WATER INTRUSION SIDING. 1 Damage in Residential Walls from Construction Defects and Water 2 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION DEFECTS

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "WATER INTRUSION SIDING. 1 Damage in Residential Walls from Construction Defects and Water 2 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION DEFECTS"

Transcription

1 1 Damage in Residential Walls from Construction Defects and Water Intrusion: Old and New Issues George Tsongas, Ph.D., P.E. Consulting Engineer and Building Scientist Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering Portland State University 2 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION DEFECTS! Improper or poor design! Lack of sufficient details! Improper installation of components! Not following installation instructions! Sloppy construction! Lack of attention to detail! Lack of sufficient training or supervision! Poorly designed or manufactured components! L-P siding, EIFS, fire retardant treated plywood! Lack of - or insufficient - maintenance 3 ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS WITH CONSTRUCTION DEFECTS: WATER INTRUSION! Defects can allow excessive water entry into building envelope components! Many construction defects cause wall component moisture-related damage! Siding buckling and swelling, mold and decay, gypsum sheathing & WRB deterioration 4 PROBLEM #1: SIDING WAVINESS AND BUCKLING! Unsightly deformation of siding out of plane of the wall! Usually occurs during first year after construction! Siding still functions and keeps water out! Cause #1: by elongation of siding in length direction! Elongation caused by moisture content increase! From dry summer to wet winter condition! Common in all wood products, natural or composite! Cause #2: siding following waviness of sheathing or studs 5 WHEN DOES BUCKLING NOT OCCUR?! Does not occur when siding nailed to studs spaced at 16 and studs are not warped, crooked or bowed! Siding sufficiently restrained by such proper nailing! Studs spaced 16 o.c. is standard construction 6 WHEN DOES BUCKLING OCCUR?! Siding nailed at 16 o.c., but siding gets excessively wet on its backside due to water leaks (construction defects)! Siding nailed at greater than 16 on center! Larger stud spacings do not provide enough restraint! Sometimes caused by nails missing studs ( shiners )! Sometimes caused by missing nails! Exacerbated by siding wetted on backside due to leaks! Exacerbated by lack of required vapor barrier! Siding follows wavy sheathing or warped studs! Siding relative thin (e.g., fiber-cement lap) 7 PHOTO: BUCKLING WITH NAILING AT 16 O.C. WITH BACKSIDE WETTING 8 PHOTO: BUCKLING WITH NAILING AT GREATER THAN 16 O.C. 9 PHOTO: STUD SPACING OFTEN UNEVEN AND GREATER THAN 16 O.C. 10 PHOTO: BUCKLING WITH NAILING GREATER THAN 16 DUE TO NAILS MISSING STUDS 11 PHOTO: BUCKLED T1-11 PLYWOOD PANEL SIDING DUE TO IMPROPER NAILING 12 PHOTO: WAVY CEDAR SIDING 13 PHOTO: BUCKLED CEDAR SHINGLE SIDING 14 PHOTO: WAVY SIDING FOLLOWING WETTED & WARPED PLYWOOD SHEATHING 15 PHOTO: WARPED PLYWOOD WETTED BY WINDOW LEAK ABOVE THAT CAUSED BUCKLED SIDING 16 PHOTO: WAVY FIBER-CEMENT SIDING 17 PHOTO: CROOKED/BOWED/WARPED STUDS CAUSING BUCKLED SIDING 18 PHOTO: PSU LAB BUCKLING TEST SETUP

2 19 PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY (PSU) TESTS OF HARDBOARD SIDING BUCKLING! Sprayed water on shiplap siding of test walls for 8 weeks to simulate % outdoor relative humidity condition! Siding nailed to studs spaced at 16, 24, and 32! Siding nailed at 16 did not buckle or deform at all! Siding nailed at 24 & 32 did deform out of plane 20 PROBLEM #2: SIDING SWELLING! Two types:! Drip edge swelling! Face swelling (sometimes observed as swelling or dimpling around nail heads) 21 SIDING DRIP EDGE SWELLING! Edge swelling occurs near bottom edges of siding! Typically occurs with composite wood siding products! Water drops hang on drip edge with thin or no paint! Then liquid water absorbed by capillary action up into the fiber of the siding drip edge! Water absorption causes the siding to swell locally at drip edge 22 SIDING DRIP EDGE SWELLING ALMOST ALWAYS CAUSED BY THIN OR NONEXISTENT DRIP EDGE PAINT! Very slow process---typically takes years for swelling to become noticeable! Typically occurs due to poor spray painting of the siding drip edges! Violation of siding application instructions! Typically does not result in siding decay, except:! Lowest siding course near grade or concrete! Any course of older OSB siding 23 PHOTO: LACK OF DRIP EDGE PAINT 24 PHOTO: DRIP EDGE SWELLING & DECAY 25 PHOTO: NATURAL WOOD TRIM UNPAINTED CUT END DECAY/SPLITTING 26 PHOTO: VERTICAL CORNER TRIM WITH AND WITHOUT CUT EDGE SWELLING/DECAY 27 SIDING FACE SWELLING ALMOST ALWAYS CAUSED BY WETTING OF SIDING BACKSIDE! Most typically occurs due to absorption of large amounts of liquid water on the backside of composite wood siding products! Water gets there from leaks caused by construction errors! Typically much more water gets into the siding than with poor drip edge paint! Much more common cause of siding swelling, bowing & decay! Swelling leads to micro-cracking of drip edge paint! Note: liquid water does not migrate through proper face paint 28 PHOTO: FACE SWELLING ( DIMPLING AROUND NAIL HEADS) 29 PHOTO: MICRO-CRACKING OF THE SIDING DRIP EDGE 30 PHOTO: PSU FACE SWELLING LEAK TEST 31 PSU WALL LEAK TEST RESULTS! After only two weeks of daily intermittent dripping the following was observed:! Definite bowing of siding at the drip edge between nails (16 o.c.)! Siding swelling! Micro-cracking of the drip edge paint 32 PSU WALL LEAK TEST CONCLUSIONS! Lab test results duplicated siding deterioration observed in the field! Verified cause of siding swelling, bowing between nail heads, and micro-cracking of drip edge paint observed in the field! Due to water being absorbed on siding backside 33 PHOTO: PSU LEAK TEST SIDING BOWING 34 PHOTO: SIDING BOWING BETWEEN NAIL HEADS 35 BE CAREFUL ABOUT BLAMING CONTRACTORS FOR OVERDRIVEN NAILS IN SIDING! Can be caused by swelling of OSB sheathing! OSB can naturally swell up to 30% in thickness as a result of normal swings in air s relative humidity! Can result in 20% irreversible thickness swell! Liquid water need not be present! Overdriven nails are not always really overdriven or caused by improper nailing 36 PROBLEM #3: WOOD DECAY (ROT)! Caused by growth of decay fungi! Requirements for growth of wood decay fungi:! Abnormally wet wood (i.e., soaking wet)! Moisture content greater than 25-30% Wood normally much drier (6-18%)! Warm wood temperature! Optimally F

3 ! Little or no growth below 50 F! Wood typically not so wet during warm weather 37 WHEN DOES WOOD DECAY?! Typically occurs only when siding is excessively wet during warm weather on unpainted or poorly painted drip edges! Occurs often on lowest siding courses due to repeated, long term wet contact (such as with concrete or soil), splash back, or sprinkler wetting! Also occurs commonly when siding or other wall components get excessively wet due to leakage of liquid water behind siding due to construction errors 38 HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE FOR DECAY TO BECOME VISIBLE?! Under the right conditions, decay can start microscopically in a matter of hours or days! Under optimum conditions, decay fungal growth can become visible in a month or so! More often, decay takes years to progress to the point where it is clearly visible! Note: decay can produce significant strength loss much more rapidly than weight loss (clearly visible) 39 COMMON DECAY LOCATIONS! Window openings, particularly at corners! Typically most frequent problems! Intersection of walls with floors or slab-on-grade! Intersection of walls with exterior balconies/walkways! Siding lowest course too close to soil or concrete! Siding lowest courses wetted by sprinkler spray! Handrail connections; rail caps (especially fences)! Belly bands and other plant-on trim! Confined rakes (gutter ends) 40 PHOTO: SIDING DECAY BELOW LEAKING WINDOW TRIM 41 PHOTO: OSB SHEATHING DECAY BELOW LEAKING DEFECTIVE WINDOWS 42 PHOTO: SIDING DECAY CAUSED BY CONTACT WITH WET CONCRETE 43 PHOTO: DECAYED SILL TRIM (SIMILAR TO BELLY BAND) 44 PHOTO: SIDING DECAY BELOW IMPROPERLY INSTALLED DECK 45 PHOTO: STAIRWAY LANDING LEAKING INTO WALL & OUT BETWEEN SIDING LAPS 46 PHOTO: DECAY BELOW STAIRWAY LANDING LEAK 47 PHOTO: SIDING DECAY CAUSED BY WATER LEAK BEHIND THE SIDING ON EXTERIOR BALCONY 48 PHOTO: DECAY BELOW BALCONY LATTICE 49 PHOTO: RAILING DECAY CAUSED BY MITER JOINT WATER LEAK 50 PHOTO: DECAY AT HANDRAIL CONNECTION TO WALL 51 PHOTO: CEDAR SIDING DECAY CAUSED BY EXCESSIVE WETTING AT PRIVACY FENCE RAIL CAP CONNECTION 52 PHOTO: DAMAGE FROM GUTTER END LEAK 53 PHOTO: TRIM DECAY CAUSED BY POOR DESIGN 54 PHOTO: MAINTENANCE ISSUE---SIDING WETTED BY ERRANT SPRINKLER SPRAY 55 PHOTO: WHITE MYCELIUM ON COMMERCIAL BUILDING OSB ROOF SHEATHING 56 PROBLEM #4: MOLD GROWTH! Mold can grow on a surface when it is wetted! Such as by leaks into walls from outside or contact with or proximity to wet concrete 57 PHOTO: CEILING & WALL MOLD FROM CONSTRUCTION ERROR (SCUPPER LEAK INTO WALL) 58 PHOTO: MOLD ON COMMERCIAL BUILDING CEILING TILE DUE TO LEAK ABOVE 59 PROBLEM #5: GYPSUM SHEATHING & WRB DETERIORATION! Non wood materials do not decay! Gypsum does not decay, but does deteriorate! Gypsum sheathing softens & crumbles! WRB materials can deteriorate without decay! Materials can disintegrate when wetted 60 PHOTO: DETERIORATED GYPSUM SHEATHING DUE TO POOR EDGE SEALING 61 TYPES OF WATER ENTRY AND MOVEMENT MECHANISMS IN WALLS! Those that do not cause decay or other damage! Water entry amounts are not excessive

4 ! Incidental water naturally dries out! Those that cause damage to wall components! Water entry amounts are excessive 62 POSSIBLE WAYS WATER COULD ENTER WALL CAVITIES WITH MINIMAL, IF ANY, ADVERSE EFFECT! Liquid water through siding nail holes! Liquid or vapor water through siding exterior paint! Rain wind-blown up in between siding laps! Wicking liquid up into bottom drip edge of siding! Typically not a problem with well-painted drip edges! Wicking liquid water up between siding laps! Not a problem for some types of siding 63 SCHEMATIC: WATER ENTRY BY CAPILLARY WICKING UP BETWEEN SIDING LAPS 64 CAPILLARY WICKING BETWEEN SIDING LAPS! Often proposed without basis! Never confirmed by any scientific tests anywhere in the world! Except for PSU laboratory cedar siding spray tests 65 PHOTO: PSU LABORATORY WICKING SPRAY TEST SETUP 66 PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY LABORATORY SPRAY WICKING AND OTHER TEST CONCLUSIONS! Capillary wicking up between siding laps:! Does not occur for hardboard and fiber-cement siding! Proven in numerous laboratory tests! Does occur with cedar siding in spray wicking tests! Even when back primed! Likely causes staining and paint adhesion problems 67 PHOTO: DETERIORATED, WATER-LOGGED PAINT ON CEDAR SIDING 68 WATER STAINING OF BACKSIDE OF SIDING OFTEN GIVEN AS PROOF OF WICKING UP BETWEEN SIDING LAPS! But, staining of backside caused by water leaking into the backside of the siding due to construction errors and migrating along drip edge! Numerous examples of such leaks and subsequent staining! Not due to wicking up between siding laps 69 PHOTO: SIDING WHERE BACKSIDE DRIP EDGE WATER STAINED 70 PHOTO: SIDING BACKSIDE WATER STAINING FROM DEFECT LEAK 71 WAYS WATER DOES ENTER WALL CAVITIES AND CAUSES DAMAGE! Liquid water leaking behind siding (e.g., around windows)! Includes moving through weather-resistant barriers! Liquid water wicking into gypsum sheathing behind siding! Liquid water wicking up into bottom drip edges of siding! With poorly-painted or unpainted drip edges! Siding contact with concrete, or siding too close to soil and drip edges with little or no paint! Rain splash back; sprinkler wetting! Water vapor migrating into walls from inside the house! Solar-driven moisture transfer from siding into sheathing! Indoor moisture entry from or through wet concrete floors! Moisture entry into walls from wet lumber 72 LIQUID WATER LEAKING BEHIND SIDING USUALLY DUE TO CONSTRUCTION ERRORS! Leaks into walls can be a huge source of liquid water behind the siding! Liquid water that gets to the siding s backside is more readily trapped and absorbed! Windows commonly leak and flashing and sealant errors often occur that allow water entry into walls 73 SURPRISINGLY LARGE WATER LEAK FLOW RATES DUE TO CONSTRUCTION ERRORS! Small openings are not uncommon in building construction! Calculated and lab test proven water flow rates through small horizontal leak openings:! 1/8 inch diameter hole: 2 gallons per hour! Obviously not all openings are horizontal 74 COMMON LEAK LOCATIONS! Window openings, particularly at corner trim joints! Typically most frequent problems! Intersection of walls with floors or slab-on-grade! Intersection of walls with exterior balconies/walkways! Siding lowest course too close to soil or concrete! Siding lowest courses wetted by sprinkler spray! Handrail connections; rail caps (especially fences)! Belly bands and other plant-on trim! Confined rakes (gutter ends)

5 75 PHOTO: SEVERE STRUCTURAL DECAY FROM SMALL ROOF FLASHING LEAK 76 PHOTO: SIDING DECAY DUE TO STAIRCASE--SIDING JOINT LEAK 77 PHOTO: WATER LEAK HOLE AT STAIR LANDING BEAM PENETRATION 78 PHOTO: WALL SIDING WITH LEAK SITE AT 3 RD STORY WALKWAY 79 PHOTO: THIRD STORY LEAK SITE 80 PHOTO: CONSEQUENT MOLD & DETERIORATION ON GYPSUM SHEATHING 81 PHOTO: CONSEQUENT MOLD & DECAY ON BACK OF REMOVED SIDING 82 PHOTO: WATER LEAK HOLE (BALCONY TO SUPPORT COLUMN) 83 PHOTO: DECAY DUE TO BALCONY-TO-COLUMN LEAK 84 PHOTO: SIDING DECAY DUE TO BALCONY-TO-COLUMN LEAK 85 AMOUNT OF LIQUID WATER REQUIRED TO CAUSE DECAY! Assume a roughly 16 square foot area of ½ inch thick wood siding or sheathing! Assume a moisture content change from normal (dry) 10% to 30% required to grow decay fungi! Amount of water required that must be absorbed into the wood siding or sheathing just to raise its moisture content that amount is about 1 gallon!! Laboratory wall leak drainage test results suggest that at least 10 times as much water drains out of a wall as is absorbed by the wall components! Thus, water leaks into walls must be relatively large (many gallons) when decay occurs 86 THE MOST COMMON LOCATION OF DAMAGE IN BUILDINGS IS AROUND WINDOWS! Damage to siding and paint! Damage to window trim! Damage to WRB! Damage to gypsum sheathing! Damage to structural sheathing (OSB or plywood)! Damage to framing 87 PHOTO: SIDING & TRIM DECAY CAUSED BY A WINDOW HEAD TRIM LEAK 88 PHOTO: WATER LEAK HOLE AT UNSEALED WINDOW HEAD TRIM 89 PHOTO: MORE WINDOW LEAK SITES 90 PHOTO: OTHER WINDOW LEAK SITES 91 PHOTO: SIDING & TRIM DECAY CAUSED BY WINDOW TRIM LEAKS 92 LAB WALL FLASHING LEAKAGE TESTS! Walls tested with windows properly and improperly flashed and caulked! To determine if construction errors allowed water intrusion that caused resultant damage! Followed ASTM E 331 standard test protocol! Full scale walls sprayed in a laboratory for 3 hours to simulate severe wind-driven rain 93 PHOTO: LABORATORY WINDOW FLASHING LEAKAGE TEST SETUP 94 PHOTO: WINDOW FLASHING LEAKAGE TEST RESULT (WORST CASE) 95 PHOTO: WALL CAVITY DAMAGE CAUSED BY WINDOW LEAK (NO SILL TRIM SEALANT) 96 PHOTO: SIDING AND TRIM DECAY DUE TO LACK OF SEALANT 97 PHOTO: WINDOW LEAK DETERIORATION 98 PHOTO: WINDOW LEAK DRYWALL DAMAGE 99 ONE OF THE BIGGEST WINDOW LEAK CULPRITS: VINYL WINDOW FRAMES! Vinyl has a very large coefficient of thermal expansion! In our climate a 6 foot long vinyl window frame changes length about 1/8 inch between seasons!! Joints between frame & trim open up! Joints between jamb & sill trim are forced open! Even when joints caulked, they open up Typically thin caulk installed between the frame and window trim simply cannot flex that amount & cracks/breaks 100 PHOTO: DAMAGE CAUSED BY WINDOW LEAK (NO FRAME TO TRIM SEALANT) 101 PHOTO: DAMAGE FROM UNSEALED WINDOW FRAME TO TRIM JOINTS 102 PHOTO: WINDOW LEAKS FROM BEHIND MANY FIBER-CEMENT SIDING LAPS 103 PHOTO: DAMAGE DUE TO SEEPAGE AT UNSEALED WINDOW TRIM MITER JOINTS 104 PHOTO: WINDOW JAMB-SILL TRIM JOINT LEAK (NO SEALANT) EFFECT

6 105 ALL THE EMPHASIS ON INSTALLING SELF-ADHERING WINDOW FLASHING AROUND WINDOWS HAS CREATED A SENSE OF FALSE SECURITY! Water enters walls where there is no sealant or improperly installed sealant! Between window trim jamb & sill pieces! Between window frame & trim! Water that has entered those locations flows past the self-adhered flashing & damages the sheathing 106 RESOLVING LIQUID WATER LEAKAGE AROUND AND THROUGH WINDOWS! Water leakage obviously occurs around window trim! Siding and trim damage common around windows! Designers and builders should take the approach that any window may allow water through at some time and design to handle that water! Avoid vinyl windows fiberglass frames much better! Install window frame to trim caulk at all joints with minimum ¼ caulk width & backer rod applied behind! Install proper window sill flashing with back dam! Improved wall water drainage is crucial! Building paper or housewrap alone is not enough 107 LATERAL WATER MIGRATION: DOES IT OCCUR AND MAKE MATTERS WORSE?! Siding and trim deterioration is often obvious near or below a known water leak entry point! What about siding deterioration well away from the point source?! Often observed! Is it related to the known leak source? 108 PHOTO: PSU LATERAL WATER MIGRATION LAB TEST SETUP 109 PHOTO: LATERAL WATER MIGRATION STAINING BEHIND HARDBOARD SIDING 110 PHOTO: LATERAL WATER MIGRATION TESTS WITH REDWOOD SIDING 111 LATERAL WATER MIGRATION TEST CONCLUSIONS! Once water leaks behind siding it can readily move laterally to locations well away from the leak source point! Such migration not limited to one type of siding! If sufficient water leaks into a wall, siding, sheathing, and trim deterioration can be expected just about anywhere in the wall---even well away from the leak source point 112 PHOTO: LATERAL WATER MIGRATION 113 PHOTO: LATERAL WATER MIGRATION 114 PHOTO: LATERAL WATER MIGRATION 115 PHOTO: LATERAL WATER MIGRATION 116 RAIN WATER LEAKS ARE A MAJOR CAUSE OF HIDDEN MOLD AND DECAY! Leaks are not uncommon in new construction! Caused by numerous types of construction errors! Leaks can result in considerable wetting of materials! Wet building materials do not always dry out quickly! Wall components can take many months to dry! Based on computer simulation! There is ample time for fungal growth 117 COMPUTER MODELING DRYING RESULTS 118 WATER ENTRY BY WICKING LIQUID UP INTO GYPSUM SHEATHING! In multifamily housing gypsum sheathing often exists behind siding for fire protection reasons! Gypsum sheathing behind siding readily wicks water up from its base that is wetted by:! Ponding water from rain or spray washing! Rain or spray washing splash back! Misdirected sprinklers! Wet concrete base that gypsum sheathing sits on 119 WET GYPSUM SHEATHING WICKS WATER INTO SIDING OR STRUCTURAL SHEATHING SURROUNDING IT! Leads to moisture damage to those wall components, including mold and decay! In addition, gypsum sheathing deteriorates 120 PHOTO: MOLD & DETERIORATION OF BUILDING PAPER ON WETTED WALL 121 PHOTO: MOLD ON GYPSUM SHEATHING & MOLDY, DECAYED OSB SHEATHING 122 SCHEMATIC: PSU LABORATORY VERTICAL WICKING TEST SETUP 123 PHOTO: PSU LAB VERTICAL WICKING TEST SETUP 124 PSU LABORATORY VERTICAL WICKING TEST RESULTS! In 20 days water wicked up gypsum sheathing about 4 feet! Wicked up 10 inches in first day

7 ! In 20 days water wicked up hardboard siding ¼ - 2¼ inches! Wetted gypsum sheathing caused deterioration of plywood & OSB sheathing 125 PHOTO: PSU TEST DAMAGE TO PLYWOOD SHEATHING FROM WETTED GYPSUM 126 WATER ENTRY BY WICKING UP INTO SIDING OR SHEATHING BOTTOM DRIP EDGE 127 PHOTO: SIDING DRIP EDGE SWELLING CAUSED BY WICKING INTO EDGE 128 PHOTO: SHEATHING DAMAGE FROM RAIN SPLASHBACK WHERE BOTTOM EDGE OF SHEATHING EXPOSED 129 PAST PROBLEMS WITH OSB SIDING! OSB siding had design and manufacturing problems! Drip edge was hard to seal and prone to swelling allowed water entry by capillary wicking into siding! Exterior face surface was a vapor retarder! Created by resin-coated kraft paper face! Trapped liquid water wicking into drip edge! Kept wetted OSB from drying out! Combination led to swelling, cracking, & decay! Old OSB siding was inherently defective in my opinion 130 PHOTO: OLD OSB LAP SIDING WITH DECAY FUNGI GROWING FROM DRIP EDGES 131 PHOTO: OLD OSB PANEL SIDING WITH DECAY FUNGI GROWING FROM GROOVES 132 POSSIBLE FUTURE PROBLEM WITH FIBER-CEMENT SIDING! Lack of paint or thin paint on drip edges could allow significant water to wick into the siding! Fiber-cement siding is highly absorbent! Job site wetting prior to painting could do the same! Solar heating could drive water vapor from the siding into the sheathing & framing! Thus increasing its moisture and causing mold or decay of moisture barriers, sheathing, & framing! Not readily observed from the outside 133 PHOTO: ANOTHER PROBLEM--CRACKED FIBER CEMENT LAP AT BUTT END 134 WATER ENTRY BY SIDING OR SHEATHING CONTACT WITH WET CONCRETE OR SIDING OR SHEATHING TOO CLOSE TO SOIL! Contact with concrete readily wicks liquid water into materials! Poor construction practice! Violation of some siding application instructions! Leads to siding or sheathing decay or deterioration! Building codes and manufacturer s installation instructions require 6 separation of bottom course of siding from soil! Splash back in cases with less than 6 separation has led to siding and sheathing swelling, mold and decay 135 PHOTO: SIDING DECAYED DUE TO CONTACT WITH CONCRETE 136 PHOTO: T1-11 PLYWOOD SIDING DECAYED DUE TO CONTACT WITH WET CONCRETE 137 PHOTO: SIDING DECAY FROM CONTACT WITH WET CONCRETE WALL 138 PHOTO: SIDING TOO CLOSE TO GRADE CAUSING DECAY 139 VAPOR DRIVE: WATER VAPOR MIGRATING INTO WALL CAVITY FROM INDOORS DURING HEATING SEASON! When indoor temperatures are warmer than outdoor conditions, vapor drive is from indoors (warmer) to outdoors (colder) 140 WINTERTIME VAPOR MOVEMENT IN WALLS 141 SOME CLADDINGS ARE VAPOR IMPERMEABLE! Thus they trap water vapor that is normally migrating in winter from the warm indoors to the colder outdoors! Leading to condensation, moisture buildup in the materials behind the siding, and decay! Vapor permeable claddings allow the water vapor to pass through them to the outdoors 142 PAST MOLD & DECAY PROBLEMS WITH OLDER FACE-SEALED EIFS! External Insulated Finish Systems (EIFS) cladding! Also known as synthetic stucco! Lack of drainage capability and inability to dry to the outside with older face-sealed EIFS allowed significant wetting of wall components that led to mold and decay! Jury still out on whether new EIFS drainage systems work! They are designed to help keep walls drier & decay free 143 PHOTO: METAL STUD EIFS WALL MOLD 144 PHOTO: PLYWOOD SHEATHING DECAY IN EIFS FACE-SEALED WALL 145 MOISTURE PROBLEM WITH SOME VINYL SIDING

8 ! Some vinyl siding acts as an excellent vapor retarder on the outside (wrong side) of the wall in cold climates! Traps water behind it and wets moisture barriers, sheathing, and framing! Can cause long term mold & decay problems! Not widely known, since not much vinyl siding gets removed and wall cavities behind it inspected 146 PHOTO: WATER STAINING DAMAGE ON GYPSUM SHEATHING BEHIND VINYL SIDING & HOUSEWRAP 147 PHOTO: DECAY & MOLD DAMAGE ON OSB SHEATHING BEHIND GYPSUM SHEATHING & VINYL SIDING 148 PHOTO: LIQUID WATER DRAINING OUT OF VINYL-SIDED WALL CAVITY 149 PHOTO: DAMAGE TO GYPSUM SHEATHING & TJI BEHIND VINYL SIDING 150 PHOTO: WATER DRIPPING OUT FROM BEHIND VINYL SIDING 151 PHOTO: BACK OF SIDING DRIPPING WET 152 PHOTO: DRIPPING WET BUILDING PAPER 153 PHOTO: DAMAGE TO GYPSUM SHEATHING 154 PHOTO: DRIPPING WET BUILDING PAPER 155 PHOTO: DAMAGED OSB SHEATHING BEHIND VINYL SIDING 156 PHOTO: WATER STAINS ON GYPSUM SHEATHING FROM SIDING CONDENSATION 157 PHOTO: DAMAGE AT RIM JOIST WHERE NO VAPOR BARRIER EXISTS 158 PHOTO: SIDING CROSS-SECTION SHOWING BLOCKED WEEP HOLE 159 INDOOR MOISTURE ENTRY FROM WET CONCRETE SLAB-ON-GRADE FLOORS CAUSE OF MOLD & DECAY IN DWELLINGS! Concrete slab floors in apartments & single family homes! A huge indoor moisture source as the concrete dries! Most severe during first one-two years! Often exacerbated by lack of slab edge sealing! Sand layer below slab can fill with water! Vinyl floors bubble or discolor (turn moldy)! Mold and decay fungi grow on 1 st story lower wall sections and under carpets (stained tack strips)! Mold not found in 2 nd story apartments & rooms 160 PHOTO: MOLD UNDER VINYL FLOOR OVER WET SLAB-ON-GRADE 161 PHOTO: MOLD ON CARPET TACK STRIP AND WALL DUE TO WET CONCRETE FLOOR 162 PHOTO: MOLD ON FLOOR MOLDING IN POORLY HEATED CLOSET WITH NEW WET CONCRETE 163 PHOTO: LANDSCAPING PROBLEM---IMPROPER GRADING/BERMING 164 PHOTO: EFFECT OF LANDSCAPING ERRORS---WET, MOLDY CARPETS 165 PHOTO: CRAWL SPACE CONCRETE FOUNDATION WITH WATER STAINING 166 MOISTURE ENTRY INTO WALLS FROM WET CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS! Wet green lumber (often stored outside in lumber yard)! Sometimes with black mold on it! Pond-dried lumber (left stored on site out in the rain)! Lumber in place in home wetted before roof cover-in! Often results in serious mold growth! Even on kiln-dried lumber! Mold from such wet materials becoming a serious issue to prospective homeowners in new construction 167 PHOTO: BLACK MOLD ON A VERTICAL STUD IN AN OPENED WALL CAVITY 168 PHOTO: MOLD ON WALL FRAMING EXPOSED TO THE WEATHER 169 INFLUENCE OF TYPE OF MOISTURE BARRIER ON DRAINAGE AND DAMAGE! PSU lab tests for DuPont to compare drainage of different housewraps and building papers under simulated wall leak conditions (between siding & paper/wrap)! Best drainage & least damage with furring strips (rain screen)! Next best with groove-textured housewrap! Next best with conventional housewrap! Worst by far with Grade D building paper & No. 15 felt! OSB sheathing moldy & decayed at end of 4 month test in No. 15 felt case (no decay in other cases)

9 170 PHOTO: PSU LEAK DRAINAGE TEST SETUP 171 PHOTO: WATER STAINING & MOLD ON OUTSIDE OF OSB SHEATHING 172 COMMON MYTH: BUILDING PAPERS AND HOUSEWRAPS WORK WELL AT DRAINING WATER THAT LEAKS INTO WALLS! While most of the water that might leak into a wall does, in fact, drain out, a small fraction is absorbed by the back of the siding and the other wall components! Not all the water leaking into a wall drains out at the bottom of the building paper or housewrap! That small fraction that is retained in the wall can result in elevated moisture contents that lead to deterioration such as mold and decay 173 PHOTO: IMPROPER HOUSEWRAP LAPPING/SEQUENCING 174 CONCLUSIONS FROM MY 30+ YEARS OF SITE OBSERVATIONS! The vast majority of walls are usually performing just fine! Wall components are sometimes deteriorated in a few locations throughout a project! Problems occur repetitively at several typical locations! Problems stem from certain design, construction, material & maintenance practices! Not following component installation instructions! Poor design and construction practices! Poor maintenance! Sometimes due to use of defective products 175 WAYS TO KEEP WALLS DRIER AND LIMIT YOUR LIABILITY! Work hard at avoiding construction errors! Better training is essential! The devil is in the details!! Proper flashing and sealing of all kinds is critical 176 BE PROACTIVE ABOUT INSTALLING WINDOWSAND THEIR TRIM! Properly install windows and doors and their trim! Follow ASTM E 2112 (Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights), published in September The largest ASTM standard ever published, E 2112 provides detailed and comprehensive step-by-step protocols for installing and flashing residential and light commercial windows and doors! ASTM E 2112 has been largely ignored, but shouldn t be! Don t let anyone without proper training install windows 177 PHOTO: INSTALL BACKER ROD AND CAULK BETWEEN TRIM AND WINDOW FRAME 178 WAYS TO LIMIT YOUR LIABILITY: THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT WALL CONSTRUCTION ITEM! Build walls using a rain screen wall drainage approach:! Provide an air space behind the siding so there is true drainage for unanticipated water leaks! Helps avoid mold and decay problems! Numerous workable, cost effective approaches! Avoid the use of building papers or regular housewraps alone without a drainage space or drainage design IRC (INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE) MODEL CODE WALL DRAINAGE REQUIREMENT! Adopted as 2008 Oregon Residential Specialty Code! Amended Section : Exterior wall envelope. To promote building durability, the exterior wall envelope shall be installed in such a manner that water that enters the assembly can drain to the exterior. The envelope shall consist of an exterior veneer, a WRB, a minimum 1/8 space between the WRB and the cladding (or an enhanced WRB), and integrated flashings! Fastening siding directly to the face of a smooth weather barrier (WRB) is no longer acceptable 180 WAYS TO PROVIDE WALL DRAINAGE! Install furring strips over housewrap or building paper! Provides best combination of drainage & drying! Widely used in new Canadian construction! Required in Vancouver, BC for many years! Install drainage type housewrap (at a minimum)! Install drainage mat over conventional housewrap 181 SCHEMATIC: RAINSCREEN APPROACH USING FURRING STRIPS (STRAPPING) 182 PHOTO: RAIN SCREEN APPROACH TO WALL CLADDING CONSTRUCTION 183 PHOTO: PLASTIC HONEYCOMB BATTENS 184 PHOTO:PLASTIC BATTEN OVER HOUSEWRAP 185 PHOTO: SIDING OVER PLASTIC BATTENS WITH SCREENING 186 PHOTO: SCREENING WRAPPED AROUND PLASTIC BATTENS AT BOTTOM OF WALL 187 RAIN SCREEN WALLS MINIMIZE MOISTURE DAMAGE WITH ALL CLADDING TYPES! Best example: brick cladding with air space behind! Greatly reduces moisture problems with vinyl, fiber cement, metal, and OSB siding as well as stucco cladding! Allows leaks due to construction errors to drain! Siding acting as an exterior vapor retarder no longer a problem

10 ! Allows water vapor migrating from indoors to vent out! Improves paint service life 188 THE END

Common Problems with Walls

Common Problems with Walls Common Problems with Walls Common Problems with Walls There are problems and concerns that are shared by all walls and siding installations. In this article, we will learn about the following commonly

More information

Water Damage & Repair

Water Damage & Repair Water Damage & Repair Chinatown Preservation Talks 2015 James Engler, P.A Glenn Mason, AIA Mason Architects Program Outline Terminology & Waterproofing Basics Discussion of why this is important Below

More information

Renovating Your Basement

Renovating Your Basement building science.com 2006 Building Science Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Renovating Your Building America Report - 0309 2003 (revised 2007) Building Science Corporation Abstract:

More information

Foundation. Foundation

Foundation. Foundation Moisture Aside from structural concerns, the most important consideration for foundation design is moisture. No client wants a wet basement. No client wants a damp basement. No client wants mold in their

More information

Water Management & Damage Prevention:

Water Management & Damage Prevention: Water Management & Damage Prevention: A Guide for Homeowners This article provides homeowners with basic information to make these decisions and take the appropriate actions to keep their homes dry and

More information

PETERSONS WATERFRONT CONDOMINIUMS

PETERSONS WATERFRONT CONDOMINIUMS CONSULT DESIGN CONSTRUCT PETERSONS WATERFRONT CONDOMINIUMS 103 Park Street Chelan, Washington Findings Summary Report Prepared for: Petersons Waterfront Condominium Association March 21, 2014 J2 Project

More information

Common Callbacks. Designers love intersecting roof. ~ CoastalContractor

Common Callbacks. Designers love intersecting roof. ~ CoastalContractor Common Callbacks In the face of wind-blown rain and short drying cycles, coastal exteriors are shown no mercy by Steve Easley Callbacks typically result from three things: poor design, faulty construction,

More information

Weather Resistive Barriers: Building Science Makes a Case for Two Layers by Dave Olson Technical Services Manager, Fortifiber Building Systems Group

Weather Resistive Barriers: Building Science Makes a Case for Two Layers by Dave Olson Technical Services Manager, Fortifiber Building Systems Group Weather Resistive Barriers: Building Science Makes a Case for Two Layers by Dave Olson Technical Services Manager, Fortifiber Building Systems Group Since water intrusion is among the most damaging problems

More information

GreenGuard Housewrap Installation Guide

GreenGuard Housewrap Installation Guide 000768PACBPHW_Flashing Bro 5/23/03 2:52 PM Page 1 For the most current product information, go to www.green-guard.com. Pactiv Building Products believes the information and recommendations herein to be

More information

Comment Form on Proposed Gut Rehabilitation Alternatives

Comment Form on Proposed Gut Rehabilitation Alternatives Comment Form on Gut Rehabilitation Alternatives Name: Organization: Email: Instructions Submission: Please submit this form to energystarhomes@energystar.gov by October 10 th, 2012 with the subject line

More information

3.1 Water Intrusion Problems Related to Unsealed Stucco Penetrations

3.1 Water Intrusion Problems Related to Unsealed Stucco Penetrations 3.1 Water Intrusion Problems Related to Unsealed Stucco Penetrations Any penetration through the stucco that is left unsealed will allow entry of moisture. Even an average size home can have an extreme

More information

PREMIUM LAMINATED ASPHALT SHINGLES Dallas, TX Tuscaloosa, AL Phillipsburg, KS

PREMIUM LAMINATED ASPHALT SHINGLES Dallas, TX Tuscaloosa, AL Phillipsburg, KS Application Instructions for THESE ARE THE MANUFACTURER S APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE ROOFING CONDITIONS DESCRIBED. TAMKO BUILDING PRODUCTS, INC. ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR LEAKS OR OTHER ROOFING

More information

Sun Windows General Information Sun New Construction Window Installation Instructions

Sun Windows General Information Sun New Construction Window Installation Instructions Sun Windows General Information Section 1 G F H H H A. Apply Weather Resistive Barrier B. Apply Sill Flashing Tape C. Place Waterproof Sill Shims D. Caulk Back of Nail Fin Sides & Top, Set Window, Fasten

More information

*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company A business unit of The Dow Chemical Company and its subsidiaries Copyright 2003 The Dow Chemical Company.

*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company A business unit of The Dow Chemical Company and its subsidiaries Copyright 2003 The Dow Chemical Company. Dow Chemical is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members.

More information

bout your HOUSE before you start Repairing And Replacing Materials Exterior Walls

bout your HOUSE before you start Repairing And Replacing Materials Exterior Walls A bout your HOUSE before you start Repairing And Replacing Materials Exterior Walls CE 28 h Exterior finish materials are expected to protect the house from the elements while providing an attractive appearance.

More information

ENERGY STAR Qualified New Homes Thermal Enclosure Checklist. Water Management Checklist. Eli Caudill

ENERGY STAR Qualified New Homes Thermal Enclosure Checklist. Water Management Checklist. Eli Caudill ENERGY STAR Qualified New Homes Thermal Enclosure Checklist & Water Management Checklist Eli Caudill ENERGY STAR Version 3 Tighter Standards Whole Home Approach Better, More Sustainable Construction Surpasses

More information

application instructions

application instructions application instructions ARCHITECTURAL COLLECTION PRIMED BOLD PROFILE 120 SERIES LAP SIDING (D5, T4, D8, T5, Q4) General At the time of manufacture, siding meets or exceeds the performance standards set

More information

Managing Moisture in Low-Rise Building Enclosures A Prescriptive Guide for Building Professionals on Proper Moisture Management Solutions.

Managing Moisture in Low-Rise Building Enclosures A Prescriptive Guide for Building Professionals on Proper Moisture Management Solutions. Managing Moisture in Low-Rise Building Enclosures A Prescriptive Guide for Building Professionals on Proper Moisture Management Solutions. www.benjaminobdyke.com INTRODUCTION Increasingly, builders, contractors

More information

Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies Bruce Dickson IBACOS, Inc. December 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States

More information

Block Lofts Condominiums

Block Lofts Condominiums Block Lofts Condominiums Building Envelope Condition Assessment 747 Ralph McGill Boulevard Atlanta, Georgia Presented to: Block Lofts Condominium Home Owners Association C/o Heritage Property Management

More information

RESIDENTIAL ROOFING & RE-ROOFING, ROOF VENTILATION AND ROOF SHEATHING REQUIREMENTS MICHIGAN RESIDENTIAL CODE 2000

RESIDENTIAL ROOFING & RE-ROOFING, ROOF VENTILATION AND ROOF SHEATHING REQUIREMENTS MICHIGAN RESIDENTIAL CODE 2000 RESIDENTIAL ROOFING & RE-ROOFING, ROOF VENTILATION AND ROOF SHEATHING REQUIREMENTS MICHIGAN RESIDENTIAL CODE 2000 SECTION R905 REQUIREMENTS FOR ROOF COVERINGS R905.1 Roof covering application. Roof coverings

More information

10DBMC International Conference On Durability of Building Materials and Components LYON [France] 17 20 April 2005

10DBMC International Conference On Durability of Building Materials and Components LYON [France] 17 20 April 2005 10DBMC International Conference On Durability of Building Materials and Components Wall Cladding System Durability Lessons Learned from the Premature Deterioration of Wood-Framed Construction Clad with

More information

HERITAGE WOODGATE LAMINATED ASPHALT SHINGLES Dallas, TX

HERITAGE WOODGATE LAMINATED ASPHALT SHINGLES Dallas, TX Application Instructions for THESE ARE THE MANUFACTURER S APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE ROOFING CONDITIONS DESCRIBED. TAMKO BUILDING PRODUCTS, INC. ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR LEAKS OR OTHER ROOFING

More information

Inspecting to a higher standard.

Inspecting to a higher standard. Inspecting to a higher standard. Rob Hopkin Silver Spring, MD 20902 Monday, June 2, 2014 ProTec Inspection Services Inc. 19736 Selby Ave Poolesville, MD 20837 301-972-8531 www.protec-inspections.com rob@protec-inspections.com

More information

CITY OF WHITE BEAR LAKE BUILDING INSPECTION DEPARTMENT 4701 Highway 61 White Bear Lake, MN 55110 Fax: 651-429-8503. Re-Roofing: Asphalt Shingles

CITY OF WHITE BEAR LAKE BUILDING INSPECTION DEPARTMENT 4701 Highway 61 White Bear Lake, MN 55110 Fax: 651-429-8503. Re-Roofing: Asphalt Shingles CITY OF WHITE BEAR LAKE BUILDING INSPECTION DEPARTMENT 4701 Highway 61 White Bear Lake, MN 55110 Fax: 651-429-8503 Re-Roofing: Asphalt Shingles This is a summary of the standard requirements based on the

More information

Low-cost Construction for High-energy Savings. Brian J. Wimmer Construction Manager Rochester Area Habitat for Humanity

Low-cost Construction for High-energy Savings. Brian J. Wimmer Construction Manager Rochester Area Habitat for Humanity Low-cost Construction for High-energy Savings Brian J. Wimmer Construction Manager Rochester Area Habitat for Humanity construction@rahh.org Objectives: 1. Control air & moisture in high-performance, low-cost

More information

Article. Protecting the Building Envelope from Water Damage. MemBrain Smart Vapor Retarder & Air Barrier Film

Article. Protecting the Building Envelope from Water Damage. MemBrain Smart Vapor Retarder & Air Barrier Film Article Protecting the Building Envelope from Water Damage Vapor Retarders Play a Crucial Role in Moisture Management Whether we like it or not, moisture in the form of water vapor diffusion and humid

More information

Asphalt Shingle Application Requirements

Asphalt Shingle Application Requirements Alberta Allied Roofing Association Asphalt Shingle Application Requirements Section 1 Roof Decks 1.1 General Asphalt Shingles are not permitted to be installed directly over rigid insulation. When Asphalt

More information

INSTALLATION OF A BAY WINDOW

INSTALLATION OF A BAY WINDOW INSTALLATION OF A BAY WINDOW Installation of a Bay Window These instructions relate to the replacement of an existing bay window or replacement of a straight window with a new bay window, in an opening

More information

HomeSpec REPORT SUMMARY

HomeSpec REPORT SUMMARY HomeSpec 04/25/2007 Ms. Rachel Trujeque Re: 13038 West Plum Road Lot #1225 - Peoria, AZ. 85383 - Pre Drywall Inspection Dear Ms. Trujeque, At your request, a visual pre drywall inspection of the above

More information

RESIDENTIAL INSULATED SHEATHING INSTALLATION GUIDE. Residential Insulated Sheathing Installation Guide ROXUL COMFORTBOARD IS

RESIDENTIAL INSULATED SHEATHING INSTALLATION GUIDE. Residential Insulated Sheathing Installation Guide ROXUL COMFORTBOARD IS RESIDENTIAL INSULATED SHEATHING INSTALLATION GUIDE Residential Insulated Sheathing Installation Guide ROXUL COMFORTBOARD IS Table of Contents Slab-on-grade-to Above Grade Wall...1 Foundation Wall at Footing

More information

Most of my work is in exterior remediation, both as a builder. Adhered Concrete Masonry Veneer To avoid water damage, treat faux stone like stucco

Most of my work is in exterior remediation, both as a builder. Adhered Concrete Masonry Veneer To avoid water damage, treat faux stone like stucco Best Practices Stone Veneer Adhered Concrete Masonry Veneer To avoid water damage, treat faux stone like stucco by mark parlee Photos: Mark Parlee Most of my work is in exterior remediation, both as a

More information

Window Sill Details for Effective Drainage of Water

Window Sill Details for Effective Drainage of Water Construction Technology Update No. 76 Window Sill Details for Effective Drainage of Water By M.A. Lacasse and M.M. Armstrong Satisfactory window performance demands a good product and proper installation.

More information

Roofs shall be constructed to ensure the ridge does not sag excessively under normal design conditions in accordance with the Alberta Building Code.

Roofs shall be constructed to ensure the ridge does not sag excessively under normal design conditions in accordance with the Alberta Building Code. 15 Roofing 15.1 Roof ridge has sagged. Roofs shall be constructed to ensure the ridge does not sag excessively under normal design conditions in accordance with the Alberta Building Code. 10 years for

More information

HfHMD uses LP SmartSide siding and trim.

HfHMD uses LP SmartSide siding and trim. HfHMD uses LP SmartSide siding and trim. These products are: More durable than cement fiber board. Much more volunteer-friendly to install. When installed correctly, have a 5/50- year pro-rated warranty.

More information

Frequently Asked Questions LP SmartSide Siding, Trim, and Soffit

Frequently Asked Questions LP SmartSide Siding, Trim, and Soffit Frequently Asked Questions LP SmartSide Siding, Trim, and Soffit 1. Can soffit be used for siding? a. No. The soffit is designed specifically for a protected soffit application whereas siding is designed

More information

Housewrap Errors. By Steve Easley

Housewrap Errors. By Steve Easley Housewrap Errors By Steve Easley There Are Seven Common Mistakes Contractors Make When Installing Housewraps Green building and remodeling programs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s IAQ Plus

More information

Tundra Series Windows January 2016

Tundra Series Windows January 2016 Tundra Series Windows January 2016 New Construction Installation Instructions Nail Fin, J-Fin and Brickmold Aplications product. ATTENTION! Read and understand all installation instructions before installing

More information

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS for Vinyl Windows with Integral Nailing Fin (JII001)

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS for Vinyl Windows with Integral Nailing Fin (JII001) Thank you for selecting JELD-WEN products. Attached are JELD-WEN s recommended installation instructions for Vinyl windows with an integral nailing fin. While the use of these installation instructions

More information

Building Envelope. Moisture Drainage & Ventilation Products from Keene Building Products. www.keenebuilding.com

Building Envelope. Moisture Drainage & Ventilation Products from Keene Building Products. www.keenebuilding.com Building Envelope Moisture Drainage & Ventilation Products from Keene Building Products Driwall Rainscreen CAV-AIR-ATOR KeeneStone Cut KeedeLath Driwall Mortar Deflection Driwall Weep Screed Driwall Membrane

More information

Finegan Inspection Services, Inc.

Finegan Inspection Services, Inc. Finegan Inspection Services, Inc. Report Prepared For: Phone 513-683-0733 Fa 513-697-0163 Owners Property Address City, State, ZIP Phone FAX Owners Realtor Realty Company Phone FAX OWNER INFORMATION PROPERTY

More information

StuccoSpec Moisture Testing Inspection

StuccoSpec Moisture Testing Inspection e-mail - stuccospec@juno.com StuccoSpec Moisture Testing Inspection Property Located At: 265 Elm Street, Anywhere, USA 01/27/02 Ordered by: Mr. & Mrs. John Doe #2 Song Sparrow Place, The Woodlands, T 77381281-364-0012

More information

bout your HOUSE before you start Renovating Your Basement Moisture Problems

bout your HOUSE before you start Renovating Your Basement Moisture Problems A bout your HOUSE before you start Renovating Your Basement Moisture Problems CE 28 c Condensation of cold surfaces, efflorescence Water leak in corner on floor Mold and decay on floor joists and sill

More information

2.18 INTERIOR & EXTERIOR FINISHES 2.18.1 VAPOR & AIR BARRIERS

2.18 INTERIOR & EXTERIOR FINISHES 2.18.1 VAPOR & AIR BARRIERS 2.18 INTERIOR & EXTERIOR FINISHES 2.18.1 VAPOR & AIR BARRIERS The LOGIX wall assembly has no need for an additional vapor barrier, the solid concrete core covered with the low permeance EPS (Type II) foam

More information

Storage Store the siding in a dry and ventilated area. Do not place it directly on the ground. Always cover the siding after a day s work.

Storage Store the siding in a dry and ventilated area. Do not place it directly on the ground. Always cover the siding after a day s work. Installation Guide Before you begin, take the time to read this entire guide to clearly understand the requirements and steps to follow for proper installation. Warning Do not install defective material.

More information

Basements are Changing. Basements Part of the Enclosure. Basements. Energy Efficient, Durable, Healthy. Below grade enclosure

Basements are Changing. Basements Part of the Enclosure. Basements. Energy Efficient, Durable, Healthy. Below grade enclosure Basements are Changing John Straube, Ph.D., P.Eng Basements: New & Retrofit Energy Efficient, Durable, Healthy Increasingly used as living space Not a root /coal cellar anymore! High quality space expected

More information

Presented by: Jennifer Doyle, P.E., RRC, LEED AP

Presented by: Jennifer Doyle, P.E., RRC, LEED AP Presented by: Jennifer Doyle, P.E., RRC, LEED AP Moisture Gas: Molecules are spread out "Vapor" suspended in air forms a mixture, present everywhere Liquid: Molecules are closer Rain Condensation Pipes

More information

Residential Decks. Planning and Development Services Department

Residential Decks. Planning and Development Services Department Building Safety Division 8500 Santa Fe Drive Overland Park, KS 66212 (913) 895-6225 Fax (913) 895-5016 Email: permitservices@opkansas.org Planning and Development Services Department Residential Decks

More information

bout your house before you start Renovating Your Basement Moisture Problems

bout your house before you start Renovating Your Basement Moisture Problems A bout your house CE 28c before you start Renovating Your Basement Moisture Problems Mold and decay on floor joists and sill plates Stuffy air, high humidity, poor air circulation Water draining in from

More information

Case Studies of the Cause and Origin of Fungal Growth in Residential and Commercial Structures

Case Studies of the Cause and Origin of Fungal Growth in Residential and Commercial Structures Case Studies of the Cause and Origin of Fungal Growth in Residential and Commercial Structures Stewart M. Verhulst, M.S., P.E. 1 Erik L. Nelson, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE 2 Deepak Ahuja, M.S., P.E.,M.ASCE 3

More information

Final inspections are completed by site visit only. Access to fenced yards shall be planned.

Final inspections are completed by site visit only. Access to fenced yards shall be planned. ROOFING RESIDENTIAL BUILDING INSPECTIONS DEPARTMENT www.ci.blaine.mn.us This handout is intended only as a guide and is based in part on the 2015 Minnesota State Building Code, Blaine City ordinances,

More information

Home inspectors are not mold inspectors, however they do inspect for defects that

Home inspectors are not mold inspectors, however they do inspect for defects that CONDENSATION IN THE WALLS Home inspectors are not mold inspectors, however they do inspect for defects that can result in mold. Mold grows in wet or damp environments. Defects that result in a wet or damp

More information

What s Wrong with this Project? Report

What s Wrong with this Project? Report NAHB RESEARCH CENTER INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIP FOR HIGH PERFORMING HOMES Task Order Agreement KNDJ-0-40335-01 Deliverable Task 11.3 What s Wrong with this Project? Report Prepared For: Alliance for Sustainable

More information

What you need to know about concrete block basement construction.

What you need to know about concrete block basement construction. Designing and planning your new residence is a vitally important process, which will have a great influence on the future enjoyment of your home. A successful process will ensure all areas of the home

More information

March 14, 2007. Installation of Bay, Bow and Garden Windows

March 14, 2007. Installation of Bay, Bow and Garden Windows March 14, 2007 Re: Installation of Bay, Bow and Garden Windows Attached are the Atrium Companies, Inc recommendation for the installation of bay, bow and garden windows. These instructions were developed

More information

The Ultimate Guide To Protecting Your House From Water In The Basement

The Ultimate Guide To Protecting Your House From Water In The Basement The Ultimate Guide To Protecting Your House From Water In The Basement Table of Contents 3 Causes of Water in the Basement!... 3 Reason Number 1: Poor Grading!... 3 Reason Number 2: Improper Drainage!...

More information

Walls. Add Strength and Water Resistance When Repairing Your. Replace damaged framing members when walls are open

Walls. Add Strength and Water Resistance When Repairing Your. Replace damaged framing members when walls are open Add Strength and Water Resistance When Repairing Your Walls Any home repair or remodeling work you do presents an opportunity to make your home fare better in the next storm. Whether you are just replacing

More information

Basement & Foundation Damage

Basement & Foundation Damage Basement & Foundation Damage Please note-this presentation is only intended to be used as a basic educational tool and is by no means all encompassing. Each property should be treated on a case by case

More information

PermaBase brand Cement Board

PermaBase brand Cement Board PermaBase brand Cement Board Behind Every Great Finish is a Strong Base! PermaBase brand Cement Board A B Ceramic tile s best friend. A. Reinforced edge with EdgeTech technology B. Fiberglass mesh C. Cementitious

More information

Barewood Octagon and Elongated Windows Installation Instructions

Barewood Octagon and Elongated Windows Installation Instructions Step-by-step instructions to a beautiful window. Measuring and Installation of your new window from Century Specialty Windows couldn't be easier with our step-by-step instructions. Quality, function and

More information

This article was originally published in the Proceedings of the 25th Annual RCI Convention and Trade Show.

This article was originally published in the Proceedings of the 25th Annual RCI Convention and Trade Show. This article was originally published in the Proceedings of the 25th Annual RCI Convention and Trade Show. ABSTRACT Commercial building litigation surrounding water- and moisture-related problems has risen

More information

Solving Persistent Moisture Problems and Moisture Damage

Solving Persistent Moisture Problems and Moisture Damage B etter buildings Solving Persistent Moisture Problems and Moisture Damage Summary This three-storey, 15-unit, 1,300 square metre (13,993 sq. ft) walk-up was built in 1958. In the 1980s, the building started

More information

XYZ Corporation. Project Waterproofing Handbook. 23 June 2008. Working Set Rev. 0. Project Address: 8888 Main Street York, PA 88888

XYZ Corporation. Project Waterproofing Handbook. 23 June 2008. Working Set Rev. 0. Project Address: 8888 Main Street York, PA 88888 Arch itectu ral Te sting Inc. XYZ Corporation 23 June 2008 Project Waterproofing Handbook Working Set Rev. 0 Project Address: 8888 Main Street York, PA 88888 Prepared By: Architectural Testing 4 Rancho

More information

Additions and Alterations

Additions and Alterations Additions and Alterations Addition and alteration construction is a miscellaneous grouping of home improvement and renovation projects that are generally geared toward the enhancement of an existing principal

More information

DUPONT TYVEK BUILDING WRAPS VS. ZIP SYSTEM WALL SHEATHING

DUPONT TYVEK BUILDING WRAPS VS. ZIP SYSTEM WALL SHEATHING TECH TALK DUPONT TYVEK BUILDING WRAPS VS. ZIP SYSTEM WALL SHEATHING DuPont offers six different DuPont Tyvek building wraps intended for use on a wide range of buildings from single family homes to high

More information

NCMA TEK CONCRETE MASONRY FOUNDATION WALL DETAILS. TEK 5-3A Details (2003)

NCMA TEK CONCRETE MASONRY FOUNDATION WALL DETAILS. TEK 5-3A Details (2003) NCMA TEK National Concrete Masonry Association an information series from the national authority on concrete masonry technology CONCRETE MASONRY FOUNDATION WALL DETAILS TEK 5-3A Details (2003) Keywords:

More information

Waterproofing and interior insulation for basements takes new twist in technology.

Waterproofing and interior insulation for basements takes new twist in technology. Waterproofing and interior insulation for basements takes new twist in technology. Free report reveals how to stop all call backs for basements for the life of the structure by installing these 3 low cost

More information

The Case for Cross Laminated Timber: Part 2

The Case for Cross Laminated Timber: Part 2 Learning Objectives The Case for Cross Laminated Timber: Part 2 Opportunities and Challenges for a New Class of Timber Product 1. Review answers to common questions regarding the design and construction

More information

Self-Home Inspection Checklist

Self-Home Inspection Checklist To be used as a first home visit for note taking. Visit www.homeinspectiondirect.com for more tips and information about buying a home and hiring a home inspector. This form in no way replaces a professional

More information

Mark Cramer Inspection Services, Inc.

Mark Cramer Inspection Services, Inc. Mark Cramer Inspection Services, Inc. 492 Twentieth Avenue, Indian Rocks Beach, FL 34635-2970 (727) 595-4211 Fax (727) 596-7583 Certified Member #12085 American Society of Home Inspectors Construction

More information

Water Vapor Permeance of Wood Structural Panels and Wood Wall Construction

Water Vapor Permeance of Wood Structural Panels and Wood Wall Construction T e c h n i c a l n o t e Water Vapor Permeance of Wood Structural Panels and Wood Wall Construction Number J450 February 2009 Controlling against moisture damage in structures depends upon proper system

More information

March 19, 2014. Ms. Jean McDonald CAP Management 910 16th Street, Suite 1010 Denver, Colorado 80202

March 19, 2014. Ms. Jean McDonald CAP Management 910 16th Street, Suite 1010 Denver, Colorado 80202 Ms. Jean McDonald CAP Management 910 16th Street, Suite 1010 Denver, Colorado 80202 Re: Prospector s Point Walkway/Façade Repairs Martin/Martin, Inc Project No.: 13.0358.S.02 Ms. McDonald: Per your request

More information

Envelope INSULATION BATT (2) Avoid Using Batt Insulation With Metal Framing. Pressure or Friction Fit

Envelope INSULATION BATT (2) Avoid Using Batt Insulation With Metal Framing. Pressure or Friction Fit R-H-DI1 INSULATION BATT NR-E-IB1 Avoid Using Batt Insulation With Metal Framing Batt insulation should not be used with metal framing systems. Although it is common to see fiberglass batt insulation installed

More information

WET/DAMP BASEMENTS ANSWER: BASEMENT WALLS AND FLOORS CAN BECOME WET BY A LEAK, CAPILLARY SUCTION OR CONDENSATION.

WET/DAMP BASEMENTS ANSWER: BASEMENT WALLS AND FLOORS CAN BECOME WET BY A LEAK, CAPILLARY SUCTION OR CONDENSATION. WET/DAMP BASEMENTS PROBLEM. IS THIS BASEMENT LEAKING OR COULD WE HAVE ANOTHER PROBLEM? Water line arching up on wall in corners of basement. Water collecting on concrete floor starting in corners. ANSWER:

More information

Roof Inspection. Summary Report

Roof Inspection. Summary Report www.real-estate-inspections.com Roof Inspection Summary Report Subject Property Prepared for: File Number: Client in Detroit 05-15-RF-004 Inspector: Craig Milliken, PE # 32779 CPM Real Estate Inspections,

More information

CONSERVATION MAINTENANCE WORKSHEET Universal Checklist

CONSERVATION MAINTENANCE WORKSHEET Universal Checklist 3.1 SITE 1 Concrete curbs Check for cracks, spalling, growth from joints X 2 Stone curbs Check for cracks, spalling, growth from joints X 3 Concrete walkways Look for uneven surfaces, ponding, growth from

More information

September 3, 2009. Ric Boyd, Public Works Director Ketchikan Gateway Borough 344 Front St. Ketchikan, AK 99901

September 3, 2009. Ric Boyd, Public Works Director Ketchikan Gateway Borough 344 Front St. Ketchikan, AK 99901 September 3, 2009 Ric Boyd, Public Works Director Ketchikan Gateway Borough 344 Front St. Ketchikan, AK 99901 RE: Ketchikan Gateway Borough Gateway Recreation Center Roof Observations and Intrusive Inspections

More information

VA25014B0516 VA CINCINNATI PROJECT NO. 539-328 INPATIENT BED TOWER ADDITION (4 TH AND 5 TH FLOORS) SECTION 09 29 00 GYPSUM BOARD

VA25014B0516 VA CINCINNATI PROJECT NO. 539-328 INPATIENT BED TOWER ADDITION (4 TH AND 5 TH FLOORS) SECTION 09 29 00 GYPSUM BOARD SECTION 09 29 00 GYPSUM BOARD PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 DESCRIPTION This section specifies installation and finishing of gypsum board, vapor retarder and air and moisture barrrier. 1.2 RELATED WORK A. Installation

More information

Preventing Ice Dams on Roofs

Preventing Ice Dams on Roofs Preventing Ice Dams on Roofs Facility Manager November/December 2005 When a roof leaks, facility managers inevitably receive complaints from building occupants. If it is winter, ice dams are often the

More information

www.citiesinspection.com October 5, 2015 Dear Client,

www.citiesinspection.com October 5, 2015 Dear Client, www.citiesinspection.com October 5, 2015 Dear Client, On 9/14/2015, Cities Inspection Service, Inc. completed a building inspection of the property located at 123 Oak Street, Someplace, Minnesota for you.

More information

Controlling Condensation in Steep Slope Metal Roofing Systems

Controlling Condensation in Steep Slope Metal Roofing Systems Completion Date August, 2007 Controlling Condensation in Steep Slope Metal Roofing Systems Introduction Water is the most common cause of rot and corrosion within buildings. Moisture inside a building

More information

Molds and mildew are fungi that grow

Molds and mildew are fungi that grow Appendix C: Moisture, Mold and Mildew Molds and mildew are fungi that grow on the surfaces of objects, within pores, and in deteriorated materials. They can cause discoloration and odor problems, deteriorate

More information

312-720-1467 WickRight.com

312-720-1467 WickRight.com TM 312-720-1467 WickRight.com Helping Buildings Breathe Right Since 2012 WICKRIGHT VAPOR RELEASE SYSTEMS Fall 2015 2014 Newsletter WICKRIGHT PROTECTS BUILDINGS FROM WATER DAMAGE & MOLD WickRight Vapor

More information

Building Condition Assessment Report

Building Condition Assessment Report Building Condition Assessment Report Asset C3c - Oak Terrace Cottage 121 Address Riverview Lands, 2601 Lougheed Highway, Coquitlam, BC. V5C 4J2 Construction Year Size (Gross Floor Area) 1920. 2,553 Sq.Ft.

More information

Flood-Damage Resistive Residential Envelope Systems. Ed Laatsch,, FEMA Robert Wendt, ORNL

Flood-Damage Resistive Residential Envelope Systems. Ed Laatsch,, FEMA Robert Wendt, ORNL Flood-Damage Resistive Residential Envelope Systems Ed Laatsch,, FEMA Robert Wendt, ORNL Floods have been a way of life in the U.S. (FEMA News Photo) They strike throughout the country - CA to FL, ND to

More information

ROOFING. Community Development Department Building Division 952-939-8394 eminnetonka.com

ROOFING. Community Development Department Building Division 952-939-8394 eminnetonka.com ROOFING Community Development Department Building Division 952-939-8394 eminnetonka.com This handout is intended only as a guide and is based in part on the 2007 Minnesota State Building Code and good

More information

1/9/2013. Terminology Calculating Heat Transfer Code Requirements Design Examples and Sustainability

1/9/2013. Terminology Calculating Heat Transfer Code Requirements Design Examples and Sustainability 1/9/13 By Brett T. Fagan, P.E. Presented by Marie Horan, P.E. Building Diagnostics, Inc. Building Diagnostics Terminology Calculating Heat Transfer Code Requirements Design Examples and Sustainability

More information

Basement Insulation Systems

Basement Insulation Systems Basement Insulation Systems The Problem Meeting Energy Star levels of performance is one of the criteria for constructing homes to Building America levels of performance levels defined by the Building

More information

Inspection Item COMMENTS

Inspection Item COMMENTS APPENDIX 9 AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM INSPECTION CHECKLIST Participating Jurisdiction: Homeowner Name: Assisted Property Address: Date of Physical Inspection of Property: Total Square Footage of Property:

More information

Window Installation Instructions

Window Installation Instructions Caution The correct installation methods of windows in full frame or insert applications is critical towards achieving the tested performance of the window and longterm enjoyment and energy savings for

More information

DuPont Tyvek ThermaWrap R5.0 Installation Guidelines for New Construction Using Vinyl, Brick and Stone Claddings

DuPont Tyvek ThermaWrap R5.0 Installation Guidelines for New Construction Using Vinyl, Brick and Stone Claddings Tyvek ThermaWrap R5.0 Installation Guidelines for New Construction Using Vinyl, Brick and Stone Claddings VERSION 1/16 FOR SINGLE FAMILY HOMES AND LOW RISE MULTI-FAMILY BUILDINGS LESS THAN 4 STORIES Tyvek

More information

CLIENT. Inspection Report. 271 Front St. Alert Bay, B.C. Island Building Inspections V ANCOUVER I SLAND B. C.

CLIENT. Inspection Report. 271 Front St. Alert Bay, B.C. Island Building Inspections V ANCOUVER I SLAND B. C. CLIENT Inspection Report 271 Front St. Alert Bay, B.C. Island Building Inspections 2013 V ANCOUVER I SLAND B. C. Elevation Photos For the Property at 271 Front Street Alert Bay, BC ELEVATION PICTURES Front

More information

Assessing Structural Damages

Assessing Structural Damages Assessing Structural Damages Please note-this presentation is only intended to be used as a basic educational tool and is by no means all encompassing. Each property should be treated on a case by case

More information

R E S I D E N T I A L H O U S I N G

R E S I D E N T I A L H O U S I N G HL 252 Rev. April 1997 R E S I D E N T I A L H O U S I N G CONTROLLING EXTERNALWATER PROBLEMS FOR RESIDENCES I II III IV V Lot Drainage Gutter Water Management Foundation Waterproofing Floor Slab Waterproofing

More information

RESIDENTIAL MASONRY A BEST PRACTICES GUIDE

RESIDENTIAL MASONRY A BEST PRACTICES GUIDE RESIDENTIAL MASONRY A BEST PRACTICES GUIDE Build With Brick Build With Boral CONTENTS BRICK :01 MASONRY CEMENT :03 MASONRY SAND :04 WALL TIES :05 STEEL LINTELS :07 DRAINAGE WALL SYSTEM :09 FLASHING :11

More information

Below are some pictures of various types of water damage.

Below are some pictures of various types of water damage. Having inspected about 800 homes in the last four years, I have seen a lot of problems with many homes. Most of these problems are minor; however, there are some problems that are quite serious. One of

More information

Stucco Moisture Inspection Report

Stucco Moisture Inspection Report Stucco Moisture Inspection Report For the Property Located At: Sample Inspection St. Report Prepared Ecusively For: Potential Buyer Pace FL. 32571 >< 850.393.6106 >< ofc- 850-941-8600 > Email: pat@moistureconsultantsinc.com

More information

WELCOME. Recommended Window Installation. 1.5 credits Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry

WELCOME. Recommended Window Installation. 1.5 credits Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry WELCOME Recommended Window 1.5 credits Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry In accordance with the Department of Labor and Industry s statute 326.0981, Subd. 11, This educational offering is recognized

More information

Sample Drawing Package for One and Two Family Dwelling Applications

Sample Drawing Package for One and Two Family Dwelling Applications Sample Drawing Package for One and Two Family Dwelling Applications For a full list of submission requirements, refer to the relevant checklist for your application found on our website: http://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/application-forms-and-checklists.aspx

More information

RDH Building Sciences Inc.

RDH Building Sciences Inc. MAK LTR 2007 03 26 Proposal for Building Enclosure Consulting Services RDH Building Sciences Inc. 509 FAIRVIEW AVENUE N SEATTLE WA 98109-5507 TEL 206 324 2272 FAX 206 324 6339 SEA@RDHBE.COM WWW.RDHBE.COM

More information