1 Preparing Students to Surf the Silver Tsunami Through Collaborative Practice: Introducing Interprofessional Student Healthcare Teams in a Longitudinal Senior Mentoring Program Lisa Tshuma, PA-C, MPAS, MPA Sarah Ross, DO, MS This presentation supported by the Reynolds IGET IT Program, the Division of Geriatrics - Department of Internal Medicine and the Department of Physician Assistant Studies
2 About Us We LOVE older people! Clinically, we care for folks >65 years wise. Our research projects involve people >50 years wise. Our favorite group are the Spanish-speaking super seniors (>85). We believe Geriatrics is the field of the future.
3 Session Objectives At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to: 1. Define interprofessional education (IPE) 2. Describe the role of IPE in preparing physician assistant students to practice collaboratively and surf the silver tsunami 3. Understand how physician assistant competencies are addressed through an interprofessional senior mentoring program 4. Take home best practices that will facilitate interprofessional and geriatric training
4 The Effectiveness of Teams There is a growing body of evidence in support of the positive impact of highly effective integrated health care teams: Improved Quality of Patient Centered Care Reduction in Medical Errors & Improved Patient Safety World Health Organization. Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice. Geneva, 2010.
5 The Effectiveness of Teams Healthcare institutions that have effectively implemented a medical teamwork system have observed: A decreased clinical error rate from 30.9% to 4.4% 1 A 27% reduction in nurse turnover 2 A 50% decrease in the average length of ICU stays 3 1. Morey, J.C et al Error Reduction and Performance Improvement in the Emergency Department through Formal Teamwork Training: Evaluation Results of the MedTeams Project. Health Services Research 37 (6) (2002). 2. DiMeglio, K, et al Group Cohesion and Nurse Satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Administration. 35: (2005) 3. Pronvost, P et al. Improving Communication in the ICU Using Daily Goals Journal of Critical Care, 18: (2003)
6 Interprofessional Education Interprofessional Education: when two or more professions learn about, from and with each other to enable effective collaboration and improve health outcomes. Professional: includes individuals with the knowledge and/or skills to contribute to the physical, mental and social well-being of a community. World Health Organization. Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice. Geneva, 2010.
7 World Health Organization & IPE Interprofessional collaboration in education and practice is an innovative strategy that will play an important role in mitigating the global health crisis. IPE is a necessary step in preparing a collaborative practice-ready health workforce that is better prepared to respond to local health needs. World Health Organization. Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice. Geneva, 2010.
8 Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: when multiple health workers from different professional backgrounds work together with patients, families, careers and communities to deliver the highest quality of care. It allows health workers to engage any individual whose skills can help achieve local health goals. A collaborative Practice-Ready Health Worker: someone who has learned how to work in an interprofessional team and is competent to do so World Health Organization. Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice. Geneva, 2010.
9 Health Professions Schools are Facing a Charge to Utilize Interprofessional Practice Training IPE Drivers: A Changing Health Care System Improved Patient Outcomes Reduced Adverse Outcomes Increased Accountability Licensing & Accreditation Assessing Competencies Maintenance of License & Certification Program Accreditation Standards Competencies Movement toward incorporation of interprofessional collaborative practice competencies across health professions Development of the IPEC Core Competencies for Interprofessional Practice
10 ARC-PA Accreditation Standards Related to IPE B1.08 The curriculum must include instruction to prepare students to work collaboratively in interprofessional patient centered teams. B2.02 The program curriculum must include instruction in interpersonal and communication skills that result in the effective exchange of information and collaboration with patients, their families and other health professionals.
11 IPEC: 4 Core Competency Domains Communication Values/Ethics Teams & Teamwork Roles/Responsi bilities Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel. (2011). Core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice: Report of an expert panel. Washington, D.C.: Interprofessional Education Collaborative.
12 Six PA Competency Domains Systems-based Practice Medical Knowledge Practice-based Learning & Improvement Interpersonal & Communication Skills Professionalism Patient Care
13 Overlap Between IPEC Core Competency Domains & PA Competencies Communication Interpersonal Communication Skills: Physician assistants are expected to: work effectively with physicians and other health care professionals as a member or leader of a health care team or other professional group Values & Ethics Practice based Learning & Improvement Physician assistants are expected to: recognize and appropriately address personal biases, gaps in medical knowledge, and physical limitations in themselves and others Teams & Teamwork Patient Care: Physician assistants are expected to: work effectively with physicians and other health care professionals to provide patient-centered care Professionalism: Physician assistants are expected to demonstrate: professional relationships with physician supervisors and other health care providers commitment to the education of students and other health care professionals Systems-based Practice Physician assistants are expected to: partner with supervising physicians, health care managers, and other health care providers to assess, coordinate, and improve the delivery and effectiveness of health care and patient outcomes Roles & Responsibilities Medical Knowledge: Physician assistants are expected to understand, evaluate, and apply the following to clinical scenarios: management of general medical and surgical conditions to include pharmacologic and other treatment modalities interventions for prevention of disease and health promotion/maintenance
14 Tsunami A series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "wave train". Tsunamis cannot be prevented or precisely predicted, but there are some warning signs. The effects of a Tsunami can be devastating due to the immense volumes of water and energy involved.
15 Silver Tsunami Age Age Age 85+ Population 65+ by Age: Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census 100,000,000 90,000,000 Number of Persons ,000,000 70,000,000 60,000,000 50,000,000 40,000,000 30,000,000 20,000,000 10,000,
16 What is SAGE? Seniors Assisting in Geriatric Education A unique senior mentoring program designed to prepare health care professions students to better serve their older patients and work collaboratively. UNTHSC Medical, PA, PT and Pharmacy students are assigned to interprofessional teams of 2-3 students & paired with a senior mentor in the community. As a team they complete 8 home visits with their mentor over 2 years. Funded in 2009 and again in 2013 by a grant from the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation and matching funds from the University of North Texas Health Science Center. Senior mentor volunteers are primarily Meals on Wheels clients or geriatric patients of UNT Health
17 SAGE Program Growth Total Students DO PA PT Pharm
18 Implementation Seniors Assisting in Geriatric Education Orientation All 1 st year students SAGE Policies & Procedures Intro to HIPPA & CITI Training Sit with Interprofessional Teams Human Resources Chief of Geriatrics Division Reynolds Programs Director SAGE Program Coordinator 16 Faculty including 1 Core Faculty from each Profession Online Platform Canvas Introduction to Healthcare Professions Student & Senior Mentor Handbooks Announcements & Team Assignments Visit Instructions & Support Materials Assignment Submission Year Teams: 42 DO-PA-PT 8 DO-PA-Pharm 24 DO-PA 67 DO-DO-Pharm 134 DO-DO Assignment Feedback via Rubrics & Faculty Comments
19 SAGE Program Objectives & Goals Seniors Assisting in Developed to Address Geriatric Minimum Competencies Geriatric Education
20 SAGE was Developed to Address Geriatric Minimum Competencies SAGE assignments are integrated with the recommended minimum geriatric competencies for students from the: American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Areas of Basic Competency for the Care of Older Patients for Medical & Osteopathic Schools Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Geriatric Competencies for Medical Students American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM) Geriatrics Curricula for Medical Education in Osteopathic Medicine American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Fundamental Osteopathic Medical Competencies
21 SAGE Program Objectives & Goals Seniors Assisting in Geriatric Developed to Address Geriatric Minimum Competencies Focused on Attitudes, Knowledge, Behaviors & Skills Education
22 Year 1 Visit Assignments Visit 1: Introduction to Senior Mentor & Life Reminiscence Students learn to understand the benefits of life review, patient-centered interviewing, and assessing psychosocial issues, spiritual beliefs, and health perceptions in older adults. Visit 2: Home Environment/Safety Assessment Students learn to identify and help prevent conditions that could result in falls or other injuries and to perform a comprehensive fall risk assessment for an older adult.
23 Year 1 Visit Assignments Visit 3: Medication Review / Pharmacology Students perform a medication review and learn to appreciate issues associated with prescriptions and multiple medications. Visit 4: Medical History & Physiology of Aging Students obtain a medical history and practice communication skills with special emphasis on physical changes of aging.
24 Year 2 Visit Assignments Visit 5: Limited Physical Examination Students perform a limited physical and cognitive examination on an older adult, and learn to adapt an examination to possible health conditions. Visit 6: Community Resources & Functional Assessment Students identify current use of community resources, potential services, identify specific goals for the resources needed and complete a functional assessment.
25 Year 2 Visit Assignments Visit 7: Nutritional Assessment Students perform a nutritional assessment and provide education on nutritional balance and diet modifications related to selected health conditions. Visit 8: Advance Care Planning & Ending the Healthcare Professional Relationship Students explore issues associated with advanced care planning (Power of Attorney, Living Will, etc.) and identify the process for terminating the physician/patient relationship.
26 SAGE Integration with PA Curriculum Year 1 Fall Semester Visit 1- Life Reminiscence Visit 2 Home Safety Assessment Spring Semester Visit 3 Medication Review Visit 4 Medical History & Physiology of Aging Medical Interviewing Pharmacology Fundamentals of Behavioral Science Year 2 Fall Semester Visit 5 Limited PE Visit 6 - Community Resources & Functional Assessment Spring Semester Visit 7 Nutritional Assessment Visit 8 - Ending the Healthcare Professional Relationship / Advance Care Planning Supervise d Practice I Supervise d Practice II
27 SAGE on Canvas
28 SAGE on Canvas
29 SAGE Program Objectives & Goals Seniors Assisting in Geriatric Developed to Address Geriatric Minimum Competencies Focused on Attitudes, Knowledge, Behaviors & Skills Support Professional Accreditation Requirements Education
30 ARC-PA Accreditation Standards Supported by SAGE B1.06 The curriculum must include instruction to prepare students to provide medical care to patients from diverse populations. B2.06 The program curriculum must include instruction in the provision of care across the life span. B2.08 The program curriculum must include instruction in the social and behavioral sciences as well as normal and abnormal development across the life span. B2.09 The program curriculum must include instruction in basic counseling and patient education skills. B2.13 The program curriculum must include instruction in patient safety, quality improvement, prevention of medical errors and risk management.
31 SAGE Program Objectives & Goals Seniors Assisting in Geriatric Education Developed to Address Geriatric Minimum Competencies Focused on Attitudes, Knowledge, Behaviors & Skills Support Professional Accreditation Requirements Tied to both Interprofessional Education and Professional Competencies
32 Objectives: Visit 1 Life Reminiscence Attitudes 1. Appreciate when and why life reminiscing may be of value to healthcare professionals and older adults. 2. Recognize and respect the unique and common roles, training and expertise of other health care professionals. Knowledge 3. Discuss the role of communication skills in patient-provider satisfaction and effective interprofessional team collaboration. 4. Describe the characteristics of successful health care professions collaborative teams. 5. Assess the interprofessional health care team s performance and identify strategies for improvement. Behaviors & Skills 6. Communicate effectively within the interprofessional health care team, and to function appropriately within agreed upon roles.
33 Visit 1 Objective 1 Attitudes: Appreciates when and why life reminiscing may be of value to healthcare professionals and older adults. Physician Assistant PA Competency Domain: Patient Care Obtain essential information and accurate information about their patients. Make decisions about diagnostic and therapeutic interventions based on patient information & preferences, current scientific evidence and informed clinical judgment. Interprofessional Education IPEC Core Competency Domain: Team and Teamwork TT4 Integrate the knowledge and experience of other professions appropriate to the specific care situation to inform care decisions while respecting patient and community values and priorities/preferences for care Demonstrate compassionate and respectful behaviors when interacting with patients and their families
34 Visit 1 Objective 2 Attitudes: Recognize and respect the unique and common roles, training and expertise of other healthcare professionals. Physician Assistant PA Competency Domains: Interpersonal & Communication Skills Work effectively with physicans and other health care professionals as a member of leader of a healthcare team or other professional group. Professionalism Demonstrate professional relationships with physician supervisors and other health care professionals Interprofessional Education IPEC Core Competency Domain: Values/Ethics VE4 Respect the unique cultures, values, roles/responsibilities, and expertise of other health professions. Medical Knowledge Understand, evaluate, and apply the following to clinical scenarios: interventions for prevention of disease and health promotion/maintenance
35 Visit 1 Objective 3 Knowledge: Discuss the role of communication skills in patientprovider satisfaction and in effective IP team collaboration. Physician Assistant PA Competency Domain: Interpersonal & Communication Skills Create and sustain a therapeutic and ethically sound relationship with patients. Use effective communication skills to elicit and provide information Interprofessional Education IPEC Core Competency Domain: Interprofessional Communication CC1 Choose effective communication tools and techniques, including information systems and communication technologies, to facilitate discussions and interactions that enhance team function. Work effectively with physicans and other health care professionals as a member of leader of a healthcare team or other professional group.
36 Visit 1 Objective 4 Knowledge: Describe the characteristics of successful health care professions collaborative teams. Physician Assistant PA Competency Domain: Systems-Based Practice Practice cost-effective health care and resource allocation that does not compromise quality of care. Interprofessional Education IPEC Core Competency Domain: Team and Teamwork TT1 Describe the process of team development and the roles and practices of effective teams Partner with supervising physicians, health care managers and other health care providers to assess, coordinate, and improve the delivery of health care and patient outcomes.
37 Visit 1 Objective 5 Knowledge: Assess the interprofessional health care team s performance and identify strategies for improvement. Physician Assistant PA Competency Domain: Practice Based Learning & Improvement Analyze the practice experience and perform practice-based improvement activities using a systematic methodology in concert with other members of the health delivery team Recognize and appropriately address personal biases, gaps in medical knowledge and physical limitations in themselves and others Interprofessional Education IPEC Core Competency Domain: Team and Teamwork TT8 Reflect on individual and team performance for individual, as well as team, performance improvement and TT9 Use process improvement strategies to increase the effectiveness of interprofessional teamwork and teambased care.
38 Visit 1 Objective 6 Behaviors & Skills: Communicate effectively within the IP health care team, and function appropriately within agreed upon roles. Physician Assistant PA Competency Domains: Interpersonal & Communication Skills Use effective communication skills to elicit and provide information Work effectively with physicans and other health care professionals as a member of leader of a healthcare team or other professional group. Patient Care Work effectively with physicians and other health care professionals to provide patient-centered care. Interprofessional Education IPEC Core Competency Domain: Interprofessional Communication CC1 Choose effective communication tools and techniques, including information systems and communication technologies, to facilitate discussion and interactions that enhance team function. Roles/Responsibilities RR4 Explain the roles and responsibilities of other care providers and how the team works together to provide care RR6 Communicate with team members to clarify each member s responsibility in executing components of a treatment plan or public health intervention
39 What Do Senior Mentors Think Student Strengths Interested & Cares Good Listener Positive Attitude Student Areas for Improvement Take Your Time Don t Be Shy, Step Up! Speak Up! Be Comfortable with Silence
40 What Do Students Think Student Concerns Senior mentor availability Scheduling logistics Distance & Travel Time Student Praise IPE Interaction We want more! Challenges me to integrate my learning I ll never forget her - My 1 st Real Patient
41 Student Comments I really enjoyed having the opportunity to work with students from other health professions. We have so few opportunities to interact with students in other programs. I learned a lot about how my IPE team members professions are similar and different from my own.
42 Best Practices Learned From SAGE Integrate IPE throughout the curriculum Tie each assignment to a course grade Let students learn from their mistakes Keep IPE teams small no more than 3 students Set policies to help keep relationships between students & mentors professional Only use a local area code to call senior mentors Faculty modeling of IP collaboration speaks volumes
43 Conclusion No matter how you slice it, SAGE helps students develop the interprofessional collaborative practice competencies needed to surf the silver tsunami of increasing health care needs for our growing geriatric population. Communication Values/Ethics Systems-based Practice Medical Knowledge Teams & Teamwork Roles/Responsibilities Practice-based Learning & Improvement Interpersonal & Communication Skills Professionalism Patient Care
45 References 1. Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; Jefferson InterProfessional Education Center. Health Mentors Program. Accessed April 2, Reeves S, Zwarenstein M, Goldman J, et al. Interprofessional education: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; 2008, Issue 1. Art. No. CD Schön, D. Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass Publishers; World Health Organization. Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2010.
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