret Center, Norwich, and Hartford, Waterbury and Westport Connecticut. He continues to limit his practice to DUI defense and only represents clients in drunk driving cases in the Connecticut Superior Courts The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 6

8 In addition, he represents clients in their appeals of their Administrative Per Se Decisions to the Superior Court in New Britain, Connecticut and to the Connecticut Court of Appeals. Steve is a member of the Connecticut Bar Association, the National College for DUI Defense and has completed the LaPiere Course for the Standard Field Sobriety Tests, the C.E.S. Consulting Breath Testing course and the Mastering Scientific Evidence course in Atlanta, Georgia & Dallas, Texas. Mr. Tomeo s practice takes him into most of the Superior / Geographic Area Courts, in the State of Connecticut. He has access to experts involved in every aspect of DUI Law. These experts enable him to analyze and research every aspect of a client s drunk driving case in order to provide the client with the best defense possible. These experts include medical doctors, investigators and forensic experts, all of whom work with him for your benefit The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 7

9 WHY DOES EXPERIENCE COUNT IN THE AREA OF DUI DEFENSE? Interviewer: Yes, but tell me who would you hire if you were in trouble on a DUI? Steven: I would hire the more experienced person. Interviewer: Why is that? What have you learned through all these years of experience that you believe that makes you a better choice than someone that's inexperienced? An Experienced Attorney Is Well Acquainted with the Prosecutors and Judges and Knows What Juries Will and Won t Accept Steven: Of course, over time, you learn more of the law each year, and you learn basically what prosecutors will accept and won't accept, what a judge will accept, and what a jury will and won't accept. I think you learn all of that, but there are other useful skills I think you develop, such as learning patience. An Experienced Attorney Will Have Developed Patience, Good Listening and Excellent People Skills You learn how to listen to your clients. You learn how to have a better handle on your people skills, especially with prosecutors. I think some prosecutors are over 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 8

10 anxious, and you learn how to just be patient with them and to talk with them and get your point across. AN ATTORNEY S REPUTATION IS IMPORTANT: GOOD WORKING RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE JUDGES AND PROSECUTORS IN THE STATE IS ALWAYS BENEFICIAL FOR CLIENTS Interviewer: How well do you know the people in the court system, such as the judges and the prosecutors? Have you developed a pretty good relationship with most of them over the years? Steven: Yes, I have a good relationship with them. Over time I have developed good working relationships with the judges and prosecutors. In Connecticut, there are a couple of courts that I've been going to for some time and that I've known the prosecutors there basically ever since they started, and the same with the court personnel. I've known them since they were much younger and started in the business. I have a familiarity with the people and how they work. Interviewer: Do you feel like because they know you there's a level of respect they have for you that benefits your client? Steven: Yes, I think so. I think they know how you handle your clients and their cases. I think the 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 9

11 prosecutors know that if I'm representing this individual that they can expect that I'll be respectful and my clients will be respectful. Interviewer: In terms of DUI, in Connecticut is the charge called DUI or DWI? I know there are a number of acronyms. Steven: I think it's pretty interchangeable between DUI and DWI. Interviewer: I'm in New York. Here it's DWI mostly. In some states, it's OWI and OUI. The Statute in Connecticut for Drunk Driving Is Known as Operating under the Influence and Is Most Commonly Referred to as DUI Steven: Actually, the statute is titled operating under the influence, but most everybody refers to it by the acronyms, either DUI or DWI. Is There a Segment of the Population that Are Prone to DUI Charges? Interviewer: Is there a typical type of person that is usually arrested for DUI that you have encountered? Steven: I ve been trying to think of that situation. I think the person that gets picked up for DUI is generally the person that's out between the hours of 9PM and 3AM is generally driving fairly late at night 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 10

12 and, oftentimes, there are not a lot of other drivers on the road. Are You on the Roadways after Midnight? Attorney Tomeo Believes That the Time of Day of the Police Stop Is the Most Common Factor among People Arrested for DUI With arrests generated by the state police in our area, they often are initiated by a traffic infraction, such as seeing the motorist cross the center line. Quite often, the police stop starts when the police notice some maintenance factor with the car, maybe the car s taillight is out. DUI Charges Do Not Discriminate: Any Driver Is Subject to a DUI Charge I do think that the time, the hour of the day is important. No matter who you are, no matter what your background is, there's a high risk of being pulled over if you're driving in any way erratically during certain hours. Interviewer: Is there anything about DUI that you have seen change over the years? Are people today different? Is the law very different? 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 11

13 HAVE DUI LAWS EVOLVED OVER TIME? Steven: Yes, I think the law is different. I think the way the prosecutors treat the law is different. I think the way the judges treat the law is different and I think there are more groups out there that are concerned about drunk driving; a good example would be Mothers Against Drunk Driving. The Legal Blood Alcohol Limit Has Been Reduced by Almost Half Since the 1960 s I can remember back in the late 60s, early 70s, when you had a DUI case, I think in some states it was.15. Then it went to.10, and it stayed there for a while. Now it is NHTSA wants it lowered to 0.05! California Tests Were Used to Measure Impairment Prior to the Advent of Breath Tests Then some of the states didn't have a breath test, so they really relied on what they called the California Test. The police would arrest you and bring you into the police station, and one of the tests was comprised of checking your eyes The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 12

14 The California Tests Were the Origin of the Standard Field Sobriety Tests That Are Currently in Use They would test your coordination and have you walk and do a few tests along those lines. Then, they would put several different coins down on a counter and then they would say, "Pick up the penny," and some people would pick up the dime. Or if they picked up the penny, maybe they were having a difficult time picking up the penny. They would say that their dexterity was really off. Then later on the police really started relying on the breath tests. Then they started incorporating the field sobriety tests when checking for impairment and those tests had their genesis out in the California area. Decades Ago, DUI Offenses Were Treated Very Leniently If it was your first offense, they might lower the charge, and just give you a slap on the wrist. If a jail term was required, you could serve your term in the county courthouse. You could serve the term on weekends, because you could just walk there and do it. A lot of people received suspended sentences years ago. They used to say that a day's worth of jail was eight hours. Then the courts and the commissioner of corrections got on them for that, and you had to go in 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 13

15 for 24 hours. They would offer all sorts of leeway. If you had a 30-day jail sentence, you could serve it on weekends. Drinking and Driving Was Socially Acceptable Decades Ago; However, Penalties Were in Place That Had Significant Consequences for Car Accidents Causing Injury or Death It was a lot different. It was really part of the culture that people drank. It was more socially accepted. But even decades ago, there were laws that, if you drank and drove and you killed somebody or you caused a bad injury, there were substantial consequences. Then the penalties were more severe. Current Laws Changing Multiple DUIs to Felony Charges Have Penalties with Significant Long-Term Consequences I don't recall there being too many states that had felony DUIs. Now, you know, DUI is classified as first offense, second offense, and third offense. A second offense in Connecticut is considered a felony, and a conviction really has long-term consequences. Interviewer: So a second offense is a felony. That's pretty serious. That tells me that on a first offense you shouldn't treat it lightly at all because, if you are convicted or you plea out, you're setting yourself up for a major problem if you ever are arrested again The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 14

16 CONNECTICUT OFFERS AN ALCOHOL EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR FIRST EVER OFFENSE DUI CHARGES Steven: Here s where Connecticut is more compassionate on first offense DUIs than most states. If you never had a conviction for a DUI and you are charged with a DUI in Connecticut, and are found eligible for the Alcohol Education Program. You can be granted the AEP, which results in the case being dismissed NO criminal records. The Alcohol Education Program (AEP) Is an Alternate to Traditional Penalties for a First Offense DUI That's a program where you do not enter a plea, but you make application for the program. You go for an evaluation which will determine how many classes you are required to attend of this program. Connecticut usually stipulates a 10 class or 15 class series. After a Year s Probation and As Long As You Do Not Receive Any Additional Charges, Your Criminal Record Will Be Expunged Steven: Then there's a year's probationary period. You attend the classes. You stay out of trouble. If you stay out of trouble at the end of the year, your case will be 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 15

17 automatically dismissed and your criminal history expunged. Then, if you receive another DUI in Connecticut within a 10-year period, then that will be considered your first offense. Then that's when jail is a possibility. In Connecticut, DUI First Offenders Would Typically Be Sentenced to a Suspended Sentence, Probation and Community Service Generally, the standard penalty for the first offense is six months in jail, of which 48 hours may not be suspended, unless the prosecutor offers you 100 hours of community service in lieu of jail. The typical first offender offer in Connecticut is six months execution suspended, either a year or 18 months of probation and 100 hours of community service. Then there are fines, fees and costs totaling $798. Then, if you pick up another DUI, then that would be your second offense, which would then be charged at a felony level. Why Should You Retain an Attorney for Admittance into the AEP? Interviewer: Is it possible to gain admittance into the AEP without being represented by legal counsel? 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 16

18 Without an Attorney, You Would Have to Speak with the Prosecutor, Who Will Note Your Answers in Writing Steven: I believe Abe Lincoln, the famous Trial attorney said, a person who represents himself has a fool for a client. So, while you can I do not understand why you would want to because in the criminal justice system it is the Prosecutor s duty to prosecute you. He is not your friend. If you incriminate yourself you may hurt your case. The prosecutor will ask, "Have you ever had a DUI before?" Generally, the person says, "No." He'll say, "Well, there's a program called the Alcohol Education Program and if you complete it successfully, the case will be dismissed. He may ask you other questions that are more intrusive. It Is Advisable to Always Consult an Attorney after Being Charged with DUI Generally the people say, "Okay," and they fill out the form, go in front of the judge. Now, in that case, what won t occur is what an attorney could do, for example, if he or she reviewed the arrest report. It could be a situation in which it was an unjustified police stop and your attorney could have argued successfully to get the case thrown out The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 17

19 In Connecticut, There Are Two Components to a DUI Charge, One Is Criminal and the Other Is Civil Also, there's a second part to a DUI in Connecticut, an Administrative Per Se suspension hearing at the Department of Motor Vehicles. This hearing is separate and distinct from the criminal hearing. One has nothing to do with the other, but oftentimes, if you win at the DMV, you might cause the prosecutor to rethink his situation. Having Legal Representation Might Increase the Chance of Prevailing at the DMV Hearing and May Benefit Your Criminal Case When I attend the DMV Hearing for my client I advise the Prosecutor. It might cause him to rethink his position in the hopes of reducing the charge to reckless driving. You never know. It may be persuasive enough for him to nolle or dismiss the case. Interviewer: What happens if you just take the AEP program? Will you still have your license suspended? Will the Motor Vehicle Department still do that? Interviewer: The AEP does not result in a license suspension; Losing the DMV Administrative Per Se Hearing does. Interviewer: So people may think, "Oh, I'll just go into this program. I don't have to worry about anything," 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 18

20 but it's not true. You could still end up with no license and problems. The Length of Your Driver s License Suspension Issued by the DMV Is Dependent on Your Breath Test Results Steven: Right, and the length of the DMV suspension is, if your breath test is.08 to.15, a 90-day suspension. And.16, and above it's a 120-day suspension. If you refuse to take the breath test, it's a six month suspension. However, if you went through the Alcohol Education Program and you lost the DMV hearing, you may qualify for a work permit to restore limited driving privileges a special permit to drive to and from and during the course of your employment. Interviewer: Do you typically see that clients are truly drunk at the time of arrest or are they close to the.08 limit and they are arrested anyway? Is the Average Blood Alcohol Level of People That Are Arrested for DUI Generally High? Steven: It depends upon what you mean by High. I find most people to be in the % range. Their balance is off and they appear to be slightly impaired than drunk. But these words have meaning in the law The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 19

21 Interviewer: That's what I mean. Is drunk driving a misnomer and a lot of people aren't really drunk. They're just maybe impaired a bit? Below the Legal Limit: Some States Still Maintain an Impairment Statute Steven: Yes, that's how I would say it. Some states have an impairment statute. New York State has an impairment statute so that, if you're at a certain level below.08, it's driving while impaired and not legally a DUI. Connecticut used to have an impaired statute. If you were below.08, you got charged with impaired, and so you didn't suffer the rigid consequences of a DUI. If You Are Pulled over by the Police and Fail the Sobriety Tests, You Will Probably Be Charged, Regardless of your Breath Test Result Interviewer: What happens now if you blow below a.08? Will they let you go? Or they'll charge with something else? Steven: No, they'll charge you with a DUI. Even if you don't have anything in your system. Once they've pulled you over, and they say you've failed the field sobriety test you will be arrested. I've had people with zero alcohol on the breath test, and they've still arrested them based on SFST and some other issues The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 20

22 IF YOU ARE ARRESTED, YOU WILL HAVE TO GO THROUGH THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM They'll say that they've developed probable cause, because the individual failed the field sobriety test, or they slurred their words, or their eyes looked red and watery, or they smelled an odor of an alcoholic beverage on their breath. I've had officers testify that they've smelled an odor of an alcoholic beverage on their breath or coming from the car or on their person, and when they got the breath test result, there was zero alcohol present. Interviewer: Are those cases pretty defensible, or is it still a problem? A Negative Breath Test Result Will Oftentimes Result in a Request for a Urine Test for the Presence of Drugs Steven: Yeah, for the most part, they're defensible, but even though you have a defense the DUI charge, you still have to go through the criminal justice system, sometimes even through trial. In Connecticut, if you test zero on the breath test, they'll ask for a urine test, because then they think that you have ingested some drugs The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 21

23 Will Connecticut Police Request a Blood Sample from a Suspected Drunk Driver? Interviewer: Is it pretty rare that Connecticut police will ask for a blood test? If You Are Taken to the Hospital, the Police Will Request a Blood Sample Steven: Generally, when they ask for a blood test there's an accident, and the police office calls an ambulance to take you to the hospital, he'll follow you to the hospital, and request a blood draw As a general rule, if you get taken to the hospital, generally the emergency room physician requires some blood work. Then what happens is, if they don't make an arrest. The Police will get a search warrant for the results of the blood work and then arrest you by warrant at some later date if the results show an elevated blood alcohol concentration or presence of drugs. Are There Commonalties among DUI Arrests in Connecticut? Interviewer: Is there any typical backstory you hear from people who have been arrested, such as, "Oh, I didn't feel drunk," or "I only had two beers"? 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 22

24 Steven: Most people are willing to admit that they've had something to drink. I would say the majority of people say that they did not feel as if they were impaired and not able to drive. The Most Common Reason for a DUI Arrest Begins with a Police Stop for a Traffic Violation Typically what occurs is a cop sees someone cross the center line while driving. I mean, who hasn t crossed the center line when driving? Or if you're out at one o'clock in the morning, and you're driving home, and you're on a four-lane highway, two lanes going your way, a lot of times you cross over into the other lane, or maybe you weave a little bit in your lane. Maybe you re driving erratically! The Field Sobriety Tests Are Designed to Be Difficult to Perform At that hour, the police can get away calling it erratic driving and pull you over. God forbid you had anything to drink because when they get you out of the car, those field sobriety tests are hard for anybody to do well on. The odds are completely stacked against you. It is not like you're taking a test in school where you can get 100 or 85 or 95. It's really a negative test where the highest grade you can get is zero. I mean, if you get them all right, you don't get any points The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 23

25 No Margin for Error: In Order to Pass the Field Sobriety Tests, You Perform All of Them Satisfactorily Interviewer: Right. It's like a pass/fail where the pass is a 99% or so? Steven: In other words, you're supposed to do them all perfectly. The officer doesn't say, "Oh, wow. You did these fantastic. I'm not going to arrest you." No, no, they don't do that. What happens is, they give you these tests, and they say, "Well, you didn't walk heel to toe, and you didn't do this or that." Connecticut Does Not Always Videotape the Field Sobriety Tests Also, Connecticut doesn't require the performance of the sobriety tests to be on video. I think the state would help itself, and maybe we'd even get many more cases dismissed, if they would require the police officers to video record the SFST. Corroborating Evidence: Videotape Can Support a Driver s Claim Interviewer: Yes, because the video doesn't lie. Steven: How do you corroborate? It's the officer s word against your word. Who do most people believe? Even though they have a hard time with the police most of 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 24

26 the time, most people are going to say, "Well, I believe the police officer." Interviewer: In other states where there's legal evidence that magically disappears sometimes, too, so that doesn't really solve it. Steven: I had a tape here that disappeared, and I went to pretrial, and the judge said, "What do you want me to do, throw out the case because there's not a video?" I said, "Yes." He said, "I'm not going to do that." He laughed. He said, "I'm not going to do that, because at trial you'd have the testimony of the police officer and the ability to cross-examine him." Interviewer: Well, that's true. It Is Human Nature to Alter Testimony to Support a Particular Viewpoint Steven: I mean, far be it for me to say that police get up on the witness stand and lie but I'll bet you there are a ton of lawyers, a ton of criminal lawyers with vast experience in New York City or throughout the United States that would say they do. If you read any of the criminal mystery stories that are written, you'll see that the testimony is tailored to suit their own needs. Interviewer: Well, the police are human, just like anyone else, so they're subject to the same foibles as everyone else The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 25

27 Steven: Yes, absolutely. I think it's not the best system, but it beats whatever else is out there, so we have to do what we have to do within the frameworks of it. I'm happy with the system, but I've seen some of the police departments use creative writing in their arrest reports, and so, that's that. COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT BEING CHARGED WITH A DUI Interviewer: What are the top misconceptions clients have about the whole DUI process when they come to see you that you have to explain to them? People Are Commonly Mistaken about the Penalties for Multiple DUI Charges Steven: I think that when people come in to see a lawyer, there can be a few factors about the charge that they are confused or either misinformed about. Many times, one of the misconceptions is when you hear, "I work with a man, and he had five DUIs, and he never saw a day in jail. Here, this is only my second DUI, and you're saying the prosecutor wants me to go to jail." 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 26

28 People Misinterpret the Written Statute Or they go on the Internet and they read the statute, and they come back and tell you what the law is. You say to yourself, "What did they do? Just change it or something like that? I'm not aware of that." They misinterpret what the statute actually specifies. Or, if they're just an out-and-out alcoholic, even though they're functional, and you have to deal with the ancillary issues. Truthfully, that's probably the worst thing to have to deal with. "I wasn t' drunk. I only had six or seven beers and I drank over a seven-hour period." You re DUI Case Is Not the Same as Your Acquaintance s or Your Co-Worker s The biggest misconception is they always have an acquaintance that's had six or seven DUIs that's never been in jail. I say to them, "Not in this day and age, but I have had clients that have had six or seven DUIs and have not gone to jail." It wasn't through any expertise of me as a lawyer, it was, the year they had them, where they had them and other factors. The DUIs that they had maybe were out of state, and their record didn't follow them to Connecticut, so that when the prosecutor ran their record, nothing turned up The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 27

29 Are Financial Issues the Major Obstacle in Hiring an Attorney to Defend Your DUI Case? Interviewer: What have you encountered through your practice that makes people afraid or hesitant to even get legal help, to hire a lawyer when they have a DUI arrest? Steven: I think money is the biggest issue. I think most people want to have representation, but money is the major issue. Then I think a growing part of not having a lawyer represent you or review things for you is that, when they go in to see the prosecutors now if this is their first offense, the prosecutor tells them about the Alcohol Education Program. So, instead of consulting with a defense attorney, they listen to the Prosecutor and take the Alcohol Education Program based on what he tells them. IS SELF-REPRESENTATION OR A COURT- APPOINTED PUBLIC DEFENDER VIABLE OPTIONS TO DEFEND YOUR DUI CHARGE? Interviewer: Yes, and do you have people that say, "Oh, well, maybe I'll just represent myself or I ll get a public defender."what are the pros and cons of those options versus a private attorney? 2013 The Law Offices of Steven Tomeo Page 28

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