train for the Nordic market

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1 Gröna Tåget a high-speed train for the Nordic market Oskar Fröidh Public Conference in Oslo 16 December, 2010

2 High-speed on the conventional network: Tilting trains Sweden First report on tilting trains in X 2000 services begun in 1990 (Stockholm- Gothenburg), and was extended d to all main lines during the 1990 s. Successful in rail/air competi- tion up to 400 km, and also Stockholm-Gothenb.(455 km) Upgrading of the conventional network for up to 200 km/h operation Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 2

3 New high-speed trains needed Travel demand increases Short travelling times are profitable (for society as for operators and passengers) Lower fares through better economy of service Existing trains grow older New links and rebuilt sections since mid-1990 s dimensioned for 250 km/h with tilting trains (mixed freight and passenger) Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 3

4 Gö GrönATåget research programme The Gröna Tåget research programme Trafikverket, KTH, research institutes, Bombardier, SJ AB, consultants Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 4

5 Gröna Tåget Grønne Toget/The Green Train Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 5

6 Carbody tilt To increase speed in curves Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 6

7 Boogie technology Track-friendly soft boogie Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 7

8 The Gröna Tåget cost model Train data Type of service Load factor Capital costs Onboard personnel costs Terminal costs Energy costs Maintenance costs Infrastructure user fees Sales costs Administration and planning Calculation of general operational costs Calculation of operational costs per case Cost per train-km Cost per passenger-km Cost per seat-km Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 8

9 Most important factors for low costs in train operations Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 9

10 Total operational cost as a function of commercial speed 0,60 Total cost Kr/ /sittplatskm (SEK/sea at-km) 0,50 0,40 0,30 0,20 0,10 0, Commercial Medelhastighet speed (km/h) Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 10

11 Total operational cost as a function of space utilisation 0,60 Total cost Kr r/sittplatskm (SEK/sea mat-km) 0,50 0,40 0, ,20 0, ,00 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,4 2,6 2,8 3,0 3,2 3,4 3,6 Sittplatser per meter tåglängd Seats per metre of train length Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 11

12 Total operational cost as a function of load factor Total cost Kr/ r/personkm (SEK/pas ss-km) 1,60 1,40 1,20 1,00 0, ,60 0,40 0,20 0,00 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Load Beläggningsgrad factor Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 12

13 Gröna Tåget high-speed concept Carbody tilt (optional) High top speed of 250 km/h on conventional lines, a 320 km/h version for new lines possible Wide-body Shorter, flexible trainsets Reliable in Nordic winter Lower total costs Lower energy consumption (economy and energy efficient) Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 13

14 Carbody width 2,95 m 3,46-3,55 m ICE3 Continental profile Gröna Tåget Wide body Norway, Sweden, Copenhagen Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 14

15 Comparison of train sets Space utilisation Wide-body trains have 25-30% more seats in every car Space efficient seats and train layout An EMU is lacking a locomotive/power unit (cf. the X 2000) Gröna tåget (wide body) approx. 300 seats 108 m Gröna tåget (continental profile) approx. 300 seats 134 m X 2000 (normal profile) 309 seats 165 m Illustration by Oskar Fröidh, Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 15

16 Effects of Gröna Tåget Higher top speed (250 km/h up) Tilting capability Wide body (2+3 seating) Shorter trainsets, flexible train length Market effects Better supply Increased travel demand Improved economy of operation Increased accessibility, cost-benefit ratio improves Less air and car travel sustainable environment Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 16

17 Suggested strategy Gardermoen Airport Kongsvinger Torsby The Oslo Stockholm corridor Oslo Lillestrøm Ski Moss Stenungsund Gothenburg Sarpsborg Halden A Arvika Alingsås Kil Karlstad Mariestad Lidköping Herrljunga Skövde Falköping Hasselfors Laxå Mjölby Hovsta Fagersta Örebro Hallsberg Motala Tranås Arboga Katrineholm Linköping Sala Västerås Eskilstuna D9 Flen Norrköping Enköping Bålsta Gnesta Järna Södertälje Fredrikstad Strömstad Vagnhärad Nyköping Oxelösund Uppsala Arlanda Airport Stockholm Map: Oskar Fröidh, 2010 Railway, mixed services or passenger only Railway, freight only High-speed link, proposed p Existing corridor Oslo Stockholm High-speed corridor, new link/existing line Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 17

18 Total operating costs The Gröna Tåget cost model Applied on Oslo Stockholm corridor Total operating costs conventional lines Total operating costs high speed lines 0,50 0,50 0,45 0,45 0,40 0,40 0,35 0,35 NOK/seat k km 0,30 0,25 0,20 0,15 NOK/seat k km 0,30 0,25 0,20 0, , ,10 0,05 0,05 0,00 SJ X 2000 (309 seats) NSB BM73 (204 seats) GT Wide 4 (300 seats) 0,00 GT Wide 4 (250 km/h; GT Wide 6 (320 km/h; DB ICE3 (320 km/h; 300 seats) 450 seats) 444 seats) Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 18

19 Lower ticket price more journeys The Oslo Stockholm corridor Total operating cost for 1 single journey in 2010 s prices Operating cost not the same as ticket price (which includes yield management and profit), but an indication Existing line (570 km, 4h50) Train type Operating cost 1 Travel demand 2 NSB BM73 NOK 428 ref. SJ X 2000 NOK % Gröna Tåget (GTW-4) NOK % High-speed line (491 km, 2h30) Train type Operating cost 1 Travel demand 2 DB ICE3 NOK 312 ref. Gröna Tåget (GTW-6) NOK % 1) Load factor 60% 2) At a fare elasticity of Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 19

20 Total operating costs Gröna Tåget cost model Applied on Oslo Stockholm corridor High-speed has 20% lower operating costs than services on a conventional line. Effect of shorter distance and time N OK/Seat km Total operating costs by line standard 0,50 0,45 0,40 0,35 0,30 0,25 0,20 0,15 0,10 0,05 0,00 Conventional line High speed line Efficient space utilisation (Widebody) has 15% lower operating costs than continental t carbody NSB BM73 (204 seats) GT Wide 4 (300 seats) Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 20

21 Gröna Tåget in Scandinavia Higher speeds (250 km/h or more) of interest in all countries (DK, FI, NO, SE) Conventional network supplemented by new high-speed links Wide-bodied trains possible (according to European norms, but critical in DK) Many prerequisites in common (climate, market, economy, social order) Larger market for improved design and lower price of trains Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 21

22 Energy consumption All modes, Norway kwh/pass.-km Train Metro Tram Bus Train Car Car Taxi Air Local (electric) (diesel) ferries boats From Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 22

23 Energy consumption Stockholm Gothenburg (455 km) Existing main line Wh/pass.-km Old loco-hauled train (160 km/h; 4 hrs; Lf*44%) X 2000 (200 km/h; 2h45; Lf*55%) 77 Gröna Tåget (250 km/h; 2h30; Lf*60%) 52 New high-speed line (Götaland line) Gröna Tåget (320 km/h; 2 hrs: Lf*60%) 69 Reference values European high-speed average (2009; Lf*65%) 61 2 Airplane (Boeing ; Lf*65%) ) Equivalent to NSB average today 2) Longer trains than on Stockholm-Gothenburg Electricity from public grid; 3) Energy content in fuel * Load factor/cabin factor; Share of occupied seats Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 23

24 Energy supply and the environment Railways use 1-2% of electricity (Sweden) Environmental load, incl. emissions of CO 2, dependent on energy source for electricity generation Electricity mix on the common Nordic market gives relatively low CO 2 emissions due to high proportion of hydroelectric and nuclear* power For increased steady use, biofuel, wind, hydroelectric, nuclear* and natural gas are more or less economic and likely power sources Limited grid transfer capacity and high costs make for example German coal power only a marginal option * Finland, Sweden Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 24

25 How can Gröna Tåget contribute to the Norwegian High-speed rail assessment? Economic and environmental friendly concept solution for existing lines as well as new high-speedh lines Increased travel demand due to shorter travelling times and lower operating costs (lower ticket prices) A technical solution (tilting carbodies, track-friendly boogies, winter ability) that suits Nordic operators A flexible concept on a common technical platform assures lower prices for standardised rolling stock Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 25

26 Illustrationer från Konstfack, Stockholm University College of Arts Crafts and Design Gröna Tåget a high-speed train. Oskar Fröidh, KTH 26

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