2 Handbook of Positive Psychology in Schools Second Edition Understanding the factors that encourage young people to become active agents in their own learning is critical. Positive psychology is one lens that can be used to investigate the factors that facilitate a student s sense of agency and active school engagement. In the second edition of this groundbreaking handbook, the editors draw together the latest work on the field, identifying major issues and providing a wealth of descriptive knowledge from renowned contributors. Major topics include: the ways that positive emotions, traits, and institutions promote school achievement and healthy social and emotional development; how specific positive-psychological constructs relate to students and schools and support the delivery of school-based services; and the application of positive psychology to educational policy making. With thirteen new chapters, this edition provides a long-needed centerpiece around which the field can continue to grow, incorporating a new focus on international applications of the field. Michael J. Furlong is a professor in the Department of Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Rich Gilman is in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, and Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Cincinnati Medical School, US. E. Scott Huebner is Professor in the School Psychology Program in the Department of Psychology at the University of South Carolina.
3 Educational Psychology Handbook Series Series Editor: Patricia A. Alexander International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change, Second Edition Edited by Stella Vosniadou The International Guide to Student Achievement Edited by John Hattie, Eric M. Anderman The International Handbook of Collaborative Learning Edited by Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver, Clark A. Chinn, Carol Chan, and Angela M. O Donnell Handbook of Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance Edited by Barry J. Zimmerman, Dale H. Schunk Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction Edited by Patricia A. Alexander, Richard E. Mayer Handbook of Motivation at School Edited by Kathryn Wentzel, Allan Wigfield International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change Edited by Stella Vosniadou Handbook of Moral and Character Education Edited by Larry P. Nucci, Darcia Narvaez Handbook of Positive Psychology in Schools, Second Edition Edited by Michael J. Furlong, Rich Gilman, and E. Scott Huebner Handbook of Emotions and Education Edited by Reinhard Pekrun and Lisa Linnenbrink-Garcia
4 Handbook of Positive Psychology in Schools Second Edition Edited by Michael J. Furlong, Rich Gilman, and E. Scott Huebner
5 Second edition published 2014 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY and by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business 2014 Taylor & Francis The right of the editors to be identified as the authors of the editorial material, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice : Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. First edition published in 2009 by Routledge Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Handbook of positive psychology in schools / [edited by] Michael J. Furlong, Richard Gilman, E. Scott Huebner. Second edition. pages cm. (Educational psychology handbook series) Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. School psychology Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Positive psychology Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Furlong, Michael J., 1951-editor of compilation. II. Gilman, Rich, 1968-editor of compilation. III. Huebner, Eugene Scott, 1953-editor of compilation. LB H dc ISBN: (hbk) ISBN: (pbk) ISBN: (ebk) Typeset in Minion by Apex CoVantage, LLC
6 CONTENTS Section I CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS 1 Chapter 1 Toward a Science and Practice of Positive Psychology in Schools: A Conceptual Framework 3 RICH GILMAN, E. SCOTT HUEBNER, AND MICHAEL J. FURLONG Chapter 2 Covitality: A Synergistic Conception of Adolescents Mental Health 12 TYLER L. RENSHAW, MICHAEL J. FURLONG, ERIN DOWDY, JENNICA REBELEZ, DOUGLAS C. SMITH, MEAGAN D. O MALLEY, SEUNG-YEON LEE, AND IDA FRUGÅRD STRØM Section II INDIVIDUAL POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY ASSETS 33 Chapter 3 Measuring and Promoting Hope in Schoolchildren 35 SUSANA C. MARQUES, SHANE J. LOPEZ, SAGE ROSE, AND CECIL ROBINSON Chapter 4 Optimism: What It Is and Its Relevance in the School Context 51 PETER BOMAN AND AMANDA MERGLER Chapter 5 Gratitude in School: Benefits to Students and Schools 67 GIACOMO BONO, JEFFREY J. FROH, AND RAFAEL FORRETT Chapter 6 Empathy, Prosocial Behavior, and Positive Development in Schools 82 TRACY L. SPINRAD AND NANCY EISENBERG Chapter 7 Emotion Regulation: Implications for Positive Youth Development 99 MAUREEN BUCKLEY AND CAROLYN SAARNI
7 vi Contents Chapter 8 Academic Self-Efficacy 115 DALE H. SCHUNK AND MARIA K. DIBENEDETTO Chapter 9 Promoting Positive Motivational Goals for Students 131 LYNLEY H. ANDERMAN AND STEPHANIE LEVITT Chapter 10 Achievement Emotions 146 REINHARD PEKRUN Chapter 11 Creativity in the Schools: Renewed Interest and Promising New Directions 165 JAMES C. KAUFMAN AND RONALD A. BEGHETTO Chapter 12 Student Engagement 176 JILL D. SHARKEY, MATTHEW QUIRK, AND ASHLEY M. MAYWORM Chapter 13 Life Satisfaction and Schooling 192 E. SCOTT HUEBNER, KIMBERLY J. HILLS, JAMES SIDDALL, AND RICH GILMAN Section III Chapter 14 CONTEXTUAL EDUCATIONAL FACTORS AND RESOURCES 209 Flow in Schools Revisited: Cultivating Engaged Learners and Optimal Learning Environments 211 DAVID J. SHERNOFF, BEHESHTEH ABDI, BRETT ANDERSON, AND MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI Chapter 15 Meaningful Activity Participation and Positive Youth Development 227 BONNIE L. BARBER, BREE D. ABBOTT, COREY J. BLOMFIELD NEIRA, AND JACQUELYNNE S. ECCLES Chapter 16 Cultivating Mindfulness in Students 245 TYLER L. RENSHAW AND MEAGAN D. O MALLEY Chapter 17 Peer Relationships and Positive Adjustment at School 260 KATHRYN WENTZEL, SHANNON RUSSELL, AND SANDRA BAKER Chapter 18 ClassMaps Consultation: Integrating Evaluation Into Classrooms to Promote Positive Environments 278 BETH DOLL, ROBERT A. SPIES, ANNE E. THOMAS, JONATHON D. SIKORSKI, MINDY R. CHADWELL, BROOKE A. CHAPLA, AND ERIKA R. FRANTA
8 Contents vii Chapter 19 Building Resilience in Schools Through Social and Emotional Learning 298 OANH K. TRAN, BARBARA A. GUELDNER, AND DOUGLAS SMITH Chapter 20 School Climate: Definition, Measurement, and Application 313 KEITH J. ZULLIG AND MOLLY R. MATTHEWS-EWALD Chapter 21 Engaging Students in School Climate Improvement: A Student Voice Strategy 329 MEAGAN O MALLEY, ADAM VOIGHT, AND JO ANN IZU Chapter 22 Positive Psychology and School Discipline 347 GEORGE G. BEAR AND MAUREEN A. MANNING Chapter 23 Chapter 24 Understanding and Promoting School Satisfaction in Children and Adolescents 365 SHANNON M. SULDO, LISA P. BATEMAN, AND CHERYL D. GELLEY Innovative Models of Dissemination for School-Based Interventions That Promote Youth Resilience and Well-Being 381 AMY KRANZLER, LAUREN J. HOFFMAN, ACACIA C. PARKS, AND JANE E. GILHAM Section IV SCHOOL-BASED INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES 399 Chapter 25 Positive Education: An Australian Perspective 401 SUZY GREEN Chapter 26 Enhancing Well-Being in Youth: Positive Psychology Interventions for Education in Britain 416 CARMEL PROCTOR Chapter 27 Applications of Positive Psychology to Schools in China 433 LILI TIAN, ZHAORONG LI, HUAN CHEN, MENGMENG HAN, DUSHEN WANG, SIYUAN HUANG, AND XIAOTING ZHENG Chapter 28 Emotional Intelligence: School-Based Research and Practice in Italy 450 ANNAMARIA DI FABIO, MAUREEN E. KENNY, AND KELLY A. MINOR Chapter 29 Hope in Students: Theory, Measures, and Applications to Portuguese Schools 465 SUSANA C. MARQUES AND SHANE J. LOPEZ
9 viii Contents Chapter 30 Positive Psychological Interventions in U.S. Schools: A Public Health Approach to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems 478 DAVID N. MILLER, AMANDA B. NICKERSON, AND SHANE R. JIMERSON Section V PERSPECTIVE 495 Chapter 31 Positive Psychology in Schools: Good Ideas Are Never Enough 497 COLLIE W. CONOLEY, JANE C. CONOLEY, KATHRYN Z. SPAVENTA-VANCIL, AND ANNA N. LEE Index 507
10 Section I Conceptual Foundations
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12 1 TOWARD A SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY IN SCHOOLS A Conceptual Framework Rich Gilman, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati Medical School, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA E. Scott Huebner, Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA Michael J. Furlong, Department of Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, USA Corresponding author: Rich Gilman, Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH Phone: (513) INTRODUCTION There is much agreement that positive youth development takes place in families, peer groups, and out-home contexts, such as schools (Gilman, Huebner, & Buckman, 2008). Nevertheless, investigations of factors that contribute to optimal school experiences in youth have traditionally lagged behind scholarship examining the other two contexts. Research has shown that from the earliest ages, the quality of school experiences plays a 3
13 4 Gilman, Huebner, and Furlong contributory role in key developmental and learning milestones such as motivation (van Grinsven & Tillema, 2006), identity development (e.g., Gonzalez, 2009), health outcomes (Forrest, Bevans, Riley, Crespo, & Louis, 2013), and overall academic success (Cohen, McCabe, Michelli, & Pickeral 2009). Further, the quality of experiences during the formative school years dictates, in part, the choices students make as adults. For example, longitudinal studies find that students who report more positive school experiences also report higher levels of mental and physical health as young adults (Reynolds & Ou, 2010; Wickrama & Vazsonyi, 2011), are less likely to engage in risk behaviors such as alcohol use (Locke & Newcomb, 2004), and report that they were better prepared for their future (Lapan, Gysbers, & Sun, 1997). The limited perspective on factors that contribute to optimal school experiences can be explained, in part, by prevailing legislative mandates, proposals, and training models that often dictate problem-focused approaches (i.e., fixing what is broken) rather than emphasizing practices that seek to advance positive health and/or educational agenda (Froh, Huebner, Youssef, & Conte, 2011; Knoop, 2011; Kristjánsson, 2012). Even a cursory examination of the education literature over the past decade reveals that studies investigating pathology-based constructs such as anxiety, depression, mental illness, and problem behaviors outnumber studies investigating assets such as self-esteem, school satisfaction, hope, and personal values (by a factor of 4:1). This skewed ratio is not specific to education, however. Various literature reviews find that for every article examining positive constructs, far more attention is devoted to studies that explore what goes wrong in humans, such as psychological, physical, and educational disorders (Lopez et al., 2006; Myers, 2000). Such overemphasis presumes that repairing or restoring factors that contribute to psychological distress automatically progresses to optimal development. This presumption has repeatedly been called into question. For example, studies among adults demonstrate that correlates of life quality are distinct from those that contribute to psychopathology (e.g., Fredrickson & Losada, 2005; Keyes, 2005). Thus, the absence of psychopathological symptoms is not necessarily concordant with optimal functioning (e.g., Keyes & Westerhof, 2012). Collectively, these findings provide empirical support to longstanding conceptualizations that mental health is more than the absence of problems, distress, and disease (Jahoda, 1958; World Health Organization, 1948) and emphasize the need to understand factors that contribute to well-being in addition to factors that contribute to ill-being. In reaction to the overemphasis on research and practice related to weakness and problems, positive psychology has gained prominence over the last 15 years (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Sheldon & King, 2001; Snyder & McCullough, 2000). As a general definition, positive psychology... is the scientific study of what goes right in life, from birth to death and all stops in between... and takes seriously those things in life that make life most worth living (Peterson, 2006, p. 4). The phrase scientific study is highlighted here to distinguish it from highly influential theories in which principles such as strengths, character, and values are underlined conditions to a life well lived (see Simonton, 2011, for a review). By incorporating rigorous scientific methods into both correlational and experimental designs, positive psychology serves as a lens to empirically
14 Science and Practice of Positive Psychology 5 examine presumed causes and correlates of optimal human functioning. Further, prior to emerging as a general movement, most efforts to examine positive psychology constructs were conducted in isolation and within disciplines (e.g., counseling psychology, theology, economics), thus hindering knowledge and insights that would contribute to a collective understanding of human strengths and capacities. Positive psychology has served as an important focal point for like-minded researchers and has connected heretofore islands of scholarship that have led to important and provocative findings (Ingram & Snyder, 2006; King, 2011). Although not exclusive, most of these studies have been based on adult or gerontological samples. However, efforts have been made over the past 20 years to examine the good life in children for at least two reasons. First, similar to what has been reported in adults, mental illness and mental health are distinct (although not orthogonal) constructs in youth. For example, among a sample of middle school students, Keyes (2006) reported that a significant number of youth reported low levels of psychological distress but also low psychological well-being. Nonetheless, based on most standardized self-report measures used in schools, which often focus on assessing psychological distress, these students would appear psychologically healthy even though their well-being reports would indicate otherwise (see Suldo & Shaffer, 2008, for similar findings). Second, a study of factors that contribute to optimal functioning has intuitive appeal to many stakeholders most notably to parents. Indeed, the foremost goal of most parents is not to prevent psychopathology but to instill and promote skills and values that contribute to a productive life. To this end, research has shown that numerous psychological, social, and academic benefits are afforded to those individuals who maintain incrementally higher levels of well-being (e.g., Gilman & Huebner, 2006; Haranin, Huebner, & Suldo, 2007). An understanding of the presumed correlates associated with positive psychological constructs would contribute meaningful information toward interventions that enhance optimal functioning among youth having suboptimal levels. A growing literature base has continued to add to the nomothetic understanding of developmental pathways to optimal functioning in children (see Huebner, Gilman, & Ma, 2011, for a recent review). Positive psychology in youth has been studied in primary prevention (Madden, Green, & Grant, 2011), health disparities (Vera & Shin, 2006), positive youth development (Lerner, Phelps, Forman, & Bowers, 2009), and resilience research (Noble & McGrath, 2012). Other areas have been lacking. Schools, for example, constitute an important and fertile environment in which positive attributes, psychological assets, and character strengths can be developed and maintained. The first edition of this handbook was the first to provide a synthesis of positive psychology theory, application, and research findings within the context of schooling and school-related experiences. Nevertheless, since the publication of the handbook, more than 200 studies have been published that have greatly expanded how positive psychology can be applied to this important setting. The purpose of this revised handbook, undertaken in a relatively short time since its initial release, reflects that speed in which school-based research has rapidly emerged, both in the United States and internationally.
15 6 Gilman, Huebner, and Furlong CONCEPTUAL MODEL It has been noted elsewhere that the positive psychology movement has grown so rapidly that guiding, conceptual frameworks have been elusive (Csikszentmihalyi, 2003). Although some efforts have been made to address this concern within specific positive psychology constructs (e.g., Lent et al., 2005; Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005), concerns regarding a lack of conceptual positive psychology framework that encompasses both individual and contextual factors remain (Schueller, 2009). Such concerns are not reserved to adult samples, however. In our first edition, we introduced a conceptual model within an ecological perspective, reflecting the notion that children live within interlocking systems, all of which are essential to their psychological, social, and educational development. The model itself was based on the work of both Bronfenbrenner s (1979) Ecological Systems Theory and Belsky s (1980) inclusion of ontogenic (i.e., intraindividual) variables. The model also is adapted from Schalock and Alonso s (2002) integrative model of quality of life. These ecological systems are identified in the columns in Figure 1.1. The ontogenic system includes individual differences in aspects such as self-esteem, while the microsystem consists of immediate settings, such as home, peer group, and school, which can influence and be influenced by these ontogenic factors. The mesosystem and its extension, the exosystem, refer to more distal contextual factors, such as the neighborhood, community services, organizations, and interactions between microsystem variables (e.g., parent school interactions). Finally, the macrosystem refers to the institutional patterns of the culture or subculture (e.g., economic, social, educational, legal, and political systems) that influence the other subsystems. The positive psychology constructs, which involve individual personal strengths of interest (i.e., physical, cognitive, or social-emotional), are listed along the vertical axis, that is, down the left side of the matrix in Figure 1.1. It is noted that the model itself is Figure 1.1 Children s positive psychology research summary matrix conceptual framework.
16 Science and Practice of Positive Psychology 7 intended to be quite flexible and can accommodate yet unexplored positive psychology constructs. Key correlates of individual differences in the positive psychology variables, some of which have strong, empirical merit others less so can be listed within each cell (some examples are provided). In this manner, the extant literature can be summarized, potentially indicating areas that need further investigation. For example, recent studies examining correlates associated with optimal school satisfaction have focused primarily on ontogenic and microsystem levels. There remains a paucity of research at the mesosystem and macrosystem levels (e.g., Gilman & Huebner, 2006; Siddall, Huebner, & Jiang, 2013). Similar listings might be developed for these higher-level systems or for additional positive psychology ontogenic constructs such as hope, optimism, school connectedness, healthy physical activity, and so forth. The third dimension of the positive psychology matrix reflects three types of research in child-focused positive psychology: measurement, basic science, and applied research. The measurement domain includes research related to the development of psychometrically sound measures of positive psychology constructs for children and youth (e.g., developmentally appropriate measures of life satisfaction, hope, social self-efficacy). The basic research domain includes studies of the development, correlates, and consequences of positive psychological attributes of individuals. Finally, the applied research domain refers to studies of planned and unplanned interventions related to positive psychology constructs (e.g., Suldo, Savage, & Mercer, 2013) or studies of the effects of residential treatment programs on life satisfaction of youth clients (Gilman & Handwerk, 2001). Taken together, this 4 (system) 3 (social-emotional, cognitive, or physical) 3 (type of research) matrix provides a conceptual framework that may be useful in organizing, synthesizing, and communicating the results of positive psychology research with children in the context of schools. Although not reflected in the conceptual scheme in Figure 1.1, we recognize that positive psychology research must consider developmental factors. The specific attributes and processes that define wellness may vary as a function of age group. As a simple example, same-gender peer relationships may be a critical indicator for preadolescents, whereas opposite-gender relationships may assume more prominence for adolescents (Gilligan & Huebner, 2007). Additionally, the nature of determinants and indicators may become more complex as children mature (Gonzales, Casas, & Coenders, 2006). The relative strength of the determinants may fluctuate across time as well. For example, Suldo and Huebner (2004) found that the strength of the relation between parental emotional support and life satisfaction declined across adolescence. Thus, a comprehensive framework of positive psychology research will have to incorporate developmental considerations to capture the changing nature and determinants of well-being in children and adolescents. In the time since its publication in the first edition of this handbook, this model has been used as a guidepost for positive psychology as applied to youth in school settings. For example, Froh and colleagues (2011) used portions of the model to summarize the relative frequencies of positive psychology topics in four selected school psychology journals during the years from 1963 through Their content analysis revealed several interesting findings. For example, they were able to identify relatively well-studied positive psychology topics (e.g., competency, self-concept) as well as relatively neglected topics (e.g., optimism, purpose). For another example, they found that 61% of the studies
17 8 Gilman, Huebner, and Furlong focused on measurement, 22% on intervention, and 5% on basic science. Furthermore, the percentages of articles incorporating positive psychology topics remained relatively consistent (25 33% range) over the approximately 50-year period. Froh and colleagues concluded that positive psychology was alive and well in school psychology, but they also recommended further research attention should be devoted to the (a) basic science foundations underlying applications of positive psychology and (b) relatively new positive psychology constructs (e.g., VIA strengths, purpose, life satisfaction). Future such analyses using the conceptual model may be informative in evaluating the scope and progress of positive psychology research. Given the growing international influence of positive psychology, international comparisons of child-focused (and adult-focused) positive psychology research may be of interest as well. Two brief notes of caution should be highlighted before concluding. First, the proposed matrix does not provide a dimension that allows for the distinction between determinants and consequences of individual differences in the particular positive psychology attribute. Although some relations may be transactional in nature, some may not. For example, Martin, Huebner, and Valois (2008) found that individual differences in adolescents life satisfaction significantly predicted subsequent experiences of relational victimization by peers, whereas individual differences in relational victimization did not significantly predict subsequent levels of life satisfaction. These findings suggest that a low level of life satisfaction in adolescents is possibly a causal factor rather than a consequence of relational victimization experiences. Second, although the matrix provides a possible heuristic tool to organize and synthesize the developing body of positive psychology knowledge for children and youth in school settings, it is not intended to explain the origins and development of individual differences in these constructs. A full picture of wellness in children will need to capture the interactions among the personal and environmental variables, taking into account gender, culture, and developmental considerations. This will not be an easy task, but efforts will likely be needed to model the trajectories of children s development across time and settings. The development of a sophisticated science of what works for children and youth within the context of their schooling is underway, but much work remains to be completed. CONCLUSION Although remaining in its emergent stage, positive psychology continues to gain traction in children and youth, especially as it pertains to school settings. Nevertheless, as we noted in the first edition, additional areas are in need of attention as these efforts move forward. For example, the development of age-appropriate, psychometrically sound measures of positive psychology constructs for children and youth lags far behind measures that assess psychopathology. America s schools have been criticized for focusing disproportionately on identifying and remediating students weaknesses while neglecting the identification and nurturing of their strengths (Gordon & Crabtree, 2006), resulting in the failure to maximize student potential. The ongoing development of measures of the key positive psychology strengths that could be included in the proposed matrix could contribute to more comprehensive evaluations of student and school outcomes by
18 Science and Practice of Positive Psychology 9 assessing the entire spectrum of mental health and social and educational functioning, as suggested by Renshaw and colleagues (2014) in Chapter 2 of this handbook. Such evaluations may contribute important information toward developing educational programs that nurture strengths rather than simply identify problems. Further, much work remains to be done in terms of basic and applied scientific studies of the development of and interventions designed to heighten positive psychology indicators. Although research has advanced the understanding of the nature and correlates of many positive psychology constructs, the extension of this research to diverse youth populations including those who reside outside of the United Stated is scant. One major addition to this new edition is how youth-based positive psychology constructs have been studied and advanced in a number of countries. Nevertheless, the distribution of effort is not uniform; for studies that have illuminated relations with respect to one positive construct, many others have received less attention. Critical questions regarding basic science research in many unexplored areas of positive psychology will likely propel the movement for some time. Finally, in spite of the advances in defining and exploring relations, empirically validated programs to promote positive psychology constructs are rare. Although there are some noteworthy contributions, many of which are discussed in this new edition of the handbook, school-based programs, more often than not, focus on preventing pathology rather than building health, a point noted more than two decades ago (Cowen, 1991). Additional efforts are necessary not only to promote positive constructs in students but also to examine how such promotion moderates negative outcomes such as distress and poor academic functioning. These efforts are necessary to demonstrate the important, practical applications of positive psychology to address the learning, social, and intrapersonal struggles of many students. Our hope is that this revised handbook will serve as an important resource for those interested in positive psychology as currently understood. A second and equally important hope is that the book will serve to stimulate additional research on basic science foundations, measurement issues, developmental considerations, and associated interventions across established and emerging areas of positive psychology as applied to youth in school settings. Collectively, such efforts might stimulate alternative and balanced perspectives for legislative bodies, funding sources, and school stakeholders to consider in the shared goal of creating conditions that advance optimal youth and learning development. REFERENCES Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35, doi: / X Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, doi: / x Cohen, J., McCabe, E. M., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, practice, and teacher education. Teacher s College Record, 111, Cowen, E. L. (1991). In pursuit of wellness. American Psychologist, 46, doi: / x Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2003). Legs or wings? A reply to R. S. Lazarus. Psychological Inquiry, 14, Forrest, C. B., Bevans, K. B., Riley, A. W., Crespo, R., & Louis, T. A. (2013). Health and school outcomes during children s transition into adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, doi: /j. jadohealth
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