Critical Success Factors for Business Process Management for Small and Medium Banks in Nigeria

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1 Critical Success Factors for Business Process Management for Small and Medium Banks in Nigeria ABSTRACT Kabiru Jinjiri Ringim (Corresponding author) College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia Block R 003, Kolej Maybank DPP Residential hostels, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia. Mohd Rizal Razalli School of Operations Technology Management and Logistics, College of Business Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia. Norlena Hasnan School of Operations Technology Management and Logistics, College of Business Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia. The study examines the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of Business Process Management (BPM) and Small Medium Bank performance in Nigerian banking industry. We carried out a large scale survey of organizations in financial sector and applied a rigorous research methodology. We found out five critical success factors (CSFs) of BPM implementation, which are IT investment, volume of financial activities, personnel commitment, strong capital base, and effective reward system. Among these factors, IT investment, personnel commitment and volume of financial activities have significant relationship with overall organizational performance (cost reduction, customer service management and operational efficiency performance), while effective reward system is only significant with cost reduction performance and strong capital base is significant with customer service management only. The study contributes to the research by identifying the success factors of business process management adoption in Primary Mortgage finance and Microfinance bank. Keywords: Critical Success Factors, Business Process Reengineering, Organizational Performance, Small and Medium Bank, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION As the world becomes technologically advanced coupled with global competition, banks are left with no choice but to improve their performance. The global economic meltdown have necessitated for Small and Medium banks to enhance their professional capability by engaging in process change and reengineering that bring about efficiency, accuracy to meet customer s needs. In addition to these challenges, banks in Nigeria operate in a turbulent environment as there were over 1,100 registered Microfinance and Primary mortgage finance as at December 2009 (CBN, 2009). To survive and excel in this type of business environment become the main concern for small and medium banks in Nigerian banking industry. Business process reengineering as management concept that seek to split away from old fashion and traditional processes to a new ways of organizing peoples, process and use of IT to achieve better result be of help to the banks. The advocate of BPR claimed that if the concept is correctly implemented, organization would achieve quantum leap of improvement in cost reduction, speed, productivity and profitability (Hammer, 1993). BPR is a method of improving the performance of an organization with objectives of finding a new ways to organized people, redesign processes with aids of IT to achieve organizational goals. When restructuring the business process, the content of jobs and organisational structures changes for all employees to bring about radical changes in values and beliefs. As a results, reengineering is not complete until all elements of the business system i.e. business processes, jobs and structures changes because people, jobs, managers and values are linked together (Hammer & Champy, 1993). There are a lot of literatures on CSFs of BPR implementation with evidence of performance effect, hence, there is need to critically examine these success factors in relation with performance (Devaraj & Kohli, 2000). The importance of BPR implementation in Nigerian financial service industry was understood by the bank manager as a tool to achieve competitive advantage, and many do not fully understand the success factors that drive the 83

2 implementation (Ringim, Razalli & Hasnan, 2011). Hence, the objective of this paper is to fill the gap by examining the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of Business Process Management (BPM) and Small Medium Bank performance in Nigerian banking industry. There is no doubt that reengineering in the present day globalized economy is not only a necessity but important as the prerequisite for success of any financial institutions. LITERATURE REVIEW Literature review on BPR studies shows that the opinion of scholars on the subject matter can be classified into two (Herzog, Polajnar & Tonchia, 2007). The first group is the scholars that agreed on BPR as a panacea to turbulent market changes, customer demand and competition (Davenport & Short, 1990; Hammer, 1990, 2004; MacIntosh, 2003, Terziovski, Fitzpatrick & O Neill, 2003). The second group is of opposite view claiming that, BPR has failed to meet its expectations (Mumford, 1994; Biazzo, 1998; Marjanovic, 2000). According to Al- Mashari, Irani and Zairi (2001) the average success rate achievement of implementing BPR in developed countries, Multi National Corporation was 55 percent, being 61 percent achieved in USA and 49 percent in Europe. Majority of studies in BPR have focused on the importance of the various factors for successful implementation in manufacturing industry, while relatively few studies have been conducted in banking industry. It is therefore risky to generalize the BPR success rate, because the evaluation is subjective as cross national differences (such as cultural belief, norms and values) may exist. Reengineering is a painful process because the whole set of values and belief in the enterprises are being challenged (Champy 1995). The BPR studies that examined lessons learned from BPR approaches that were case studies on critical success factors includes: Broadbent, Weill & Clair, (1999); Caron, Jarvenpaa & Stoddard, (1994); Clemons, Thatcher & Row (1995); Davenport & Beers, (1995); Earl, Sampler, & Short, (1995); Sarker, Sarker & Sidorobo, (2006); Stoddard & Jarvenpaa, (1995). AL-Mashari and Zairi, (1990) classified the CSFs of BPR implementation into five construct, with each construct having items that measured it. The five latent constructs are Change management, management competence, organizational structure, BPR project management and IT infrastructure. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The questionnaire in this study was adapted with some modification from previous studies such as Al-Mashari and Zairi, (1999); Ahmad et al, (2007); and Salimifard, et al, (2010). The questionnaire consist of three sections, BPR factors contains 42 statements in section one. Section two contains 20 statements requesting the respondent to assess their organization s performance based on financial and non financial measures adapted from the findings of Hammer & Champy, (1993), Bontis, Chua & Richardson, (2000), Terziovski, Fitzpatrick & O Neil, (2003), and Section 3: Demographic data asked about the personal and organization background of the respondent. The unit of analysis for the questionnaire is organization. All responses pertaining to both dependent and independent variables are measured on six-point Likert scale. The data collected were analyzed by using SPSS. To validate the instrument, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted. Finally, regression analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between the identified CSFs and organizational performance. SAMPLE COLLECTION Since the objective of the study is to examine the CSFs of BPR implementation at organizational level of small and medium banks, executives, manager s or head of department at senior management level were the appropriate subjects. The target sample frame consists of Microfinance banks and Primary mortgage financial institution registered by Central bank of Nigeria. A total of 539 questionnaires were hand delivered with one questionnaire to each organization out of which 439 questionnaires were returned and 399 responses were found to be useable for further analysis making a valid response rate of 74%. This response rate is considered adequate according to Sekaran, (2006) that 30% response rate for survey is acceptable. Also, 61% response rate considered sufficiently large for statistical reliability and generalizability (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). 84

3 VALIDITY In this study, before data collection, the content validity of the instruments was established by conducting extensive literature review, then expert from academics and practitioners thoroughly reviewed the questionnaire. Construct validity for each factor was conducted using principal component analysis and criterion related validity for the identified CSFs of BPR implementation in banking industry was established and regression analysis to carried out to test the hypothesis. RELIABILITY The reliability test for each dimension emerged after factor analysis was conducted. Table 1.0 in appendix shows the results of the test. Cronbach s alpha coefficient is widely used as a measure of reliability. Therefore, the scales were satisfactory for subsequent analysis. Note that there were some items that had been deleted. The reason for deletion was that the instrument of the study would have achieved a higher reliability. From table 1.0 in the appendix, the Cronbach s alpha ranges from for the variables in the questionnaire used for the study implies that the instrument is reliable. Hence, instrument reliability is satisfactory as far as internal consistency is concerned. That is, the instrument can give consistent results on the effect of CSFs of business process reengineering on organizational performance of small and medium banks in Nigeria. REGRESSION ANALYSIS Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the identified CSFs on cost reduction, customer service management and operational efficiency of organization performance. The results are shown in Table 2, 3, 4 & 5 in the appendix. The result of the regression indicates that IT investment, personnel commitment and volume of financial activities are the most predictors of customer, operational efficiency and overall organizational performance of small and medium bank in Nigeria. Also, the result further revealed that volume of financial activities and effective reward system are predictors of cost reduction performance while strong capital base is the single most significant predictor of customer service management performance of small and medium bank in Nigeria. DISCUSSIONS The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between CSFs of BPR and organizational performance of small and medium bank. Overall, the result of the correlation analysis shows that all the variables between BPR factors and organization performance were significant except for customer focus, reward and training and education. The result of the correlation analysis suggests that BPR factors are related with organization performance. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the most contributory explanatory variables among the BPR factors that best predict organization performance variables (cost reduction, customer service management, zero error processes overall performance). Four models of standard regression were developed and all the models were statistically significant at 1% level. The result indicates that IT investment, personnel commitment, volume of financial activities, strong capital base, strategy alignment, reward system, communication, customer focus, training and education jointly explained 21.0% of the variance of customer service management, 15.0% of the variance of zero error processes, 7.0% of the variance of cost reduction and 27% of the variance of overall organization performance. The models suggests that the impact of the BPR factors on overall performance is the highest then followed by customer service management compared to other performance variables. Four predictor variables, IT investment, personnel commitment, volume of financial activities and strong capital base were found to have statistically related with customer service management. Volume of financial activities was the strongest contributor predictor that explains the variance of customer service management followed by personnel commitment. Three of the predictor variables, IT investment volume of financial activities and personnel commitment were found to have statistically significant relationships with operational efficiency performance. Volume of financial activities was the strongest contribution predictor that explains the variance of zero error processes followed by personnel commitment than IT investment. Reward system and volume of financial activities variables were found to have statistically significant relationship with cost reduction. Among the two variables, volume of financial activities was the strongest contribution predictor that explains the 85

4 variance of cost reduction. Three of the predictor variables, IT investment; financial activities and personnel commitment were found to have statistically significant relationship with overall organization performance. The mixed results between the individual dimensions of BPR factor and performance variables of this study suggest that the hypothesis of the study was partially supported. The statistically significant result on the relationship of CSFs of BPR and organizational performance of small and medium banks in Nigeria is consistent with some studies, which includes Aregbeyen, (2011); Altinkemer, Ozcelik & Ozdemir, (2011) ; Ozcelik, (2010) ; Shin & Jemella, (2002); Terziovski, et al., (2003); Sidikat & Ayanda, (2008) found that BPR positively affects firm performance on average and long term strategy. Larger BPR projects are associated with more negatives returns for short period of the project initiation than functionally focused project. Terziovski et al., (2003) concluded that BPR practices have significant and positive effect on profitability and customer service management. On other hand, the non significant results on the relationship between BPR variables and organizational performance in the small and medium banks industry is in line with some studies, which includes (Al-Mashari, 2001; Guimaraes,1999) it is possible for firm to observe a drop in performance and productivity during initial phase of BPR project, because of high cost of purchasing new equipment, hiring qualified personnel, training existing employees to handle new roles, and engagement of BPR consultants. Although the result of the present study indicated mixed result, overall model suggested that BPR factors were significantly in jointly explained the variance of organization performance variables. The evidence from this study suggests that high level of organization performance variables are related to high level of organization performance. However, individual dimensions of BPR factors that contribute strongly to the specific performance variables such as volume of financial activities with customer service management need to be taken into consideration by organizations that wish to implement CSFs of BPR. IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY The results of this study have provided several implications to practitioner and academicians. These implications also serve as a recommendation to managers and contribution to the body knowledge for academia. The following implications are categorized into managerial and theoretical implications. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS Although, some BPR factors were not significantly related to organization performance, the overall results of this study confirm that BPR factors contribute toward organizational performance. Thus, Nigerian banks should strive to associate the implementation of BPR with IT capability. Special attention need to be given to specific factors of BPR that is associated with a particular organization performance variable. To improve service management performance, organization needs to focus on personnel commitment and customer relationship management. Customer focus play a vital role on getting feedback on customer service delivery and value added services required to meet the demand for new/improved products and services. BPR is management approach to improving customer service by redesigning of processes with view of enhancing both efficiency and effectiveness in customer service (Cheng & Chiu, 2008). Therefore, establishing long-term customer relations through superior service is critical for banks to remain competitive. On other hand, personnel commitment to the organization activities is crucial to overall performance achievement. Thus, top management should accept BPR consultant positive recommendation on restructuring of processes for operational performance improvement and that key personnel in the organization should be assigned to handle task appropriately. Similarly, IT investment and effective reward system are important factors for Nigerian banks to consider in order improve overall performance. Organizations that focus on IT investment are found to be more productive and profitable (Brown et al., 1995). Staff motivation through effective reward system has important role in encouraging employees to accept changes like re-engineering approach without fear (Al-Mashari & Zairi, 1999). In this study, Personnel commitment, IT investment and effective reward system are also positively associated 86

5 with overall performance. Hence, Nigerian banks should consider investment in strategic IT and motivate employees appropriately. In achieving zero error operational processes performance, organization should focus on training and education of employees on newly introduced operational processes, empower core process owners and encourage initiatives for staff productivity. Training and education is an important component of successful BPR implementation (Zairi & Sinclair, 1995). Organization that undertake re-engineering project may have to increase the training budget by percent as both front and back office staff with IT related skills and expertise would benefit from education and training (Tower, 1994). It is critical to educate people in IT related innovations for competitive advantage, the potential of IT in re-shaping the business and leadership of empowered organization (Bruss & Roos, 1993). THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS The present study makes contribution to the existing body of knowledge in at least three different areas. Firstly, the findings from this study contribute to the empirical research on the relationship between BPR and performance of banks in Nigeria. Previous literature suggested that reengineering project significantly improved the profitability performance of bank but not for growth and extents of its financial intermediation (Aregbeyen, 2011). Despite the sound theoretical background and remarkable results, business process reengineering has not always led to fantastic performance. In fact, Bashein et al., (1994) indicated that only 30 percent of BPR projects achieved performance breakthrough. The reasons for large failure could be as a result of lack of sustained management commitment and leadership, unrealistic scope and expectation, resistance to change, nonencouragement to conceptualization of business process, or non effective reward systems. The result of the study indicates partial support on the relationship between BPR factors and organizational performance. It can be concluded that in organization, not all BPR factor have a direct effect on performance (Bashein et al., 1994). Nevertheless, the study validates that BPR factors are important determinant of bank performance in Nigeria. The research supports that, the overall BPR implementation are positively associated with organization performance. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study is subjected to several shortcomings that limit interpretation on the findings. One of the limitations of this research is the application of cross-sectional design for survey research that captures the perceptions of respondents at a point in time. Thus, the study cannot prove causal relationships on a longitudinal basis. Another limitation of the study is the use of subjective self-reported perceptual measures in assessing the studies. Even though, an attempt was made to identify the best respondents by contacting the key personnel that provide the best information, the accuracy of self-perceptions might be strongly influence by the respondent experience in the management of the organizations and frame of reference at the point in time. For instance, perceive biasness may occur if a person with a high reputation strongly believes that their management practices are more advanced compared to other organizations. In addition, to the above limitations, the findings cannot be generalized in a larger context across the cultures of other countries and business environments may give different relationship between BPR factors and IT capability on organizational performance. Although, the sample size is adequate representing 74% of the required sample size, a more complex data analysis such as structural equation modeling (SEM) should have been performed. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH To overcome the limitations of the study, this research has suggests the need for further investigation. As the survey research in the study was based on cross-sectional design, further work needs to be done to establish the effects of changes over a longer period of time in the aspect of BPR and IT capability. Therefore, future research should consider longitudinal study to examine BPR and IT capability implementation and how their impact influence organizational performance. 87

6 Since the present study employed quantitative technique in the design and analysis, the information gathered is limited to the questionnaires response. The use of qualitative information should be incorporated in future research because this approach provides insights and understanding of the problem setting. The result of the study will be more meaningful if both quantitative and qualitative techniques are employed as both of them can complement each other. The use of single person to answer the questionnaires may result in mono-response bias. Thus, future research should consider multiple respondents to provide a more balanced perspective of BPR variables, IT capability and organization performance perspectives. The sample of the study is limited to Nigerian banks. Future research should consider replicating this study in other cultures or countries especially on the moderating effect of IT capability dimensions. In addition, further research is also, needed to be conducted in other sector or industry besides banking such as manufacturing, or construction sector. This research would help to generalize the findings of this study in a broader context. Alternatively, a cross-cultural comparative analysis would further enhance the understanding of BPR and IT capability of different cultures. CONCLUSION The overall findings of the study have proven that relationship between BPR, on organization performance have been established in the study despite some few results that indicated insignificant association out comes. This study provides new empirical contribution to academic knowledge and practitioners. To the academia, more research on multi-disciplines need to be conducted to establish the relationship to the benefit of the industry and society in general. To the practitioners, in the search of organizational performance and competitive advantage, should not dependent on a particular management technique but multiple management initiates that are important for survival and success. REFERENCE Adeyemi, S., & Aremu, M. A. (2008). Impact Assessment of Business Process Reengineering on Organisational Performance. European Journal of Social Sciences,, 7(1), Ahmad, H., Francis, A., & Zairi, M. (2007). Business process reengineering: critical success factors in higher education., 13(3), Business Process Management Journal, 13(3), Al-Mashari, M., & Zairi, M. (1999). Business process reengineering implementation processes: an analysis of key success and failure factors. Business Process Management Journal, 5(1), Al-Mashari, M., & Zairi, M. (2000). Revisiting BPR: a holistic review of practice and development. Business Process Management Journal, 6(1), Al-Mashari, M., Irani, Z., & Zairi, M. (2001). Business process reengineering: a survey of international experience. Business Process Management Journal, 7(5), Altinkemer, K., Ozcelik, Y., & D.O, Z. (2011). Productivity and Performance Effects of Business Process Reengineering: Afirm-Level Analysis. Journal of Management Information Systems, 27(4), Bontis, N. (1998). Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Management decision, 48(9), Bontis, N., Chua, C. K., & Richardson, S. (2000). Intellectual capital and business performance in Malaysian industries. Journal of Intellectual Capital., 1, Broadbent, M., Weill, P., & St.Clair, D. (1999). The implication of information technology infrastructure for business process redesign. MIS Quarterly, 23. Canato, A., & Corrocher, N. (2004). Information and communication technology: Organizational challenges for Italian banks. Accounting, Business and Financial History, 14(3), Caron, J. R., Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Stoddard, D. B. (1994). Business reengineering at Cigna Corporation: Experiences and lessons learned from the first five years. MIS Quarterly, 18, CBN. (2008). Central Bank of Nigeria Annual Report and Account as at 31st December. Abuja: Central Bank of Nigeria. Champy, J. (2002). X-Engineering the Corporation: Reinventing Your Business in the Digital Age. New York: Warner Books. Cheng, T. C. E., & Chiu, I. S. F. (2008). Critical Success Factors of Business Process Re-engineering in the Banking Industry. Knowledge and Process Management, 15(4), Davenport, H. T., & Short, J. E. (1990). The New Industrial Engineering: Information Technology and Business 88

7 Process Redesign. Sloan Management Review, Davenport, T. H. (1993). Process Innovation: Reengineering Work through Information Technology. Harvard Business School Press. Davenport, T. H., & Beers, M. C. (1995). Managing information about processes. Journal of Management Information Systems., 12(1), Devaraj, S., & Kohli, R. (2000). Information technology payoff in the health-care industry: A longitudinal study. Journal of Management Information Systems, 16(4), Earl, M. J., Sampler, J. L., & Short, J. E. (1995). Strategies for business process reengineering: Evidence from field studies. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12(1), companies. International Journal of Production Research, 45(24), Hinterhuber, H. (1995). Business process management: the European approach. Business Change and Reengineering, 2(4), Mumford, E. (1995). Creative chaos or constructive change business reengineering versus socio-technical design. In G. Burke & J. Peppard (Eds.), Examining Business process reengineering: current perspectives and research directions. (pp ): Kogan. O'Neill, P., & Sohal, A. S. (1999). Business Process reengineering a review of recent literature. Technovation, 19(9), Omo, A. (2011). Business Reengineering and Organizational Performance in Nigeria: A Case Study of First Bank Nigeria Plc. International Business Management, 5(3), Sekaran, U. (2003). Research methods for business. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Shin, N., & Jemella, D. F. (2002). Business process reengineering and performance improvement: The case of Chase Manhattan Bank. Business Process Management Journal, 8(4), Zairi, M., & Sinclair, D. (1995). Business process re-engineering and process management: a survey of current practice and future trends in integrated management. Management Decision, 33(3), APPENDIX Table 1.0: Summary of reliability Analysis of major variables Variables No. of items Dependent Variables Organizational Performance No of items deleted Operations cost reduction Customer Service Management Operational Process efficiency Independent Variables BPR Factors I.T Investment Strategy alignment Customer Focus Personnel Commitment Change Management Effective Communication Training and Education Reward System Adequate Financial Resources Volume of Financial Activities Strong capital base Cronbach s Alpha 89

8 Table: 2.0 Results of Multiple regression analysis between CSFs and cost reduction performance. Model Un-standardized Standardized Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) NITinV NSTRAGN NCF NPCommit NECOMM NTRGEDU NVOLACT NRWDSYSM NSTRGCAP a. Dependent Variable: Cost Reduction Table: 3.0 Results of Multiple regression analysis between CSFs and customer service management performance Model Un-standardized Standardized Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) NITinV NSTRAGN NCF NPCommit NECOMM NTRGEDU NVOLACT NRWDSYSM NSTRGCAP a. Dependent Variable: Customer Service Management 90

9 Table: 4.0 Results of Multiple regression analysis between CSFs and operational efficiency performance Model Un-standardized Standardized Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) NITinV NSTRAGN NCF NPCommit NECOMM NTRGEDU NVOLACT NRWDSYSM NSTRGCAP a. Dependent Variable: Zero Error Processes Table: 5.0 Results of Multiple regression analysis between CSFs and overall organizational performance Model Un-standardized Standardized Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) NITinV NSTRAGN NCF NPCommit NECOMM NTRGEDU NVOLACT NRWDSYSM NSTRGCAP a. Dependent Variable: OveralNPERFM 91

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