Domain Name System Security

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1 Domain Name System Security Guevara Noubir Network Security Northeastern University 1

2 Domain Name System DNS is a fundamental applica=on layer protocol Not visible but invoked every =me a remote site is accessed 2

3 Domain Naming System Hierarchy edu com gov mil org net uk fr neu mit cisco yahoo nasa nsf arpa navy acm ieee ccs ece math madrid firenze DNS maps abstract names to specific resources madrid.ccs.neu.edu ->

4 Name Servers Par==on hierarchy into zones edu com gov mil org net uk fr neu mit cisco yahoo nasa nsf arpa navy acm ieee ccs ece math madrid firenze Each zone implemented by two or more name servers neu name server Root name server Cisco name server CCS name server ECE name server 4

5 Resource Records Each name server maintains a collec=on of resource records (Name, Value, Type, Class, TTL) Name/Value: not necessarily host names to IP addresses Type A: Value is an IP address NS: Value gives domain name for host running name server that knows how to resolve names within specified domain CNAME: Value gives canonical name for par=cle host; used to define aliases MX: Value gives domain name for host running mail server that accepts messages for specified domain TXT: addi=onal text info SPF: Sender Policy Framework Class: allow other en==es to define types IN: Means Internet TTL: how long the resource record is valid 5

6 .edu Server (neu.edu, nb4276.neu.edu, NS, IN) (nb4276.neu.edu, , A, IN) 6

7 neu.edu Server (neu.edu, nb4286.neu.edu, MX, IN) (ccs.neu.edu, amber.ccs.neu.edu, NS, IN) (amber.ccs.neu.edu, , A, IN) (ece.neu.edu, ns1.ece.neu.edu, NS, IN) (ns1.ece.neu.edu, , A, IN) (mystic.math.neu.edu, , A, IN) 7

8 ccs.neu.edu Server (ccs.neu.edu, amber.ccs.neu.edu, MX, IN) (amber.ccs.neu.edu, , A, IN) (ccs.neu.edu, atlantis.ccs.neu.edu, MX, IN) (atlantis.ccs.neu.edu, , A, IN) 8

9 Name Resolu=on To reach firenze.ccs.neu.edu Strategy Go to local name server Local name server goes to root name server Local name server goes to edu name server Local name server goes to neu.edu name server Local name server goes to ccs.neu.edu name server and gets IP address 9

10 DNS Cache Poisoning DNS servers cache informa=on Poisoning an ISP DNS cache impacts all the ISP users How? A\acker queries the ISP DNS server ISP DNS Server starts resolving the query by asking the authorita=ve name server A\acker simultaneously sends a DNS response spoofing the IP address of the authorita=ve name server and providing a malicious IP address All the ISP users will be directed to the a\acker sites Problems? 10

11 DNS Cache Poisoning with Birthday Paradox Technique Randomiza=on makes it hard to predict the transac=on ID (16 bits) A\acker sends n fake requests and spoofs n malicious replies Probability of failing to match at least one query is: P fail = (1- n/2 16 ) n If n = 213 => P fail < 0.5 Problems? 11

12 Subdomain DNS Cache Poisoning (2008) A\acker generates requests for non- exis=ng sub- domains e.g., non- exis=ng.example.com The name server for the target domain ignores the requests The a\acker issues spoofed responses with guessed transac=on ID (no compe==on from target domain) A\acker response includes a response that resolves the name server of that target domain e.g., example.com to a malicious IP address Was successful against many DNS sohware packages e.g., BIND 12

13 Client- Side DNS Cache Poisoning A\acker sets up a malicious website Webpage contains HTML tags that automa=cally issue requests for addi=onal URLs e.g., image tags with non- exis=ng subdomains of the target domain The a\acker knows when to start spoofing the DNS replies because he owns the malicious website Current solu=ons: Source port randomiza=on Limi=ng ISP DNS replies to internal requests DNSSEC 13

14 DNSSEC DNS was not designed with security in mind DNSSEC provides a crypto- based solu=on that extends DNS (RFC 2535) Since 2000 but only slowly being deployed DNSSEC adds new types of DNS records DNS query: Client indicates that DNSSEC is supported DNS reply: If server supports DNSSEC, RRSIG digital signature is included Issues: PKI infrastructure / chain of trust following domain name hierarchy Root name server does not support DNSSEC Performance 14

15 Summary Domain Name System is a cri=cal applica=on of the Internet Major flaws have been iden=fied and par=ally fixed A strong solu=on (DNSSEC) is slowly being deployed (typical problem with the Internet) Thinking exercise: Go back to Problem Set 1, ques=on 1 Consider all the steps to connect to a website and the vulnerabili=es you are subject to 15

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