Faculty of Technical Education Electrical Department ABSTRACT

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1 EXPERIMENTAL EXAMINATION OF SPEED CONTROL METHODS FOR A TRAVELLING WAVE ULTRASONIC MOTOR Güngör Bal Gazi University Faculty of Technical Education Electrical Department Erdal Bekiroğlu ABSTRACT In this study, speed control methods of a travelling wave ultrasonic motor are examined experimentally. A digital controlled drive system is developed to drive ultrasonic motor. The drive system is based on two-phase serial-resonant inverter which includes features of pulse width modulation and pulse frequency modulation techniques. The frequency, amplitude and phase angle of two-phase sinusoidal output of inverter can be changed for control purpose. For easy driving piezoelectric ceramic of ultrasonic motor, resonant frequency approach is used. The driving frequency is normally kept higher than the resonant frequency of mechanical vibration system. Experimental results are taken from the ultrasonic motor drive and control system by separately applying three control methods which are amplitude, frequency and phase angle controls. According to the experimental results, the method on changing driving frequency gives more flexible control range than the other two methods. Key words: Ultrasonic motor, speed control, frequency control, amplitude control, phase angle control YÜRÜYEN DALGA ULTRASONİK MOTOR İÇİN HIZ DENETİM METOTLARININ DENEYSEL OLARAK İNCELENMESİ ÖZET Bu çalışmada, yürüyen dalga tip ultrasonik motorun hız denetim metotları deneysel olarak incelenmiştir. Ultrasonik motoru sürmek amacıyla sayısal denetimli bir sürme sistemi geliştirilmiştir. Sürme sistemi darbe genişlik modülasyonu ve darbe frekans modülasyonu tekniklerinin özelliklerini içeren iki-fazlı seri-rezonans evirici temeline dayanmaktadır. Eviricinin iki-fazlı sinüsoidal çıkışının frekansı, genliği ve faz açısı denetim amaçlı olarak değiştirilebilmektedir. Ultrasonik motordaki piezoelektrik seramiği kolay sürmek için rezonans frekansı yaklaşımı kullanılmaktadır. Sürme frekansı, mekanik titreşim rezonans frekansından büyük tutulmaktadır. Frekans, genlik ve faz açısı denetim metotlarının üçü ayrı ayrı motora uygulanarak deneysel sonuçlar elde edilmiştir. Deneysel sonuçlara göre sürme frekansının değiştirilmesi, diğer metotlara göre daha esnek denetim aralığına sahiptir. Anahtar kelimeler: Ultrasonik motor, hız denetimi, frekans denetimi, genlik denetimi, faz açısı denetimi 415

2 3 RD INTERNATIONAL ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES SYMPOSIUM, AUGUST 18-20, 2003, ANKARA 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, ultrasonic motors (USMs) have attracted special interest as direct drive type actuators for servo systems in industrial, consumer, robotic and automotive applications [1-3]. The operating performance, control technique and operating principle of newly developed USMs are basically different from commonly used conventional electromagnetic motors. The operation principle of piezoelectric motors is based on two stage electro-mechanical energy conversion. First, electrical energy converted into mechanical energy by aid of piezoelectric ceramic. The second, mechanical oscillations are converted to linear or rotary mechanical motion by frictional forces generated in the contact interface of stator and rotor [4-5]. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, especially rotary travelling wave type ultrasonic motors (TWUSMs), have important features such as high specific torque, high holding torque, high torque at low speed, silence in operation, no electromagnetic interference and compactness in size [6-7]. However, USMs suffer from some shortcomings. It exhibits nonlinear speed characteristics and its parameter very sensitive to changes of operating conditions such as temperature, load and applied voltages [8-9]. Speed of USM is controlled by amplitude, frequency and phase difference of twophase voltages. In the present study, these speed control methods are examined experimentally. Shinsei s USR60 TWUSM has been used in the study. Experimental test set-up has been designed to obtain experimental results and the speed control methods are viewed from practical point. 2. USM DRIVE SYSTEM The cutaway view of Shinsei s USR60 travelling wave type ultrasonic motor used in the present study is shown in Fig. 1. USM mainly is composed of stator and rotor components. The stator consists of the piezoelectric ceramic and the elastic body. The rotor is made from bronze material and pressed against the stator. When two-phase voltages applied to two orthogonal modes of piezoelectric ceramic of USM, elliptical waves occur on the stator surface. The rotor is driven by the tangential force at the contact surface resulting from the elliptical motion at the wave crests. Fig. 2. shows the main circuit of two-phase half-bridge inverter used for USM. This inverter includes the effective functions of pulse width modulation (PWM), pulse frequency modulation (PFM) and hybrid (PWM/PFM) control techniques. The mechanical vibration system of USM is represented as a capacitive load due to properties of piezoelectric ceramic used in the stator. Two inductances L 1 and L 2 are connected with each phase of USM in series to compensate damping capacitance of USM [10-11]. This inverter produces two-phase high-frequency voltages. The 416

3 amplitude, frequency and phase difference between two phase voltages can be changed for control purpose. Fig. 1. Cutaway view of Shinsei s USR60 TWUSM phase-a inverter phase-b inverter C 1 S 1 D 1 USM S 3 D 3 AC L 1 L 2 C 2 S 2 D 2 S 4 D 4 Fig. 2. Two-phase half-bridge serial-resonant inverter of USM 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS To determine of the inherent characteristics of the motor, a suitable and well defined power supply and drive circuit is required. The drive system should provide two orthogonal sinusoidal waves to avoid simultaneous excitation of vibration modes of the stator [12]. Additionally, it should provide the ability of varying the amplitude, frequency and phase angle of excitation phases. For that purpose Shinsei s D6060 driver is used to drive USM. Then an experimental test set-up which contains the electromechanical system and measurement tools has been designed. The sketch of the experimental test set-up is shown in Fig

4 3 RD INTERNATIONAL ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES SYMPOSIUM, AUGUST 18-20, 2003, ANKARA sinωt Drive circuit cosωt FDB USM encoder EM brake GND torque sensor oscilloscope optical tachometer oscilloscope torquemeter voltage,frequency and phase angle mesurement speed measurement torque measurement Fig. 3. Experimental test set-up of USM The frequency, amplitude and phase difference of the voltages are measured by digital oscilloscope. The speed of motor is measured by optical tachometer and frequency of the encoder pulses. The mechanical part of the motor is loaded by an electro-magnetic (EM) brake. This unit allows to obtain and analysis of the torque-speed characteristics of the motor. In Fig. 4-6 two-phase voltages are given. In these figures driving frequency is fixed at 42 khz and phase angle is fixed at 90. The amplitude of voltages is changed to show changing amplitude of voltages how affect the motor speed. In Fig. 4 V A =112V and V B =105V. In this condition the speed of motor is measured as 64 rpm. In Fig. 5 V A =124V, V B =117V, the speed of motor is 73 rpm. In Fig. 6 V A =136V, V B =127V and motor speed is 80 rpm. As seen from figures when the amplitude of applied voltages are increased, the speed of motor increases. 418

5 Fig. 4. Two-phase voltages ( n=64 rpm) Fig. 5. Two-phase voltages ( n=73 rpm) 419

6 3 RD INTERNATIONAL ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES SYMPOSIUM, AUGUST 18-20, 2003, ANKARA Fig. 6. Two-phase voltages ( n=80 rpm) The effect of changing phase angle between two-phase voltages on the motor speed is given in Fig In Fig. 7 the phase angle between two-phase is =5,6µs (ϕ=85 ) and motor speed is 56 rpm. In Fig. 8 the phase angle is =6 µs (ϕ=90 ) and motor speed is 95 rpm. As seen from figures, increase of motor speed results from increase in phase angle. However, when phase angle is changed, the amplitude and frequency of voltages are also changed. These changes should be taken in consideration when speed control of USM is controlled by phase angle. Fig. 7. Two-phase voltages (ϕ=85, n=56 rpm) 420

7 Fig. 8. Two-phase voltages (ϕ=90, n=95 rpm) The speed of USM is also controlled by the changing driving frequency. The motor speed under different driving frequency is examined experimentally and phase voltages given in Fig In Fig. 9 driving frequency is 41,27 khz and speed of motor is 135 rpm. In Fig. 10 driving frequency is 41,74 khz and speed is 95 rpm. In Fig. 11 the driving frequency is increased to 42,29 khz. The measured motor speed in this frequency is 70 rpm. From figures it is clear that when driving frequency of applied voltages are increased, the speed of motor decreases. Fig. 9. Two-phase voltages (n=135 rpm) 421

8 3 RD INTERNATIONAL ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES SYMPOSIUM, AUGUST 18-20, 2003, ANKARA Fig. 10. Two-phase voltages (n=90 rpm) Fig. 11. Two-phase voltages (n=70 rpm) 4. CONCLUSIONS In this study the speed control methods of travelling wave type ultrasonic motor are examined experimentally. To drive ultrasonic motor two-phase voltage-fed highfrequency serial-resonant inverter is used. To obtain experimental results, experimental test bench has been set-up. The speed of motor is measured under different applied voltages, different phase angle and different driving frequency. 422

9 When applied voltages increase, the speed of motor increase related with the voltages. When phase angle between two-phase voltages increase the speed of motor increase. The maximum rotational speed is taken at 90. The speed of motor increases, when the driving frequency is decreased. The control of driving frequency is easier than the other methods and the speed of motor can be controlled in wide range area by this method. The driving frequency control method is suggested for ultrasonic motor drive systems. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge the financial support of The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), through grant number E012. REFERENCES 1. Ferreira, A., Minotti, P., 1998, High-performance load-adaptive speed control for ultrasonic motors, Control Engineering Practice, 6, Senjyu, T., Yokoda, S., Uezato, K., 2001, A study on high efficiency drive of ultrasonic motors, Electric Power Components and Systems, 29, Bal, G., Bekiroglu, E, 2001, Characteristics estimation of travelling wave ultrasonic motors using equivalent circuit model, Int. Conf. on Electrical and Electronics Eng. ELECO 2001, Bursa-Turkey, Hirata, H., Ueha, S., 1995, Design of a traveling wave type ultrasonic motor, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonic, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 42 (2), Storck, H., Wallaschek, J., 2000, Experimental investigations on modelling assumptions in the stator/rotor contact of travelling-wave ultrasonic motors, Journal of Vibroengineering, 6. Sashida, T., Kenjo, T., 1993, An Introduction to Ultrasonic Motors, Oxford University Press, New York. 7. Storck, H., Wallaschek, J., 2003, The effect of tangential elasticity of the contact layer between stator and rotor in travelling-wave ultrasonic motors, Int. J. Nonlinear Mechanics, 38, Izuno, Y., et al., 1998, Speed tracking servo control system incorporating travelling-wave type ultrasonic motor and feasible evaluations, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 34 (1), Chau, K.T., Chung, S.W., 2001, Servo position control of ultrasonic motors using fuzzy neural network, Electric Components and Systems, 29, Lin, F.J., Wai, R.J., Hong, C.M., 2000, Recurrent neural network control for LCC-resonant ultrasonic motor drive, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonic, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 47 (3), Furuya, S., Maruhashi, T. and Izuno, Y., 1992, Load-adaptive frequency tracking control implementation of two-phase resonant inverter for ultrasonic motor, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 45 (3), El Ghoui, N., 2000, Hybrid Modelling of a Travelling Wave Piezoelectric Motor, PhD Thesis, Dep. of Control Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark. 423

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