Community Infrastructure (CI) Recovery. Krishna S. Vatsa Regional Disaster Reduction Advisor BCPR, UNDP

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1 Community Infrastructure (CI) Recovery Krishna S. Vatsa Regional Disaster Reduction Advisor BCPR, UNDP

2 Defining Community Infrastructure (CI) CI primarily refers to small scale basic physical structures, technical facilities and systems built at the community level Critical for sustenance of lives and livelihoods of the community. Typically low-cost small-scale infrastructures Built over time through community-led initiatives Serve important economic and social functions

3 CI: Typical Examples Community Access Roads, Pavements, Pathways Minor structures such as Drainage structure, culverts, foot bridge, small embankment or protection walls, small earthen dams etc. Small market places and infrastructure within market grounds Water reservoir and water sources, supply pipes, ponds and reservoirs Bio-gas plants, solar home systems for electrification

4 CI: Its Vulnerability Small-scale infrastructure represents a weaker segment of the assets They are generally not constructed to robust specifications; more vulnerable to the impact of disasters. Resources for their upkeep is always an issue: Generally not well-maintained Some of the CI has come up through community efforts; they are not part of the government inventory

5 CI: Damages and their Impacts Destruction of internal and external road communication making the community inaccessible and making the relief work even harder Disruption of socio-economic and cultural activities Disruption of information and communication network, thereby creating isolation and delaying recovery Disruption of drainage, water supply and sanitation facilities which may lead to increased health hazards in the community

6 CI: The HRNA Process Systematic assessment of the nature, type and extent of damages caused by the disaster on the community infrastructure in the affected regions Estimation of losses due to the negative impact or interruption of basic services to the community and also to local economy Recovery of community infrastructure as guided by the insights and participation of communities

7 Assessment Team Municipal Engineers Minor Irrigation Engineers Energy Experts Water and Sanitation Experts Agricultural Economists

8 Securing the Baseline Information Local Governments are an important source of baseline information Reports or special studies available with community based organisations and NGOs Since community infrastructure is closely linked to community livelihoods, a review of baseline livelihood information may provide information upon types of community infrastructure in the affected communities. The national household surveys undertaken periodically by national statistical authority provide useful disaggregated household information of the communities including occupational and livelihood statistics. Household health and nutrition surveys, if available, may provide useful information on water supply and sanitation infrastructure. Reports on industrial surveys, energy surveys, ICT inventories and their extrapolation may contribute in defining baseline information on community infrastructure.

9 Sources of Information upon Damage and Loss Ministry of Local Government: It can collect information through specially conducted survey. Such surveys need to be conducted by the staff of local governments, Panchayats in prescribed and uniform formats Some information may come from line departments maintaining an inventory of local assets NGOs and community-based institutions an important source of information Available area based physical infrastructure map an effective source of information on CI

10 Estimating Damages and Losses The estimation of damages in community infrastructure should be determined by repair or replacement cost expressed in current values. The depreciated value of lost assets (community infrastructures) should not be applied to evaluate disaster damages Indirect losses should be estimated as the difference between net income calculated for a normal scenario, with no disaster, and net income estimated for the disaster scenario

11 Categorizing Damages Depending on type of infrastructure, the assessment team should categorize damages. Threshold for categorization should be decided on the basis of local consultations. Three categories of damages: Minor, Partial, and Complete. A rule of thumb practiced in some countries consider % damage as minor damage % of damages classified as partial damage % of damages classified complete damage Minor damages can be repaired by communities with their own efforts, while partial and complete damages require support from external sources for their repair and reconstruction.

12 Calculating Damages and Losses Types of Community Infrastructure Community access roads Unit Partially damaged Cost of repair Fully damaged Reconstru ction cost Indirect effect (or loss) Total damage and loss Village roads Community Internal Roads Pathways Sub-total Small transport/water structure Foot bridge Pipe culverts

13 Replacement Cost Local wage rates and prices of available materials and equipments: Since community infrastructure employs labourintensive methods and uses locally available resources, the cost of a particular infrastructure is greatly influenced by local wage rates and prices of locally available materials and equipments. The schedule of rates of common types of community infrastructure are usually available with the local government authority, particularly in the technical or engineering unit. Engineers should be able to determine the cost by analyzing the efforts and resources required in each step of the construction method

14 Areas of Assistance for Community Infrastructure Recovery Clearance of debris and opening up access and community sites Restoration and upgrade of community access road network Restoration of water supply and sanitation facilities Restoration of minor infrastructure in the community Assistance to community enterprise recovery Capacity building and training for community and local government institutions

15 Recovery Intervention Restoration and up-gradation of community access road network

16 Recovery Intervention: Restoration of drainage and small scale water resource infrastructure

17 Recovery Intervention: Restoration and strengthening of ICT and Community Early Warning System

18 Design and Technical Considerations (1) CI recovery is a context specific process and should comply with the legal provisions and standards applicable for the affected regions Community infrastructure recovery should use labourintensive technologies and encourage local employment The recovery process should exploit the opportunity to use local resources Design considerations must be reflective of existing disaster risks and should make necessary provisions for making the infrastructure disaster resilient

19 Design and Technical Considerations (2) The recovery process should take account of possible recycling and productive use of construction materials extracted from the debris or rubble after the disaster. The design process must comply and be reflective of gender considerations and sensitive to cultural needs. Design options should be discussed with local communities in order to reflect their needs and expectations

20 Damage, loss and human recovery needs Phased Strategy for Recovery Facilitate rescue and relief operation Removal of rubbles and debris Restore essential facilities and infrastructur e Livelihood restorations Repair and reconstruction of local infrastructure Support self recovery Local enterprise recovery Prepare conditions for long-term development Build community capacity Strengthen local institutions for planning, design and implementation of CI Promote resilience and safety standards; Building codes Sustainable maintenance Short-term Medium-term Long-term

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