MPA Education Case studies for Romania

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1 MPA Education Case studies for Romania Prof. Dr. Lucica Matei Dean Faculty of Public Administration National School of Political Studies and Public Administration Bucharest Romania 1 Electronic copy available at:

2 I. 1. Education of actual and future administrators/civil servants Argument Within a multinational and multistructural framework of European Union decisional bodies, including broad diversity of governmental structures, traditions, political and administrative practices of the Member States and acceding countries, it is important to prepare actors for European integration, for their new roles. The traditional roles of the actors are undergoing a changing focus; they are becoming holders of conceptual responsibility designing architectures of systems and processes, validating solutions, ratifying proposals. The new roles assume to equip the actors with adequate types of managerial skills, especially strategic design, interpersonal relations, project management, change management in the contet of EU enlargement. Integration into the European Union, as global process in the European space, is epressed distinctly, in the area of higher education, training and professional training, being supported and promoted by a specific legislative framework and relevant institutional mechanisms. In this contet, the priorities are focused on: (1) training the professionals necessary to the fields related to public administration, (2) official recognition of the new professions and occupations specific for public organisations, and (3) training of trainers for the profiles of the respective competencies. I.2. National School of Political Studies and Public Administration (NSPSPA) Faculty of Public Administration a European eperiment of civil servants and public employees training The university has the mission to cultivate attitudes, to transmit knowledge, to train specialists in order to validate the higher education quality in the contet of the political and economic imperatives that promote a closer Union between the European states. Knowing and responding to the specific education, training needs, the universities respond to the EC social and economic development requirements. The enlargement of the higher education in administrative sciences for the undergraduate academic cycle in the latest 15 years, in Romania, as well as the position held by SNSPA in the area of master and doctoral academic studies 1 in administrative sciences have represented determinations for the author to achieve a study on EUROPEANISATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE AREA OF ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES IN ROMANIA 2, whose results, partially will be presented. 1 National School of Political Studies and Public Administration (SNSPA) was created in 1990 and its mission was to organise only postgraduate studies, for the time being master academic programmes; since 2001 it is the unique institution organising doctoral studies in the area of administrative sciences in Romania. 2 Some results of the research were presented at EGPA Annual Conference, Milan, Sept Electronic copy available at:

3 In this contet, the higher education institutions respond to the challenges concerning the European studies, fact demonstrated by including the European dimension in creating faculties and developing specializations. The specialization on European matters is developed in the faculties of administrative sciences, political sciences, economic sciences, legal sciences and other faculties. At the same time, the courses organized in the second cycle master academic studies are studying the European matters. The approach of the theme concerning European education will be presented in the following logical framework: Reflecting the activities of the European integration process and public administration reform in the education programmes, epressed by: 1. Europeanism degree ; 2. training needs; 3. a new specialization for European Administration. SNSPAFPA eperience concerning the programmes with European content 1) academic education 2) continuing education specialization professional training Matri of the regional stakeholders 3 Electronic copy available at:

4 Figure 1. Educational structure at the Faculty of Public Administration NSPSPA Specialization: Public Administration Semester IV VI 90 ECTS Public Sector Management Full time courses Distance learning courses (2 Years) 120 ECTS The Eecutive Power and Public Administration Full time courses Distance learning courses (2 years) 120 ECTS Common Branch Semester I III 90 ECTS Specialization: European Administration Semester IV VI Eecutive Master Management of Public Affairs Full time courses (1.5 years) 90 ECTS Eecutive Master Good Governance and European Integration Full time courses (1.5 years) 90 ECTS Eecutive Master Administrative Capacity and Acquis Communautaire Full time courses (1.5 years) 90 ECTS ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES 90 ECTS European Administrative Studies Full time courses (2 years) 120 ECTS European Public Space Distance learning courses (2 years) 120 ECTS BACHELOR MASTER DOCTORATE 4

5 I.3. The impact of European integration on public administration reform I.3.1. The impact of education on public administration reform In our opinion, we may consider the following as specific elements for Europeanisation of higher education in the area of administrative sciences in Romania, relevant to epress the Europeanism degree: a) Openness degree towards the European studies; b) The absorption capacity of the European funds designated to higher education; c) Capacity to organise scientific events with European theme; d) Institutional capacity; e) Level of interest provided by public and private institutions concerning the educational offer of SNSPAFPA on European Administration. The results of the study concerning the Europeanism degree in the content for educational process concerning the undergraduate, master, doctoral cycles in administrative sciences, as well as the social perception of the phenomena and processes deriving and influencing decisively Romanian public administration reform, the training needs for each academic cycle, the insertion on the labour market of the graduates in the area of administrative sciences reveal the following fact: in the contet of accession into the European Union, Romania records genuine changes of the public administration, perceived also by the subjects of our study. They appreciate that the European integration will contribute significantly to the public administration improvement; 83.1% answered affirmatively, while 38.9% consider that the current public administration system is well organised Figure 2. Perception of the effects of Romania accession into the European Union on the public administration reform 1 increasing the public administration efficiency 2 professionalisation of the civil service 3 transparency, openness 4 etra financing 5 improving the service quality 6 complying with EU standards/managerial requirements of the EU The respondents perceive integration into the EU as the vector to make efficient the public administration (22.9%), to make the civil service more professional, on going 5

6 process (19.8%), to stimulate the access to the European funds. The alignment to European standards and European managerial requirements (35.3%), getting knowledge and promoting the European best practices in managing the national problems (61.8%) represent dimensions of the European integration of Romania, dimensions confirmed also by the answers concerning the need to modernise the public administration for integration into the European administrative space (92.4%). We mention the fact that 60% of the subjects are not involved in actions or activities on the European integration issue. I.3.2. Training needs The categories and level of the training needs for FPA, European Administration specialization represent the result of the analysis concerning the needs identified after processing the questionnaires, feedbacks of the training programmes, interviews, as well as the requirements epressed by the candidates for FPA in the first cycle within the session of July The following categories of training needs are identified: category A: introductive courses with general notions about EU construction, EU institutions, EU development; category B: courses to know EU matters; category C: courses of specialization. The levels of the training needs are as follows: Beginners, that we may develop from the preuniversity education (46.4% of the respondents and ½ of this year candidates at the faculty wish to be students at the European Administration specialization or during the third semester of the first cycle of study (in the common branch) to develop a larger number of disciplines focused on European studies. Advancedspecialization developed for the students of the European Studies specialization, or those attending specialised master programmes of 2 years, or the eecutive master programmes of 1 year; for the latest it is imperative to increase the number of disciplines in the area of European administration, 69.3% of the respondents being in favour. Professionalisation through doctoral studies, for the graduates of European Administration specialization, young teaching staff and civil servants with preoccupations in European matters; 72.7% consider necessary education by doctoral studies in administrative sciences, with themes on European administration. The trainees of the short term courses epressed the opinion that for the civil servants we identify both the training level by doctoral studies, their niche being relative small, and the level of specific training needs considered as main needs (specific themes, i.e. European affairs, European Project Cycle Management, Structural Funds, partnerships of development, strategic planning) as well as training needs by information. 6

7 I.3.3.Opportunity of specialisation in European Administration In the Romanian academic spectrum, the European Administration specialization is organised only at SNSPA FPA, specialization set up in 2004, operational with the academic year , at the same time with the application of the requirements imposed by Bologna process in Romania. The opportunity of delivery and finalisation of such a specialization both in the first cycle undergraduate academic studies and for the second cycle academic master studies is also confirmed by the subjects of research in a percentage of 73.6%, respectively 82.9%. 70%, respectively 75.7% of the respondents are in favour to obtain the diploma for finalising the courses of the two cycles. The specialization in Administrative Sciences by doctoral academic studies is necessary in the opinion of 53.8%, and 50.2% wish to finalise by obtaining the diploma of doctor in Administrative Sciences. 66% of the subjects wish to continue their own education by doctoral studies. Beyond the academic education on cycles, 30% of the subjects consider also necessary the training programmes by short term courses, finalised with certificates, while around 45% have no answer. At the same time, they (61.1%) consider necessary the continuous specialisation of the academic staff. Including the European and international dimension by organising the European Administration specialisation or the master programmes with integral European content and training by short term courses with foreign partners, some of them in English language were arguments for 88% of the subjects that evaluated very good and good the representation of the European dimension in FPASNSPA programmes. 52.2% show that it is necessary to introduce new disciplines with thematic content, reflecting the European matters, 32.2% are for creating new faculties and/or specializations of European administration, while others (around 45%) responded in a negative way or not at all. I.4. SNSPA FPA training programmes with European recognition I.4.1 Academic studies of Master The programmes of academic master studies are created by optimum combination of some legal, economic, managerial, social disciplines, responding to market requirements for the niche of public administration. In this respect, there are developed Master programmes focused on specialization in European administration and European studies, with a duration of two years, eecutive Master programmes with a duration of 1.5 years, addressing to those involved in activities specific for public administration, with European feature, as well as to those in national public administration and Master programmes of 2 years with applicative feature from the perspective of developing the practical skills for the public sector. Starting with the university year 2002/2003, the National School of Political Studies and Public Administration introduced in its educational offer at the Faculty of Public Administration, the organisation of a comple, interdisciplinary Master programme, entitled in a very comprehensive way, The European Public Space. This Master programme is significantly different from the other Master programmes organised by universities in Romania and it presents some specific features, namely: it focuses on understanding and getting thorough knowledge about fundamental issues on European integration; it benefits of the support of the Ministry of European Integration; it approaches both traditional and virtual methods of teaching and learning. 7

8 The Master programme The European Public Space benefits of national acknowledgement. Thus, on the proposal of the Senate of National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, its curriculum was approved by the Ministry of Education and Research. At the same time, the Ministry of European Integration is in favour of the activities achieved by National School of Political Studies and Public Administration through the organisation of this Master programme, mentioning: the Ministry will bring its own contribution in concluding the curricula for the disciplines concerning European Union. Jean Monnet Action, aimed to promote and develop teaching on European integration matters is represented in FPA actions, programmes: Master programme: European Public Space, organised on 3 Jean Monnet European Modules: 1. European Administrative Space, 2. European Economic Space, 3. Foreign Common and Security Policy of the European Union ; Jean Monnet Permanent Course: EU Policies for Public Management ; Jean Monnet Chair, Studies on Europeanisation of administration and civil service. Target group of the European Module: public employees and civil servants of ministries, local public administration with tasks in European integration. other persons interested in specialization on European subjects. Objectives Overall objective: Providing knowledge and the recent information on European Union matters. Facilitating the students understanding on the abovementioned subjects. Developing the students theoretical and practical skills. The following strategic objectives are pursued: training and development of the high public officials, required by the activity of the public administration, which should be able to meet the requirements of the Civil Servants Act and the eigencies imposed by the integration of the Romanian administration into the European administrative space; training of specialists for scientific research, who are able to further their studies by a Ph.D. degree in public administration studies. Specific objectives: achieving teaching activities at high standards of quality, imposed by the eperiences and practices of education in European integration, by using and turning into account the epertise and eperience of teaching staff and specialists from National School of Political Studies and Public Administration as well as other prestigious institutions with which it cooperates. Meeting the genuine needs of education in European integration of public employees and civil servants, needs that were determined by studies and analyses. Thematic and structural compatibility with educational programmes similar in prestigious institutions and schools in Europe. Developing a modern approach for the teaching activities. Developing theoretical and practical skills for the students. Understanding and obtaining thorough knowledge about European Union policies, effective systems of public management. 8

9 Teaching activities: The module comprises as teaching activities the following: courses 10 h/discipline, seminars 10h/discipline, workshop 4h /discipline and internships. Module M1: European Space Administrative M2 European Economic Space M3 European Governance Disciplines EU Structures, Mechanisms and Institutions Law and acquis communautaire Community Civil Service EU Policies and Public Management European Economy Regional Policy of European Union European Budgeting and Taation Financial Control and Public Audit in EU European Governance Systems European Social Policies IntraCommunity Communication M4 Foreign Common and Security Policy of the European Union Applied research European Security and Defence Policy The Second Pillar of the European Union Foreign Common and Security Policy of the European Union The Eastward Enlargement of the European Union and its Implications on Security The New European Architecture for Security in the contet of Trans Atlantic relations Scenarios for the Future Academic year Number of students 2002/ / / / / / /2006 3D Column 1 Figure 3. Evolution of the number of students at the Master European Public Space 9

10 The study of the disciplines approaching topics, especially from the European studies is significantly represented at the two Master programmes, each with duration of two years: European Administrative Studies and European Public Space. o While at the Master programme European Administrative Studies we remark an increase of Europeanism degree (E.D.) since the first year from 50% to 80%, in the second year of study, at the Master programme European Public Space, E.D. has remained constant as value of 100% during the two years of study, confirming and differentiating the contents of the study disciplines. o Proportional with the Europeanism degree of each Master programme we remark also a proportional evaluation of the transfer credits, providing a complete overview from the perspective of the coverage degree of the hours of course, seminar, laboratory, individual study, reflected in the number of credits. Fig.4. Academic studies of Master A. Representation of the Europeanism degree 1=European Administrative Studies 2=European Public Space 3=Public Sector Management 4=Eecutive Power and Public Administration 5=Good Governance and European Integration 6=Administrative Capacity and Acquis Communautaire 7=Management of Public Affairs yeari yearii Analysing the other Master programmes that we identify in the trajectory for student professional education, as issues for the professionalisation direction, we remark the following dimensional aspects: There are Master programmes where the European theme is not individualised on study disciplines, as it is found implicitly in their contents, (E.D. with value between 11.11% and 20%), as they are conceived on the theme of public administration, or eecutive Master programmes, where the representation of the European theme is up to 60% from the total of the study disciplines, being Master programmes with duration of one year. The great majority of the disciplines on European studies are compulsory disciplines, the representation degree is between 25 and 100% from the total of the compulsory disciplines, one discipline has status of Jean Monnet Permanent course, and a small part comprises associated disciplines, with a representation degree between 33% and 60% in the total of the associated disciplines. 10

11 The volume of the hours allocated to the study of these disciplines is larger at the Master programmes specialised on European studies (from 78.88% to 100%), medium at the eecutive Master programmes with European theme (from 40% to 60%) and lower at the Master programmes aiming the study of public administration (up to 20%). I.5. Responsibilities and construction of a matri for regional cooperation in the area of training The analysis on the involved stakeholders in civil servants education in the European area enables the identification and evaluation of their roles and importance, affecting significantly the education. The roles of stakeholders could be education providers or education beneficiaries, thus forming the binom of education (Figure 5). The relation between education providers and education beneficiaries is biunivoque, being a link ensured by education services. The education services could be academic education (university level), courses for developing the skills of civil servants in order to create the corps of professionals, thematic courses or courses for trainers of civil servants. The courses are organized on full time basis and distance learning basis. (Figure 6). 11

12 Figure 5. Binom of education TARGET GROUP EDUCATION PROVIDERS EDUCATION SERVICES EDUCATION BENEFICIARIES A) academic education public institutions and authorities National Universities ❶ ❷ leading positions Foreign B) continuing education * Civil servants Consortia eecution positions ❷ Public managers regional Developing competencies and activities ❸ training of trainers, consultants, researchers ❸ civil servants with specific attributions in the area of reform and European integration C) academic education + continuing education * Civil servants inservice training Specialised education Professional training, focused programmes 12

13 Figure 6. Matri of education in civil service system Variables Aim (V 1 ) Target group Beneficiaries of education (V 2 ) Access (V 3 ) Period (V 4 ) Themes (V 5 ) Coordination (V 6 ) Continuing education Basic education Specialised education Professional training Developing SPECIFIC competencies and skills, necessary to positions with high level of compleity Developing competencies and skills in order to increase the quality of results obtained in civil service position Acquiring knowledge and developing some professions (for e. graduates in administrative, legal, economic sciences) represents criterion for employment in a civil service position Defined in a restrictive way (for e. high civil servants for the Prefect office, for public managers, for leading positions etc) defined on a broad scale (for e. civil servants) defined on a broad scale selection enrolling Contest of admission min. 180 hours ma. 2 years min. 3 days ma. 7 days Comple: several modules, logic succession (See for e. the Master European Administrative Space, Master European Administrative Studies Unitary, subsequent to a specific field In a unitary manner, similar to project management Individualized, similar to managing a specific event 3 years comple Unitary, similar to project management 13

14 The typology of actors is represented by the following categories, representing stakeholders. 1. Decisional factors at national level (V 1 ) V 11 ministries and agencies V 12 training institutions V 13 professional associations 2. Education providers (V 2 ) 1) national level V 21 2) European level V 22 3) regional level V 23 4) world level V Education services (V 3 ) 1) Academic education V 31 2) Continuing education V 32 (continuing education V 32, specialization V 32 professional training V 32 ) 3) Mied education V 31 + V 32 = V Beneficiaries of education (V 4 ) 1) public institutions and authorities 2) individual persons Eample: We can define the unitary matri of education A A 11 A 12 A = (1) A 21 A 22 where A 11 decisional vector A 12 education provider vector A 21 education services vector A 22 education beneficiary vector They are vectors identified in the matri of stakeholders. V 1 V 11 V 12 V 13 V 2 compound V 21 V 22 V 23 V = (2) V = (3) V 3 V 31 V 32 V 33 V 4 V 41 V 42 V 43 14

15 The elaboration of the instrument Matri of regional cooperation in the education area aims to determine: 1) the actors/groups of stakeholders in academic education, continuing education or the whole system, that could influence positively or negatively the education process; 2) their roles in various stages of the education process. At the same time, we can anticipate the type of influence that each type of group of actors could have on education. For eample, Figure 7 emphasises the dimension process for the four vectors of Educational unitary matri, depending on the factors of stakeholders on various levels. 15

16 Figure 7. Matri of regional cooperation in education area Groups of stakeholders Decisional factors (V 1) Their role in: A. National level Strategy of education Recognizing the qualifycations Employ ment plan Structure of education Financial resources Epertise Agreements and relations Training Curricu lar design Education services (V 3) Beneficiaries (V4) Education providers (V 2) Accredi ting the applied system Organi sation of modules Seminars/ Thematic workshop Internship in ministries and public authorities Public institutions and authorities Individual persons 1. Ministry. of Administration. of European Integration. of Civil Service. of Justice. of Finance. of Education. of Foreign Affairs. others 2. Agencies and other institutions concerning the civil servants 3. Universities 4. Training institutions. National Institute of Administration 5. professional associations 6. NGOs 7. Individual persons 8. Civil servants B. European/Regional level 1. Networks and groups. NISPAcee. EGPA 2. Institutions European Commission. EIPA. College of Europe 3. Academic consortia from at least 2 countries of the region C. International level 1. OSCE 2. SIGMA 3. UNDP 16

17 II. Competences developed by MPA programmes The description of the competences developed by MPA programmes is generally included in the collection of didactic documents for every programme. There are identified elements defining the socioprofessional status, fundamental professional roles, structures of competences, generic units and indicators of competence. At national level, those competences are managed by the National Agency for Qualifications in Higher Education and Partnership with the Economic and Social Environment (ACPART) and at university level by academic Senates and their specialised commissions. Figure 8 presents the main competences of MPA programmes. For every programme those competences are presented in details. Fig.8. Roles and competences of MPA programmes graduates Fundamental professional roles Structures of competences Applied units of competence for the study programme 1. Designing, drawing up and implementing Regulations of organisation and functioning of public authorities and institutions I. Knowledge competences Acquiring knowledge, understanding and using the basic and key concepts, approaches, theories and models (understanding the systemic approaches, significance of the principles of organisation and functioning of public administration, relations between public authorities and institutions) specific for public administration Eplaining and narrow interpreting the basic and key concepts, approaches, theories, models and methods in view to understand the organisation and functioning of public authorities and institutions II.Functional activating competences Applying and transferring the basic conceptualtechnical skills, simple, theoretical and practical problem solving in a well defined contet associated to the public administration system Demonstrating the skills of criticalconstructive analysis of the basic and key concepts, theories, models, methods and practices on public administration activity under the form of simple statements Using innovation and creativity in achieving the Regulations of organisation and functioning of public authorities and institutions

18 2.Collecting, processing and analysing the information in view to make the decisions and drafts of regulatory deeds and enforcing them I. Knowledge competences Acquiring knowledge, understanding and using the basic and key concepts, approaches, theories and models for administrative decisions making and implementing. Eplaining and interpreting by establishing simple relations for the concepts, theories, models and methods specific for making and implementing the decisions and drafts of regulatory deeds. II.Functional activating competences Applying and transferring the basic skills for the analysis on decisionmaking process, implementation and its control in daily activity of the public organisation. Using the skills of criticalconstructive analysis of the concepts, theories, working instruments in view to identify the advantages and limits and their selection related to the contet within the framework of the decisionmaking process in public administration. 3.Resource management Using innovation and creativity in the decisionmaking process I. Knowledge competences Acquiring knowledge, understanding and using models, concepts and theories in resource management and development in the contet of the public organisation. Eplaining and simple interpreting resource management in specific contets. II.Functional activating competences Testing the skills and their transfer in the activities of resource management in public administration. Using the skills of criticalconstructive analysis in view to use adequately the resources in specific situations. 4. Budgeting and monitoring the activities Using creativity and innovation in resource management in well defined contets. I. Knowledge competences Acquiring knowledge, understanding and using models, concepts and theories for budgeting and following up the activities in organisational contet. 18

19 Eplaining and simple interpreting the budgeting and following up the activities in specific contets. II.Functional activating competences Testing the skills and their transfer in the activities of budgeting and following up the activities in public organisation. Using the skills of criticalconstructive analysis in view to use adequately the budgets and follow up the outcomes in specific situations in public administration. 5.Developing relations with other elements of social global environment and the European and international environment Using creativity and innovation in budgeting and following up the activities in public administration in well defined contets. I. Knowledge competences Acquiring knowledge, understanding and using basic and key concepts, approaches, theories and models specific for the relations between public administration and the elements of the social global environment. Eplaining and narrow interpreting the basic and key concepts, approaches, theories and models specific for understanding the administrative phenomena. II.Functional activating competences Applying and transfer of the basic conceptualtechnical skills, simple, theoretical and practical problem solving in well defined contets associated to the global system and public administration system Demonstrating the skills of criticalconstructive analysis of the basic and key concepts, theories, models, methods and practices on the relations of public administration under the form of simple statements Using innovation and creativity in the analysis of the relations of public administration with the other elements of the global system. 19

20 III. Convergence of MPA programmes. A case study for SouthEastern Europe III.1. Dimensions of the European educational convergence 3 III.1.1 General issues The development of a harmonised architecture for the European higher education (Sorbonne Declaration, signed by the Ministers of Education from France, Italy, United Kingdom and Germany in May 1998 in Paris) represents the argument presented in the content of Bologna Declaration, signed one year later, proposing to create a European space for higher education in order to enhance the employability and mobility of citizens and to increase in the international competitiveness of European higher education. We might consider it the first political commitment on educational convergence in the European higher education. Bologna Process represents a significant reform of higher education in Europe. Placed in a cultural diversity, with some small countries and very large countries, with disparities of the gross domestic product, with universities ranging from 100 to 100,000 students, and teaching in over 20 different languages etc., this reform enables to the higher education institutions in the EU Member States and etended European Area to host new possibilities in view to improve and develop the European identity of the education. The Bologna Process has etended from 29 countries in 1999 to 46 4 countries at present. Each stage of applying Bologna process represents a progress (Evaluation Report on Bologna 5 ), supporting total mobility from one continent to other of the public good and service, identified in education, by 2010 (Commission of the European Communities 2003; UNESCO 2003). Enhancing the competitiveness and comparability of education systems through the reforms of Bologna Process, made Europe a more attractive destination for the students on other continents. For the EU, the Bologna Process is part of a broader effort in the drive for a Europe of knowledge which includes: Lifelong learning and development, The Lisbon Agenda for growth and Jobs and Social Inclusion, The Copenhagen process for enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training, and Initiatives under the European Research Area. 3 The paper turns into account the main issues comprised in Matei, L., 2009, Bologna changes in MA degree programmes. Convergence of the public administration programmes in South Eastern Europe, EGPA Conference, Malta 4 Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Switzerland, Estonia, Russian Federation, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luembourg, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Norway, Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Romania, Serbia, the Holy See, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, Hungary. 5 Report Higher Education in Europe 2009: Development in the Bologna Process, 20

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