1 ASBESTOS AWARENESS FOR THE FIRE SERVICE Asbestos Safety for the Firefighter SNOHOMISH COUNTY AIRPORT FIRE DEPARTMENT PAINE FIELD Everett, WA
2 ASBESTOS AWARENESS FOR THE FIRE SERVICE Disclaimer: This program is assembled to provide an awareness level of training and understanding for the firefighter. It is based on EPA and OSHA information and publications. While the information is considered accurate, it should not be used for making decisions on asbestos abatement and disposal projects. Each asbestos project should be based on the latest rulings and guidelines issued by EPA and OSHA and all local representing agencies.
3 What is Asbestos? A naturally occurring fibrous mineral A rock, mined in Canada, Russia, Africa and formerly in the U.S.
4 What is Asbestos? Asbestos is naturally present in the atmosphere. It is present in many rock formations.
5 Types of Asbestos Serpentine Chrysotile - "white asbestos" has fine, flexible, silky fibers with high tensile strength and accounts for over 95 percent of the asbestos used worldwide.
6 . Types of Asbestos Amphibole Amosite - "brown asbestos" is made up of long, brittle, needle-like fibers. Amosite bonds well with plastics and is often used in heat insulating materials Crocidolite - "blue asbestos" is the strongest asbestos. It is usually found in conjunction with chrysotile in wrapping, sheeting, piping and boiler wrap Tremolite, Actinolite, and Anthophyllite - these asbestos forms are seldom seen and rarely found in building or commercial products.
7 Asbestos and the Firefighter To the firefighter, the type of asbestos encountered at a structural fire makes no difference in the level of protection needed. However -
8 Asbestos and the Firefighter Recent studies seem to indicate that amphibole group; the brown and blue asbestos may present a greater level of health danger than the common chrysotile. These minerals were also used in friction surfaces such as brakes and clutches.
9 The Use of Asbestos in the Past Asbestos has been used for many years. The word ASBESTOS is derived from ancient Greek meaning inextinguishable. It was used as wicks in sacred lamps. It was woven into cloth for robes and tablecloths.
10 The Use of Asbestos in the Past The discovery of large asbestos deposits in Canada in the late 1800s it emerged as an additive to many products. Asbestos is still mined, processed and used in Canada
11 Asbestos Use in the Past Asbestos was used in the past because: It is a good insulator It holds up well to heat, - fireproof under normal fire situations when it was added to other materials, it strengthened them It doesn t rot and is impervious to most chemicals
12 Asbestos Use in the Past Because of these characteristics, it was applied to boilers and steam pipes. Much of this type of asbestos containing material is almost 100% asbestos with only enough binder material to keep it in place
13 Asbestos Use in the Past When added to concrete, the fiber strength of the asbestos reinforced the concrete. Concrete water mains and concrete board in the form of 4 x 8 sheets and shingle siding owed their strength to asbestos fibers.
14 Asbestos Use in the Past During the 1930s, it was found that it improved almost any material that it was added to. It was sold as, and truly was, the Miracle Fiber
15 Asbestos Use in the Past As was discovered later, it was not an improvement to add it to human beings. Asbestos use continued long after there was an indication that there was a health problem involved. In the mid 1970s the government begin to curtail the use of asbestos.
16 Asbestos Use in the Past The lack of awareness or knowledge of the health dangers caused an uncontrolled and unregulated use of asbestos.
17 Asbestos use in the Past Workers in the mining, milling, processing and application of asbestos containing products used no respiratory protection.
18 Asbestos Use in the Past On movie sets, scenes that required a snowfall were staged by dumping bags of fluffy white asbestos over the set, the actors and into large fans.
19 Asbestos Use in the Past Movie sets such as Bing Crosbys White Christmas and the snow scene from The Wizard of Oz - and many others - used a good deal of asbestos fiber. At the time, this must have seemed as the safest solution.
20 Asbestos Use in the Past Asbestos was woven into curtains, firefighter suits and rescue blankets. Welders gloves and jackets were made of leather and asbestos cloth
21 Asbestos Use in the Past Airport firefighters used entry suits made of almost 100% asbestos fabric. Fire departments carried rescue blankets of the same material to protect crash victims during cutting operations.
22 Asbestos Use in the Past From this era in our history has come the empirical data that points to the dangers of asbestos. There is evidence that the health aspects of asbestos were known early in this century. This antidotal information was largely ignored in the United States until the 1970s Claims that the asbestos manufactures knew of the health risks were a central point in the class action asbestos lawsuits.
23 What Asbestos is Not Many bad things have been said about asbestos. Here is a list of the things that are not properties of asbestos.
24 What Asbestos is Not Even though it is often refereed to as a toxin, It is not a poison in the classic sense of the definition
25 What Asbestos is Not It causes no chemical burns or reactions
26 What Asbestos is Not It emits no fume or gas; it can t be detected on a meter, litmus paper or with a Drager tube. It can t be smelled
27 What Asbestos is Not The particles that pose a health hazard cant be seen with the naked eye.
28 What Asbestos is Not If someone tells you that they can smell, see or sense asbestos in a material or building, you can count on one of two things: (1) You are being scammed, or. (2) The person you are talking to is wearing Birkenstocks and has children named Moonbeam
29 What Is It That Makes Asbestos Hazardous? The things that make asbestos a good addition to building materials make it bad for health
30 What Is It That Makes Asbestos Hazardous? Other minerals break down to dust. Asbestos is a fiber that can be continually divided and still remain a fiber
31 What Is It That Makes Asbestos Hazardous? Compare an asbestos fiber to a rope Each strand can be unraveled and still remain a fiber.
32 What Is It That Makes Asbestos Hazardous? Asbestos will divide like this down to unseen, microscopic fibers that are 1200 times smaller than a human hair.
33 What Is It That Makes Asbestos Hazardous? It is the small unseen fibers, >5 microns in length that present the greatest problem.
34 What Is It That Makes Asbestos Hazardous? The small fibers that get past the natural defenses of the body enter the lungs in a spearlike form..
35 What Is It That Makes Asbestos Hazardous? With proper aim and trajectory, these fibers can penetrate an alveolus in the lung.
36 What Is It That Makes Asbestos Hazardous? Now, one of the strengths of asbestos comes into play it doesn t degrade or dissolve
37 What Is It That Makes Asbestos Hazardous? So the body compensates for this foreign substance. Scar tissue surrounds the offending fiber. The scar tissue prevents the exchange of oxygen. This is the start of
39 ASBESTOSIS Asbestosis is a serious, chronic, noncancerous respiratory disease. Asbestosis is the result of many, repeated bombardments of asbestos fiber Symptoms of asbestosis include shortness of breath and a dry crackling sound in the lungs while inhaling.
40 ASBESTOSIS In its advanced stages, the disease may cause cardiac failure. There is no effective treatment for advanced cases of asbestosis; the disease is often disabling or fatal Asbestosis often leads to ---
41 LUNG CANCER
42 The body doesn t take insult and damage lightly Lung Cancer
43 Just as sundamaged skin seems to promote Skin Cancer Lung Cancer
44 Lung Cancer And alcohol abuse can lead to Liver Cancer
45 Lung Cancer Asbestosis seems to lead to Lung Cancer
47 Mesothelioma Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that most often occurs in the pleura lining of the lungs, chest, and abdomen,. About 200 cases are diagnosed each year in the United States. Virtually all cases of mesothelioma are linked to asbestos.
48 Mesothelioma Approximately 2 percent of all miners and textile workers who worked with asbestos contracted mesothelioma. Mesothelioma has a latency period of up to 30 years but is almost always fatal within a year of discovery.
49 Mesothelioma Mesothelioma can be a family thing. People who live with asbestos workers, near asbestos mining areas, or near asbestos product factories where use of asbestos has produced large quantities of airborne asbestos fibers also have developed mesothelioma.
50 Mesothelioma This is the insidious part of the asbestos problem. Studies of asbestos workers indicate that they have brought fibers home on their clothes. Their families then developed mesothelioma, perhaps from mixing clothing in the washing machine.
51 Mesothelioma Mesothelioma is unlike asbestosis in the exposure requirements for the disease to develop. While there is a somewhat direct correlation between regular high-level exposure to asbestos and asbestosis, Mesothelioma can occur among people with little exposure.
52 Mesothelioma Mesothelioma occurs more often among people with regular exposure. However it is also found among people with little known exposure. Mesothelioma results from a fiber somehow passing from the lungs to the pleura.
53 Mesothelioma It s a little like winning the Lotto. If you buy a lot of tickets, your odds increase. However, people have been known to win with a single ticket. Do you feel lucky?
54 Mesothelioma Actor Steve McQueen died of a mesothelioma. He had no history of working in the asbestos industry.
55 Mesothelioma The younger people are when they inhale asbestos, the more likely they are to develop mesothelioma. This is why the enormous efforts are being made to prevent school children from being exposed.
56 Latency Period
57 Latency Period Asbestos related diseases have a Latency Period of up to 30 years. If a person is diagnosed with an asbestos related problem today, the exposure occurred many years prior
58 Latency Period Even a heavy exposure today would not be detected in a physical exam tomorrow. Just because you feel well following such an exposure doesn t mean that you haven t incurred some damage.
59 Because it can take 30 years for the disease to show up - doesn t indicate that you should just send old people into the asbestos environment. Latency Period
60 Smoking and Asbestos Living Dangerously
61 Smoking and Asbestos If you like living on the edge, mix smoking and asbestos exposure. A smoker has a 10X greater chance of lung cancer than a non-smoker. Combined smoker/asbestos exposure increases it to as much as 90X
62 Smoking and Asbestos General Population Asbestos Workers Smokers Smoker/Asbestos Workers
63 Smoking and Asbestos Do you mind if I Smoke? Not if you don t mind that I throw asbestos dust in the air. Smoking and Asbestos both are a known carcinogenic
64 Forms of Asbestos
65 Forms of Asbestos We have discussed the two groups of asbestos, Serpentine and Amphibole. Now we will look at the forms that it can take. Asbestos can be identified as Friable and Non-Friable For the purpose of asbestos building inspections, non-friable can be broken down into several sub-forms.
66 Forms of Asbestos The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and others distinguish between friable and non-friable forms of asbestos containing material, (ACM). Friable ACM contains asbestos and can be "crumbled or reduced to powder by hand pressure".
67 Forms of Asbestos Other things being equal, friable Asbestos Containing Material, (ACM) is thought to release fibers into the air more readily; however, many types of nonfriable ACM can also release fibers if disturbed.
68 Forms of Asbestos Non-friable ACM is any material containing asbestos, that, when dry, cannot be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure
69 Forms of Asbestos When non-friable ACM is subjected to intense heat, weather or mechanical forces, such as those encountered during structural fires, demolition or renovation, it can be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder, and thereby release asbestos fibers.
70 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found
71 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Spray -on asbestos fireproofing Used to protect the steel structural members from the heat of a fire Has a very high asbestos content. Friable
72 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Asbestos ceiling or wall systems Here is a spray-on insulation covered with an asbestos/cement board paneling. Generally Non-Friable Friable
73 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Popcorn sprayon ceilings. Decorative plaster finishes Used with asbestos content until the late 1970 s Asbestos content can range from 1% to >20% Friable
74 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Only a very small percentage of ceiling tile contains asbestos. This uses a wood product fiber and occasionally a little asbestos was added to reinforce the face. Friable
75 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Boilers, boiler tanks and other insulated tank units. Friable
76 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Piping for hot water and steam heating and power units Friable
77 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Piping for hot water and steam heating and power units This is AirCell. It looks like cardboard but is almost 100% asbestos Friable
78 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found This is a tank being repaired. Notice how the asbestos is installed in tilelike blocks. This material has a very high asbestos content. Friable
79 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Asbestos/Concrete siding - known as CAB (concrete asbestos board) or Transite Manufactured in shingle, shake and 4 x 8 sheets Was sometimes used as an imitation slate roofing Generally Non-Friable
80 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Asbestos/Concrete siding - known as CAB (concrete asbestos board) or Transite Manufactured in shingle, shake and 4 x 8 sheets Was sometimes used as an imitation slate roofing Generally Non-Friable
81 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Generally Non-Friable Asbestos was used to reinforce asphalt based 3- tab roofing It was used in roll roofing Asbestos was used to reinforce the tar and roof mastics
82 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Generally Non-Friable Asbestos was used to reinforce asphalt based 3- tab roofing It was used in roll roofing Asbestos was used to reinforce the tar and roof mastics
83 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Generally Non-Friable Asbestos was used to reinforce asphalt based 3- tab roofing It was used in roll roofing Asbestos was used to reinforce the tar and roof mastics
84 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Generally Non-Friable Asbestos was used in floor coverings. Asbestos strengthened the vinyl or asphalt in floor tile It was used as a backing on linoleum
85 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Generally Non-Friable Asbestos was used in floor coverings. Asbestos strengthened the vinyl or asphalt in floor tile It was used as a backing on linoleum
86 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Generally Friable The fabric covering on old electrical wiring. Much of the insulation on the electrical cords on irons and toasters.
87 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Generally Friable The insulation on older hot air heating ducts. This may be a paper wrap on the outside It may be a woven product on the inside.
88 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Plaster walls and ceilings Sheetrock mudding compounds
89 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Asbestos Concrete pipes Found in water pipes (mains) sewer lines and electrical conduit Generally Non-Friable
90 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found The core of old fire doors
91 Asbestos-Containing Materials Where Asbestos can be Found Gaskets and seam packing on bank vaults, safes and fireboxes
92 Managing Asbestos in Buildings What building owners do about asbestos containing materials in their building.
93 Managing Asbestos in Buildings Asbestos can be handled in four ways: Abatement - removal Enclosing Encapsulating Repair and maintaining The objective of asbestos management is to reduce asbestos fiber release
94 Managing Asbestos in Abatement - removal This is the most expensive option. Generally involves full enclosure of an area of the building, intensive labor and waste disposal. Buildings
95 Managing Asbestos in Sometimes removal is the only option Buildings This ceiling in a High School gym shows evidence of being hit regularly with a basketball
96 Enclosing Managing Asbestos in Encapsulating Buildings This involves covering over the ACM or sealing it with a heavybased latex paint or other product.
97 Managing Asbestos in Buildings Encapsulating works well in many situations Air from this heat vent caused a continued release of fiber. A coat of encapsulating paint will reduce the problem.
98 Managing Asbestos in Repair and maintaining Buildings This would mean patching any damage and monitoring to prevent future damage and fiber release.
99 Asbestos Containing Materials in a Fire Situation The building owner tries to keep his building safe. During a fire, it s not!
100 Asbestos Containing Materials in a Fire Situation A firefighter entering a building during or after a fire can not count on the Friable/Non- Friable conditions of the materials involved.
101 Asbestos Containing Materials Consider this Vinyl/Asbestos floor tile subjected to fire. The vinyl burns away leaving only the loose asbestos fiber in a Fire Situation
102 Asbestos Containing Materials in a Fire Situation Concrete Asbestos Board CAB or Transite subjected to flame. The concrete spalls away leaving asbestos fiber
103 Asbestos Containing Materials in a Fire Situation Almost any material subjected to intense heat will burn away - except for the asbestos To the firefighter, this means that you are working in a friable asbestos atmosphere.
104 Operating in an Asbestos Atmosphere Protecting the Firefighter
105 Operating in an Asbestos Atmosphere. The hazardous and toxic atmosphere created by the fire often dissipates rather quickly. The hazardous atmosphere created by the release of asbestos fiber does not.
106 Operating in an Asbestos Atmosphere. The fibers that have the greatest potential for respiratory damage can t be seen. These fibers can remain airborne for hours. The SCBA worn by the firefighter will protect from this exposure.
107 Operating in an Asbestos Atmosphere Most filter masks, dust masks, won t filter these small particles. The HEPA filer half-mask (magenta cartridge) may stop some of the asbestos. However, filter masks are not appropriate for heavy asbestos exposure. An unknown level of fiber release should be considered as heavy until testing shows otherwise.
108 Operating in an Asbestos Atmosphere Protect your respiratory system by using SCBA equipment during the fire AND during the Salvage and Overhaul periods. Be sure that bottles are changed away from the hazard area.
109 Operating in an Asbestos Atmosphere If the mask is to be removed, wash the facepiece area before removal. When changing bottles, wash any possible debris form the connection area.
110 Operating in an Asbestos Atmosphere Respiratory protection, SCBAs, must also be used during the fire investigation period if the damaged area is suspected to have asbestos contamination. Once you suspect that an area is contaminated, it is not easy to change that suspicion. There is no acceptable reason to allow an unmasked person, Fire Investigator, Fire Marshal or Chief, into a suspected contaminated area.
111 Operating in an Asbestos Atmosphere Prevent the spread of fibers Wet down any debris being moved during overhaul and investigation. Wash off firefighting gear at the fire scene. On return to station, bag turnouts for appropriate laundry. Do not transport clothing or equipment in personal vehicle
112 The Firefighters Responsibility to the Building Owner.
113 The Firefighters Responsibility to the Building Owner First, Do No Harm Do not unnecessarily track or move asbestos fiber into uncontaminated areas. If you have exposed a large amount of asbestos, tape off the area to warn others.
114 The Firefighters Responsibility to the Building Owner Second, Inform the Owner You can t control what the owner will do with his asbestos problem Don t leave the owner with the excuse, I didn t know there was a problem
115 The Fire Departments Duties in Asbestos Abatement
116 The Fire Departments Duties in Asbestos Abatement Larger scale asbestos removal projects are done in CONTAINMENT CONTAINMENT is lining the room with two layers of plastic and has these elements: The seams are lapped and taped together Negative Air machines are set up to lower the air pressure in the containment. A double air-lock door system with a shower facility is set up at the entry to the containment Workers in containment are in respirators and Tyvek type suits. They must strip and shower before exiting.
117 The Fire Departments Duties in Asbestos Abatement The Uniform Fire Code makes certain requirements of the fire department. UFC Section 8707 requires the Chief to be notified 24 hours prior to a removal project. Section 8707 requires flame resistant plastic film and proper signs. Other Code sections allow the department to require proper exiting and maintenance of fire protection systems.
118 The Fire Departments Duties in Asbestos Abatement Asbestos abatement projects that require a containment should be inspected for: Exiting Covered sprinkler heads Fire extinguishers Containment material Warning signs Plans for the replacement of any fireproofing materials removed.
119 The Fire Departments Duties in Asbestos Abatement Exits in containment are generally limited to one. The travel distance to the exit could be too great. >150 feet in unsprinklered buildings. Alternative exiting may be required.
120 The Fire Departments Duties in Asbestos Abatement Some departments have allowed the marking of a second exit in the plastic film that can be cut open in the event of a fire.
121 The Fire Departments Duties in Asbestos Abatement Inspectors must require that the sprinkler heads are not covered by the plastic containment. If your department normally allows the use of light-weight plastic or paper bags over sprinkler heads in areas like spray booths, you could allow there use here. Ample fire extinguishers should be required in containment.
122 The Fire Departments Duties in Asbestos Abatement If spray-on asbestos fire-proofing is being removed, check plans of the replacement. U.B.C Table 7-B The size and use of the building probably required the fire rating achieved by the asbestos. U.B.C. Table 5-B Example: A B occupancy built as a type II Fire Rated has a basic allowable size of 12 stories of 39,900 sq. ft. each. Remove the fire proofing and the basic allowable is 2 stories of 12,000 sq. ft. each.
123 Fire Department Response to an Asbestos Abatement Site It won t be your usual call
124 Fire Department Response to an Asbestos Abatement Site A Fire Call to a building where asbestos is being removed can add a new dimension Exits can be compromised by the containment. The negative air machines are drawing air towards the containment. Inside the containment the air is contaminated with asbestos fiber.
125 Fire Department Response to an Asbestos Abatement Site An EMS call for a worker in containment must be handled as a HazMat call by the medics. Entry into the containment requires full protective gear. The victim and all medics and equipment must be decontaminated prior to loading and transport.
126 Frequently Asked Questions.
127 Frequently Asked Questions. Has the production of asbestos ceased? Has the use of all asbestos been ban? ANSWER: NO
128 Frequently Asked Questions. Has the production of asbestos ceased? Has the use of all asbestos been banned? ANSWER: NO
129 Frequently Asked Questions. My uncle Bill says that the dangers of asbestos are overrated and the rules are just a governmental boondoggle. What do you think? ANSWER: What your uncle Bill thinks is meaningless.
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