Penn State University Equine Environmental Stewardship Program

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Penn State University Equine Environmental Stewardship Program"

Transcription

1 Penn State University Equine Environmental Stewardship Program In partnership with the Northeast Region Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education Program

2 Penn State Equine Stewardship Program Promoting Care of the Horse, the Environment, and the Industry Through Research and Education

3 Mission Statement Due to the continual growth and diversity of the equine industry in Pennsylvania and the increasingly important role that the industry plays in supporting agriculture, the Penn State Equine Stewardship Work Group has been established to provide current, research-based information that is both relevant and timely. The program promotes care of the horse and the environment for the entire industry by providing research and education designed to enhance environmental health, water quality, sustainable farm management practices, and horse health and wellbeing.

4 Module 1. The Grass is Always Greener: Forage Biology and Grazing Management

5

6

7

8 Horses should consume 1.5 to 3% of their body weight in feed each day. At least 70% should be forage!

9 Most horses can be maintained nutritionally on well-managed pastures, if provided with water and trace minerals.

10 Enhances overall health Reduces stress Reduces feed costs - more $$$ for more horses!

11

12 A well managed pasture can recycle nutrients from dropped manure and reduces the need to deal with manure and bedding from stalls and dry lots.

13 Soil erosion Weeds Water contamination

14 Pasture-related health issues: Excessive weight gain Colic and laminitis Spread of gastrointestinal parasites.

15

16 Cost of 3 acres $50,000 Taxes $ 3,000 Fence $10,000 Fertilizer $ 1,000 Tractor $10,000 Mower $ 1,000 Total: $75,000

17 Plants that provide animals with nutrition. Plants that supple proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and are high in FIBER!

18 Horse pastures consist of grasses such as timothy, brome, orchard grass, ryegrass, bluegrass, and fescue

19 and legumes such as white clover, red clover, or alfalfa. What are legumes?

20 Cool season grasses.. Are the mainstay of most horse pastures. Grow best at temperatures of 65 to 80 F. Growth slows in summer.

21 Species April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Kentucky bluegrass Orchardgrass Reed Conarygrass Alfalfa Red clover White clover

22 Pasture Species Ky. Bluegrass/ white clover Alfalfa/grass Tall grass plus nitrogen Warm-season grass Annual Pasture Yield Acres required to provide forage needs for one animal unit 1 Prod. (T/A DM) Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Based on an animal unit consuming 25 lb dry matter (DM) forage per day with 70% of pasture utilized.

23 April May June July Aug. Sept. White Clover Bluegrass 1 ton / acre Tall Grass (fertilized) 2 tons / acre

24

25 Non-reproductive stage which has higher nutritional value than mature reproductive stages Why?

26 In early summer, grasses that are not mowed or grazed will develop a seed head. Once the seed head emerges, the grass will not produce additional leaves. Reproductive grasses are lower in nutritional quality than vegetative grasses.

27 Increases nutrition. Reduces weed pressure. Reduces stress caused by mowing when stems are elongating

28 Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass should be maintained at 2-3 inches in height. Tall grasses should be maintained at 4-5 inches.

29 Site of plant food production, which is called Requires: CO2, water, sunlight, minerals, favorable temperature. Produces simple sugars (glucose/fructans) and carbohydrates.

30 During night time hours, the sugars and carbohydrates supply energy for the synthesis of proteins and structural materials used for plant growth. Sugars are used in the process. Energy use and growth ceases when night time temperatures fall below 45. Sugars may accumulate in plants when bright, sunny days precede cold nights.

31 Species Storage Site Alfalfa Tap root Red clover Tap root White clover Stolons and tap root Bluegrass Roots and rhizomes Tall fescue Lower stem (0-3 ) Orchard Grass Lower stem Timothy Lower stem and corms

32 Horses bite off pasture grasses with their front teeth and can graze the pasture at ground level. Forage species that store food above ground can be eliminated if grazing pressure is high. Plants must have time to recover!!!

33 Horses spot graze favorite areas, selectively graze favorite species, and are capable of eliminating plants if pastures are not managed.

34 Exercise area < 1.5 acres per horse Pasture > 2 acres per horse

35 One horse can be maintained on: ½ acre of pasture, if turnout time = < than 3 hr/d 1 acre of pasture, if turnout time = 3 to 8 hr/d 1 ½ acre of pasture, if turnout time = 8 to 12 hr/d > 2 acres = unlimited turnout time Mowing, irrigating, fertilizing, over-seeding, and rotating pastures can allow higher animal densities while still maintaining proper vegetative cover.

36 S W KEY Stable Water

37 Corral S W

38 Corral S W

39

40

41 Small enclosure such as a paddock, corral, or pen. Called a sacrifice area because a small area is sacrificed to benefit the rest of the pastures on the farm.

42 During wet conditions During drought Early spring If horse population exceeds carrying capacity of the pasture

43 Site the sacrifice lot on higher ground, at least 100 feet from wetlands, streams, or ponds. Look for an area with a slight slope. Most Importantly Do not locate the sacrifice area in a bowl or depression where water naturally gathers.

44 Is it located close to manure and hay storage for easy daily chores? Do your horses have access to fresh water? Can horses be fed without walking through the sacrifice area? Can you move horses easily?

45 12 x24 is the minimum size for one horse x 100 in length horse can trot x 200 in length horse can gallop NRCS standard is 1,000 square feet per animal unit (1,000 lbs)

46 Cover the area with a layer of stone aggregate topped with a minimum of 2-3 inches of finer stone dust. Slightly slope the area so that water runs off of the stress lot. Surround the sacrifice area with vegetation to filter out any organic matter and sediment that might run off.

47 Reduces urine odor Higher maintenance due to wood breaking down Know type of trees used and avoid Black Walnut and Cherry.

48 Crushed stone (stone dust) original surface- will pack and may be hard, manure can be picked. Gravel - 3/8 to 5/8-6-8 for best results Coarse, washed sand DO NOT feed horses on sand surfaces

49 Geotextile used to separate layers Cover geotextile with 4 to 6 inches of crushed rock (1/4 to 1 ½ ) and a minimum of 2 to 3 inches of stone dust. Can follow by a choice of footing gravel, sand or wood chips

50 Do not turn horses out on lush green pastures all at once. Horses may experience: Colic Laminitis Gradually increase grazing time or use a grazing muzzle

51 It is very important to regularly monitor and evaluate pastures.

52 1. Equine Pasture Evaluation Disc (EPED) 2. PA Equine Pasture Condition Score Sheet

53 Provides unbiased, quantitative data on pasture composition and canopy cover. Why is canopy cover important? Used to determine % canopy cover of all plants Used to determine % of plants that supply nutrition

54 Farm Number % Canopy Cover % Desirable Plant 1 80% 43% 2 83% 64% 10 98% 83% 13 90% 41% 17 92% 97% 19 53% 21%

55 Numerical system used to rank pastures as very poor, poor, good, or very good.

56 0-10 = very poor = poor = good = very good

57 1. Grazing value of plants 2. Density 3. Diversity 4. Plant health (vigor) 5. Legumes 6. Intensity of use 7. Uniformity of grazing 8. Plant residue 9. Soil erosion 10. Woody canopy

58 Evaluate your pastures often. Set attainable goals for pastures and develop a plan to achieve those goals. Rest and rotation are critical practices on high density equine operations.

59 Remember..It is much easier to maintain healthy pastures than to repair pastures that have deteriorated.

60 Penn State University Equine Natural Working Group Chairs Dr. Ann Swinker, PSU Equine Specialist Tom Walker, Extension Central CEO Donna Foulk, PSU Northampton County Educator

61 Team Members Helene McKernan, PSU Equine Specialist Nancy Kadwill, Extension CEO Southeast Donna Zang, Extension CEO West Lisa Jones, York Extension 4-H/Youth Pat Comerford, PSU Horse Specialist Andrea Graeff Kocher, PSU Horse Specialist

62 Donna L. Foulk Extension Educator Equine Natural Resources Penn State Cooperative Extension, Northampton County or The Pennsylvania State University is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to programs, facilities, admission, and employment without regard to personal characteristics not related to ability, performance, or qualifications as determined by University policy or by state or federal authorities. It is the policy of the University to maintain an academic and work environment free of discrimination, including harassment. The Pennsylvania State University prohibits discrimination and harassment against any person because of age, ancestry, color, disability or handicap, national origin, race, religious creed, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, or veteran status. Discrimination or harassment against faculty, staff, or students will not be tolerated at The Pennsylvania State University. Direct all inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination policy to the Affirmative Action Director, The Pennsylvania State University, 328 Boucke Building, University Park, PA ; Tel /V, /TTY This publication is available in alternative media on request.

Sheep housing, Fencing, Feeders, and Equipment

Sheep housing, Fencing, Feeders, and Equipment Sheep housing, Fencing, Feeders, and Equipment Agricultural and Biological Engineering abe.psu.edu No. IP 725-24 This Idea Plan is intended to provide educational information and ideas concerning housing;

More information

Backyard Rabbit Hutches

Backyard Rabbit Hutches Penn State Extension Backyard Rabbit Hutches Agricultural and Biological Engineering abe.psu.edu No. IP 729-31 This Idea Plan is intended to provide educational information and ideas concerning housing

More information

Backyard Poultry and Pigeon Houses

Backyard Poultry and Pigeon Houses Backyard Poultry and Pigeon Houses Agricultural and Biological Engineering abe.psu.edu No. IP 727-25 This Idea Plan is intended to provide educational information and ideas concerning housing for backyard

More information

Maintaining a Healthy Lawn

Maintaining a Healthy Lawn Maintaining a Healthy Lawn in Western Oregon A.M. VanDerZanden and T. Cook EC 1521 Reprinted February 2001 $1.50 The typical home lawn is an evolving ecosystem that gets more complex each year. At first,

More information

Managing Healthy Pastures in Clallam County

Managing Healthy Pastures in Clallam County Managing Healthy Pastures in Clallam County What is Pasture Management? This guide will help you learn how to take care of your pastures so you can grow more feed for your livestock. Think of yourself

More information

ennessee is one of the top livestock producing states in the country. Much of the livestock in Tennessee is raised by smaller-scale, parttime

ennessee is one of the top livestock producing states in the country. Much of the livestock in Tennessee is raised by smaller-scale, parttime T ennessee is one of the top livestock producing states in the country. Much of the livestock in Tennessee is raised by smaller-scale, parttime producers. No matter what size operation, good pasture management

More information

Goat Housing and Equipment

Goat Housing and Equipment Penn State Extension Goat Housing and Equipment Agricultural and Biological Engineering abe.psu.edu No. IP 728-26 This Idea Plan is intended to provide educational information and ideas concerning housing

More information

The ABCs of Pasture Grazing

The ABCs of Pasture Grazing L P E S Small Farms Fact Sheet series Livestock and Poultry Environmental Stewardship < L P E S > Curriculum By Ben Bartlett, Michigan State University Summary Well-managed pastures are Always the Best

More information

PUTTING FORAGES TOGETHER FOR YEAR ROUND GRAZING

PUTTING FORAGES TOGETHER FOR YEAR ROUND GRAZING PUTTING FORAGES TOGETHER FOR YEAR ROUND GRAZING Jimmy C. Henning A good rotational grazing system begins with a forage system that allows the maximum number of grazing days per year with forages that are

More information

FORAGES Gwinyai E. Chibisa, Ph.D.

FORAGES Gwinyai E. Chibisa, Ph.D. FORAGES Gwinyai E. Chibisa, Ph.D. http://craig-stephen.photoshelter.com/image/i0000ywgwhaenwsi What is Forage? Characteristics i. Bulky ii. iii. Implications on animal nutrition? High fiber Is fiber important?

More information

Forage Value Chapter 2. Forage Value

Forage Value Chapter 2. Forage Value Forage Value Chapter 2 Forage Value 2 Livestock producers in the western United States, including Oregon, are at an economic disadvantage relative to those in some other regions in North America because

More information

Improving Existing Pasture

Improving Existing Pasture Improving Existing Pasture I. Introduction The first thought of many is to plow up and reseed old pasture areas. However in most cases it may be best to try to work with and improve some or all of the

More information

Forage Quality. Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist

Forage Quality. Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist Forage Quality Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist Forage Quality and Pasture Nutrition Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist Intensive Grazing vs MiG Is This High Quality Forage? Is This High Quality

More information

Holistic Grazing Planning

Holistic Grazing Planning Holistic Grazing Planning Increase Forage and Animal Productivity Holistic Management and Holistic Management International/Healthy Land/Sustainable Future are registered trademarks of Holistic Management

More information

Manure Management for Livestock Owners. Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.

Manure Management for Livestock Owners. Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. Manure Management for Livestock Owners Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. Disclaimer This material is based upon work supported under a grant by the Rural Utilities Service, United States Department of

More information

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension Start Farming Introduction to Soils Fact 4 Determining Nutrient Applications for Small Farms Basic Calculations Conventional Generally production systems in Pennsylvania use a mixture of nutrient sources.

More information

Estimating Cash Rental Rates for Farmland

Estimating Cash Rental Rates for Farmland Estimating Cash Rental Rates for Farmland Tenant operators farm more than half of the crop land in Iowa. Moreover, nearly 70 percent of the rented crop land is operated under a cash lease. Cash leases

More information

Virginia Cooperative Extension

Virginia Cooperative Extension Virginia Cooperative Extension A partnership of Virginia Tech and Virginia State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Bedford County/City Office County Administration Building 122 East Main

More information

Preparing for a Water Emergency

Preparing for a Water Emergency A tool for food processors, food manufacturers, and other large volume water users to be better prepared for water shortage and contamination emergencies Good business planning includes reducing risk and

More information

Background. AEM Tier 2 Worksheet Manure Management for Horses: Nutrient Management, Storage, Field Application and/or Off-Farm Disposal.

Background. AEM Tier 2 Worksheet Manure Management for Horses: Nutrient Management, Storage, Field Application and/or Off-Farm Disposal. AEM Tier 2 Worksheet Manure Management for Horses: Nutrient Management, Storage, Field Application and/or Off-Farm Disposal Glossary Compost: Biological degradation of manure and other organic material

More information

Grass Legume Mixtures:

Grass Legume Mixtures: Mid Atlantic Dairy Grazing Conference Grass Legume Mixtures: Dairy grazing is high value grazing. Persistence (seedbank or root system), Quality (digestibility) Productivity per acre and per animal Perennials

More information

Horse Manure Compost The Renewable Resource. Dr Ann Swinker, Penn State University

Horse Manure Compost The Renewable Resource. Dr Ann Swinker, Penn State University Horse Manure Compost The Renewable Resource Dr Ann Swinker, Penn State University How Much?? Waste Space One 1,000 lbs. horse produces ~45 lbs. manure daily+ Bedding = 730 cubic feet/year of waste to manage

More information

Managing Annual Ryegrass as a Cover Crop

Managing Annual Ryegrass as a Cover Crop Managing Annual Ryegrass as a Cover Crop Michael Plumer Natural Resources Management Reasons to Use Cover Crops Improved soil tilth Increase Organic Matter Increase soil biological activity Improve soil

More information

A Guide to Collecting Soil Samples for Farms and Gardens

A Guide to Collecting Soil Samples for Farms and Gardens A Guide to Collecting Soil Samples for Farms and Gardens M. Fery and E. Murphy Without a soil analysis, it s nearly impossible to determine what a soil needs in order to be productive. Laboratory soil

More information

The estimated costs of corn, corn silage,

The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, Estimated Costs of Crop Ag Decision Maker Production in Iowa - 2015 File A1-20 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report are based on data from

More information

Kansas Crop Planting Guide

Kansas Crop Planting Guide Kansas Crop Planting Guide Kansas is agronomically rich, with diverse soils and growing conditions. The average number of freeze-free days ranges from 150 in the northwest to 200 in southeastern Kansas.

More information

Whitetail Deer Food Plot Considerations

Whitetail Deer Food Plot Considerations Whitetail Deer Food Plot Considerations Food plots are a way the sportsman or nature enthusiast can provide nutrients for deer. Currently, Illinois game law prohibits any other means of feeding whitetail

More information

Nutrient and Fertilizer Value of Dairy Manure

Nutrient and Fertilizer Value of Dairy Manure Agriculture and Natural Resources FSA4017 Nutrient and Fertilizer Value of Dairy Manure Jodie A. Pennington Professor - Dairy and Goats Karl VanDevender Professor - Waste Management John A. Jennings Professor

More information

SOIL HEALTH COVER CROPS RELAY CROPPING

SOIL HEALTH COVER CROPS RELAY CROPPING SOIL HEALTH COVER CROPS RELAY CROPPING Sustainable Agriculture in North Dakota Tim Semler Extension Agent Farm Business Management 1 As a crop producer only Why grow a cover crop (CC)? CC pros: Prevented

More information

CAKE DECORATING PROJECT

CAKE DECORATING PROJECT Northumberland County 4-H CAKE DECORATING PROJECT For Levels 1 3 Name: Club: Leader: Year: Level: All levels must complete the Cake Decorating Project Record book. (You are encouraged to keep a photo record

More information

No-till Establishment of Forage Crops Gary Bates, Associate Professor, Plant and Soil Science H. Paul Denton, Professor, Plant and Soil Science

No-till Establishment of Forage Crops Gary Bates, Associate Professor, Plant and Soil Science H. Paul Denton, Professor, Plant and Soil Science Agricultural Extension Service The University of Tennessee No-till Establishment of Forage Crops Gary Bates, Associate Professor, Plant and Soil Science H. Paul Denton, Professor, Plant and Soil Science

More information

Forage Economics, page2. Production Costs

Forage Economics, page2. Production Costs Forage Economics Geoffrey A. Benson, Professor Emeritus, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, and James T. Green, Jr., Professor Emeritus, Department of Crop Science, NC State University

More information

Growth of Pasture Plants

Growth of Pasture Plants Growth of Pasture Plants 3 GREG J. BISHOP-HURLEY In a grazing situation it is important to understand both how plants function and their form and structure. Every plant growth response is caused by a series

More information

Tillage RootMax Annual Ryegrass

Tillage RootMax Annual Ryegrass Tillage RootMax Annual Ryegrass Tillage RootMax Annual Ryegrass is the premium annual ryegrass in today s marketplace. It has been screened and selected for winter hardiness, rooting depth, and especially

More information

Managing of Annual Winter Forages in Southwest Texas

Managing of Annual Winter Forages in Southwest Texas r r r rr EDUCATION RESEARCH EXTENSION The Texas A&M University System Soil & Crop Sciences Managing of Annual Winter Forages in Southwest Texas Mr Charles Stichler Assocaite Professor and Extension Agronomist

More information

Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University!

Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University! Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University! Outline! Understanding weeds! Behavior of wandering perennials! Tillage and emergence cues! Life and death of weed seeds in the soil!

More information

Sustainable Fescue Lawns in the Piedmont

Sustainable Fescue Lawns in the Piedmont Sustainable Fescue Lawns in the Piedmont The Value of Lawns Add value to your home Stabilize the soil & prevent erosion Filter water before it reaches drinking water Produce oxygen Trap pollutants in thatch

More information

Animal Waste Management for the Horseowner

Animal Waste Management for the Horseowner Fact Sheet 95-11 Animal Waste Management for the Horseowner Al Cirelli, Jr., State Horse Specialist INTRODUCTION: Whether you have one horse or several, proper animal waste management is important, Proper

More information

Penn State Master Gardener POLICY STATEMENT

Penn State Master Gardener POLICY STATEMENT Department of Horticulture Master Gardener Program Penn State Master Gardener POLICY STATEMENT I. Program Mission: The mission of the Penn State Master Gardener volunteer program is to support Penn State

More information

Procedure for Creating a Listserv/Email Alias

Procedure for Creating a Listserv/Email Alias November 14, 2011 Alternative Format Statement This publication is available in alternative media upon request. Statement of Non-Discrimination The Pennsylvania State University is committed to the policy

More information

A Review of Factors Affecting Carbohydrate Levels in Forage. Kathryn A. Watts, B.S., N. Jerry Chatterton, Ph. D.

A Review of Factors Affecting Carbohydrate Levels in Forage. Kathryn A. Watts, B.S., N. Jerry Chatterton, Ph. D. Kathryn A. Watts, B.S., N. Jerry Chatterton, Ph. D. Take home message: Carbohydrate concentration of forages should be taken into account when formulating rations for carbohydrate intolerant equines. Carbohydrate

More information

Pennsylvania Junior Dairy Show Leasing Rule

Pennsylvania Junior Dairy Show Leasing Rule Pennsylvania Junior Dairy Show Leasing Rule 1. Leased animals may be exhibited at the Pennsylvania Junior Dairy Show. Existence of a lease must be verified by the home county or school; the county or school

More information

CORN IS GROWN ON MORE ACRES OF IOWA LAND THAN ANY OTHER CROP.

CORN IS GROWN ON MORE ACRES OF IOWA LAND THAN ANY OTHER CROP. CORN IS GROWN ON MORE ACRES OF IOWA LAND THAN ANY OTHER CROP. Planted acreage reached a high in 1981 with 14.4 million acres planted for all purposes and has hovered near 12.5 million acres since the early

More information

LAND APPLICATION OF MANURE A supplement to Manure Management for Environmental Protection

LAND APPLICATION OF MANURE A supplement to Manure Management for Environmental Protection DRAFT LAND APPLICATION OF MANURE A supplement to Manure Management for Environmental Protection Manure Management Plan Standard Format To Be Completed and Retained By All Farms That Land Apply Manure Commonwealth

More information

Manure as a Fertilizer

Manure as a Fertilizer University of California Tulare County Cooperative Extension Manure as a Fertilizer Pete Christensen, Ext. Viticulture Specialist and Bill Peacock, Tulare County Farm Advisor Pub. NG7-97 Manure is an excellent

More information

Ken Miller farms and ranches 2,000 acres

Ken Miller farms and ranches 2,000 acres A project of the National Center for Appropriate Technology 1-800-346-9140 No-Till Case Study, Miller Farm: Restoring Grazing Land with Cover Crops By Susan Tallman NCAT Agronomist Published November 2012

More information

Livestock Yards and Manure Storage Areas on Small Acreages Protecting Our Drinking Water, Families, and Animals

Livestock Yards and Manure Storage Areas on Small Acreages Protecting Our Drinking Water, Families, and Animals Livestock Yards and Manure Storage Areas on Small Acreages Protecting Our Drinking Water, Families, and Animals Fact sheet 2, Small Acreage Livestock and Horse Series, March 2010 Manure, bedding and feed

More information

Drought Damaged Lawns Need Help

Drought Damaged Lawns Need Help September 2012 Prepared by David Minner, extension turfgrass specialist Iowa State University Extension and Outreach Drought Damaged Lawns Need Help While the drought of 2012 may be remembered more for

More information

Protecting our Lakes and Rivers through Sustainable Landscaping

Protecting our Lakes and Rivers through Sustainable Landscaping The UCONN Extension Sustainable Landscaping for Water Quality Series Protecting our Lakes and Rivers through Sustainable Landscaping Roy F. Jeffrey Roy.jeffrey@uconn.edu Connecticut s Land Use Changes

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Data Warehouse & EIS: An Overview and Comparison

Data Warehouse & EIS: An Overview and Comparison Data Warehouse & EIS: An Overview and Comparison Delivered by ITS Training Services for Penn State ITS Training Services 23 Willard Building University Park, PA 16802 814-863-9522 itstraining@psu.edu http://its.psu.edu/training/

More information

RANGE. Grass Growth and Response to Grazing no Quick Facts...

RANGE. Grass Growth and Response to Grazing no Quick Facts... N A T U R A L R E S O U R C E S S E R I E S RANGE Grass Growth and Response to Grazing no. 6.108 by M.J. Trlica 1 Quick Facts... Leaves are more palatable than stems, and new growth or regrowth is more

More information

Susan Hoey Lees Aug, 2013

Susan Hoey Lees Aug, 2013 Susan Hoey Lees Aug, 2013 Mud (Drainage) & Health Management Starts with Understanding your Site Specific Resources first: To Help Save or Improve your Sites Resources: Soil, Water, Air, Plants, Animal,

More information

Mud in the Water. www.agclassroom.org/ok. Oklahoma Academic Standards. Objective. Background. Resources Needed. Activities

Mud in the Water. www.agclassroom.org/ok. Oklahoma Academic Standards. Objective. Background. Resources Needed. Activities Mud in the Water Objective Students will learn about soil erosion and water pollution by building a demonstration model from pop bottles and observing the movement of pollutants from soil into water. Background

More information

Mulching is a long-established horticultural

Mulching is a long-established horticultural E-512 07-09 Easy Gardening MULCHING MULCHING MULCHING MULCHING Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System Mulching is a long-established horticultural

More information

SECTION EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION CONTROL

SECTION EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION CONTROL SECTION 312500 EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION CONTROL Scope : During construction, temporary and permanent protective structures and measures as detailed in the following paragraphs shall be implemented and

More information

Best Management Farming Practices for Water Quality Protection Critical Area Planting (342) Fact Sheet

Best Management Farming Practices for Water Quality Protection Critical Area Planting (342) Fact Sheet BMP: Bare soil is covered with vegetation, ditches and banks are protected from concentrated flow, gullies and ditches are stabilized, and erosion is reduced on noncropped areas. Crop and air quality protected

More information

Soil Sampling and Testing

Soil Sampling and Testing Soil Sampling and Testing Ed Rayburn and Tom Basden, Extension Specialists WVU Extension Service, Agriculture and Natural Resources June 2014 Why soil test Plants need adequate mineral nutrients to grow

More information

Grazing Systems Planning Guide

Grazing Systems Planning Guide Grazing Systems Planning Guide Kevin Blanchet University of Minnesota Extension Service Howard Moechnig Natural Resources Conservation Service Minnesota Board of Water & Soil Resources Jodi DeJong-Hughes

More information

PREVENTING PEST DAMAGE IN HOME LAWNS

PREVENTING PEST DAMAGE IN HOME LAWNS PREVENTING PEST DAMAGE IN HOME LAWNS Quick Tips Summary Use mixed grass seeds rather than a single variety Fertilize with composted organics or slow-acting synthetic products Keep soil at ph 5.8 6.5 Keep

More information

DESIGNING YOUR LANDSCAPE

DESIGNING YOUR LANDSCAPE DESIGNING YOUR LANDSCAPE SITE AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT Examine all existing features of your site that could affect your landscape design and then identify the functions you want your landscape to serve. Site

More information

PEST MANAGEMENT (CSP Enhancements) January 2006 Enhancement Activity Task Sheet

PEST MANAGEMENT (CSP Enhancements) January 2006 Enhancement Activity Task Sheet Reduced risks to ground and surface water quality Lower costs by limiting chemical applications to only when necessary To learn more about Integrated Pest Management go to the following website: http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/ipm01.pdf

More information

Introduction and Survey of Pacific Northwest Seed Crops. Thomas G Chastain CROP 460/560 Seed Production

Introduction and Survey of Pacific Northwest Seed Crops. Thomas G Chastain CROP 460/560 Seed Production Introduction and Survey of Pacific Northwest Seed Crops Thomas G Chastain CROP 460/560 Seed Production Seed Production: A Specialized Form of Crop Production Seed Production is the activity, science, and

More information

Identification and Prevention of Frost or Freeze Damage By Linda Reddick, Kingman Area Master Gardener

Identification and Prevention of Frost or Freeze Damage By Linda Reddick, Kingman Area Master Gardener KINGMAN IS GROWING! COLUMN Identification and Prevention of Frost or Freeze Damage By Linda Reddick, Kingman Area Master Gardener Again this year we have been experiencing some very cold weather, with

More information

Self-Certification Checklist

Self-Certification Checklist Rhode Island Department of Environmental Managment Sustainable Turf Management for Landscaping Self-Certification Checklist Sustainable Turf Management for Landscaping Certification Program Rhode Island

More information

Gestation.

Gestation. publication 400-012 Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Production Cycle Nutrition and Nutrient Requirements of Cows, Pregnant Heifers and Bulls John B. Hall, Extension Animal Scientist, Virginia

More information

Note: 'Yanero' was previously known as Brachiaria dictyoneura CIAT 6133.

Note: 'Yanero' was previously known as Brachiaria dictyoneura CIAT 6133. They should be grazed frequently during the wet season otherwise they produce a lot of stems which are unpalatable. Establishment from stolons is easy. Planting from seed is often difficult since it is

More information

Food Plot Plantings f o r Wh i t e-t a i l e d De e r in Lo u i s i a n a

Food Plot Plantings f o r Wh i t e-t a i l e d De e r in Lo u i s i a n a Food Plot Plantings f o r Wh i t e-t a i l e d De e r in Lo u i s i a n a 1 introduction Hunters and land managers are always seeking new and more innovative ways to improve the quality and attractiveness

More information

WATER, HEAT STRESS, AND DROUGHT

WATER, HEAT STRESS, AND DROUGHT WATER, HEAT STRESS, AND DROUGHT Barbara Bellows, NCAT Agriculture Specialist Slide 1 Livestock Water Use Criteria Animal characteristics Animal species and breed Animal size Animal age and condition Pasture

More information

OVERSEEDING BERMUDAGRASS SPORTS FIELDS A. J. Powell, Jr., Extension Turfgrass Specialist

OVERSEEDING BERMUDAGRASS SPORTS FIELDS A. J. Powell, Jr., Extension Turfgrass Specialist OVERSEEDING BERMUDAGRASS SPORTS FIELDS A. J. Powell, Jr., Extension Turfgrass Specialist The quality of sport fields in Kentucky has greatly improved with increased utilization of the more winter-hardy

More information

Authors. Beth Auman, Stephanie Gerson, Amanda McCarron

Authors. Beth Auman, Stephanie Gerson, Amanda McCarron Placemat Lingerie Bag Authors Beth Auman, Stephanie Gerson, Amanda McCarron Materials Checklist 1 rectangular quilted fabric placemat 1 yard of extra-wide bias tape 2 9-inch pieces of matching or contrasting

More information

Examples for Land Use Action Plan and Mapping Exercise

Examples for Land Use Action Plan and Mapping Exercise A Land Use Action Plan helps to assess areas of food safety actions that should be addressed because of contamination risks, and it describes a set of steps that will reduce these risks. The following

More information

Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist

Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist The increasing acreage of hops in the Northeast has prompted the need for fertility guidelines

More information

Nutrient Requirements for Beef Cattle

Nutrient Requirements for Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements for Beef Cattle Ed Rayburn, Extension Specialist September 2013 Beef cattle production, using pasture and hay crops, is a major agricultural enterprise in West Virginia. It enables

More information

Turfgrass Management of Bermudagrass Football Fields

Turfgrass Management of Bermudagrass Football Fields HLA-6600 Turfgrass Management of Bermudagrass Football Fields Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Dennis Martin Extension Turfgrass Specialist The first step in developing a turfgrass management program

More information

If we composted many of the things we

If we composted many of the things we E-278 3-11 Easy Gardening osting composting composting composti Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, and Patrick Lillard, Extension Assistant, The Texas A&M System If we composted

More information

Annual Winter Pasture Establishment, Management and Utilization Winter pastures provide the highest quality forage that can be

Annual Winter Pasture Establishment, Management and Utilization Winter pastures provide the highest quality forage that can be Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Texas Agricultural Extension Service The Texas A&M University System SCS-1998-36 Annual Winter Pasture Establishment, Management and Utilization Winter pastures provide

More information

Bounty Forage Sorghum

Bounty Forage Sorghum Bounty Forage Sorghum Sorghum bicolor x sudanese Bounty Forage Sorghum has been bought in as a replacement for the long standing Zulu 2. Bounty offers a new package with improved cold tolerance, early

More information

MANAGING VEGETABLE GARDEN SOIL FERTILITY IN VERMONT Vern Grubinger, Extension Professor, University of Vermont

MANAGING VEGETABLE GARDEN SOIL FERTILITY IN VERMONT Vern Grubinger, Extension Professor, University of Vermont MANAGING VEGETABLE GARDEN SOIL FERTILITY IN VERMONT Vern Grubinger, Extension Professor, University of Vermont Soil fertility is determined by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of soil.

More information

Forage Legumes and Nitrogen Production

Forage Legumes and Nitrogen Production Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service PSS-2590 Forage Legumes and Nitrogen Production John Caddel Forage Agronomy Daren Redfearn Forage and Pasture Management Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

More information

Important Allergenic Grasses

Important Allergenic Grasses Important Allergenic Grasses The following ten sheets describe four of the most important allergenic grasses. There are many other allergenic species, and some are difficult to distinguish unless they

More information

Summer Stress Arrives Early on Cool Season Lawns

Summer Stress Arrives Early on Cool Season Lawns Summer Stress Arrives Early on Cool Season Lawns Figure 1. A fall installed tall fescue sod showing the first signs of summer stress following the arrival of record setting heat in central Virginia in

More information

Weeds WEEDS. Common Purslane

Weeds WEEDS. Common Purslane WEEDS Introduction Weeds are any plants that grow where they are unwanted. Common weeds are fast growing, resilient nuisances that compete with your cultivated plants for nutrients, water, and sunlight.

More information

Care of Mature Backyard Apple Trees

Care of Mature Backyard Apple Trees Education Center and Info Line practical solutions to everyday questions Toll free Info Line 1-877-398-4769 M-F 9 AM - 2 PM Care of Mature Backyard Apple Trees Introduction Backyard apple trees can be

More information

ALFALFA IN THE SOUTH

ALFALFA IN THE SOUTH ALFALFA IN THE SOUTH Alfalfa in the South Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), known as the Queen of Forages, is a high-yielding, perennial legume with excellent nutritive quality and high protein. o Introduced

More information

Getting the Most out of Your Vegetable Garden Soil Test Report

Getting the Most out of Your Vegetable Garden Soil Test Report gardening.cornell.edu Getting the Most out of Your Vegetable Garden Soil Test Report 1. Be certain your soil ph is in the optimal range. 2. Add a nitrogen (N) source at the recommended rate. 3. Add a phosphorus

More information

Estimated Costs of Crop. Production in Iowa - 2016 File A1-20 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, Ag Decision Maker

Estimated Costs of Crop. Production in Iowa - 2016 File A1-20 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, Ag Decision Maker Estimated Costs of Crop Ag Decision Maker Production in Iowa - 2016 File A1-20 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report are based on data from

More information

ITEM 165 HYDRO-MULCH SEEDING (FOR EROSION CONTROL AND STABILIZATION)

ITEM 165 HYDRO-MULCH SEEDING (FOR EROSION CONTROL AND STABILIZATION) AFTER JUNE 1, 2015 ITEM 165 HYDRO-MULCH SEEDING (FOR EROSION CONTROL AND STABILIZATION) 165.1 Description. This Item shall govern for furnishing all labor, materials, equipment, supplies, supervision and

More information

Characterization of Pasture- Based Dairy Farms in Florida and Georgia

Characterization of Pasture- Based Dairy Farms in Florida and Georgia Characterization of Pasture- Based Dairy Farms in Florida and Georgia Fei Du Department of Animal Sciences University of Florida Master s defense July 1, 2013 Introduction Most dairy farms in the Southeast

More information

Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas

Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas B-6053 04-01 Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas Charles Stichler and Mark McFarland* Crop fertilization is not an exact science. The soil is a dynamic, changing, and complex mixture of organic

More information

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality Backyard Buffers Protecting Habitat and Water Quality What is a buffer? A buffer (also called a riparian buffer area or zone) is the strip of natural vegetation along the bank of a stream, lake or other

More information

Table C.2 Modified Cowan method for determining channel roughness Manning s n = (n b + n 1 + n 2 + n 3 + n 4) m

Table C.2 Modified Cowan method for determining channel roughness Manning s n = (n b + n 1 + n 2 + n 3 + n 4) m Manning s Roughness Table C.2 Modified Cowan method for determining channel roughness Manning s n = (n b + n 1 + n 2 + n 3 + n 4) m Channel condition n and m Description values Channel material Earth 0.020

More information

Utilizing Winter Forages. Curtis Jones. Commerce TX

Utilizing Winter Forages. Curtis Jones. Commerce TX Utilizing Winter Forages Curtis Jones Commerce TX Winter Feeding Choices: Hay Hay + Supplementation Stockpiled forage Winter pasture Ryegrass Small grains Legumes Mixtures Soil Testing Annual Testing most

More information

ABCDEFG s of Small Scale Composting

ABCDEFG s of Small Scale Composting Composting ABCDEFG s of Small Scale Composting Ron Godin Area Agronomist Organic/Sustainable Agriculture Colorado State University Extension Delta, CO (970) 874-2197 ron.godin@colostate.edu Composting

More information

Costs, Student Aid, and Scholarships

Costs, Student Aid, and Scholarships OFFICE OF STUDENT AID 2012 13 An Overview OFFICE OF STUDENT AID psu.edu/studentaid UNDERGRADUATE ADMISSIONS OFFICE admissions.psu.edu Costs, Student Aid, and Scholarships A Penn State education is an excellent

More information

Introduction and Survey of Pacific Northwest Seed Crops. Thomas G Chastain CSS 460/560 Seed Production

Introduction and Survey of Pacific Northwest Seed Crops. Thomas G Chastain CSS 460/560 Seed Production Introduction and Survey of Pacific Northwest Seed Crops Thomas G Chastain CSS 460/560 Seed Production Seed Production: A Specialized Form of Crop Production Seed Production is the activity, science, and

More information

FWRC. Cooperators: Delta Wildlife, Inc. Forest and Wildlife Research Center, Mississippi State University

FWRC. Cooperators: Delta Wildlife, Inc. Forest and Wildlife Research Center, Mississippi State University Cooperators: Delta Wildlife, Inc. Forest and Wildlife Research Center, Mississippi State University Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Parks Mississippi Fish and Wildlife Foundation Mississippi

More information

4-H Horse Show Entry and Event Requirements

4-H Horse Show Entry and Event Requirements Updated January 2014 4-H Horse Show Entry and Event Requirements Detailed health requirements for 4-H shows/events are in the current Pennsylvania 4-H Horse Show Rule Book and will apply for 2014 with

More information

Michigan residents use their

Michigan residents use their Lawn A Syst: An environmental risk assessment guide for lawn care practices Michigan residents use their lawns for a wide range of activities. Some desire a formal, manicured appearance; others are interested

More information

Flooding on Sports Fields

Flooding on Sports Fields www.stma.org Flooding on Sports Fields Flooding events caused by excessive rainfall can be extremely detrimental to sports fields. Flooding saturates a rootzone and creates an unfavorable soil environment

More information