Measurements of BC/EC and the contribution of wood burning to PM 10 in Flanders. December 2nd, 2013 Christine Matheeussen

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1 Measurements of BC/EC and the contribution of wood burning to PM in Flanders December 2nd, 2013 Christine Matheeussen

2 Pollutants measured by VMM Number Pollutant 31 PM PM2,5 European Directive 38 NO/NO2 2008/50/EG 20 O3 24 SO2 4 CO 8 VOC (e.g. benzeen) 16 Heavy metals in PM (e.g. Pb, As, Cd, Ni) European Directive 5 PAH in PM (e.g. benzo(a)pyreen) 2004/7/EG 11 Heavy metals in deposition (e.g. Pb, Cd) VLAREM II 3 PAH in deposition 3 Hg 0 Black smoke 14 Black carbon 24 Dioxines en PCB s 9 Acidification 6 Meteorological parameters 2

3 Measurements of BC/EC and the contribution of wood burning to PM in Flanders BC / EC measurements Routine BC measurements BC measurements near E40 highway Local contribution of EC to PM in street canyons and near access roads in cities Contribution of woodburning to PM Conclusions 3

4 Routine BC measurements in Flanders Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP 5012)

5 µg/m3 Routine BC measurements in Flanders Dessel Houtem Hasselt Borgerhout traffic Borgerhout Gent Luchtbal Zwijndrecht Roeselare Zelzate industrial urban suburban rural

6 black carbon (µg/m³) Routine BC measurements in Flanders industrial urban suburban rural

7 BC measurements near E40 highway in Affligem with mobile units April 2012 to Feb m 55 m 6 m 17 m

8 % BC and PM 2.5 measurements near E40 highway with mobile units SW wind L MW02 MW03 MW µg/m = 5,6 µg/m 3 PM 2.5 (µg/m 3 ) = 3,9 µg/m 3 BC (µg/m 3 ) Distance from highway (m) PM2.5 (µg/m3) BC (µg/m3) PM2.5 (%) BC (%)

9 % BC and PM 2.5 measurements near E40 highway with mobile units SW wind L MW02 MW03 MW µg/m BC (%) PM 2.5 (%) Distance from highway (m) PM2.5 (µg/m3) BC (µg/m3) PM2.5 (%) BC (%)

10 Project based measurement of EC and contribution of woodburning to PM PM EC/OC TOT (NIOSH) OC x 1,4 = OM levoglucosan >> GC/MS (trimethylsilylation) OM (wood) = 9,1 Levoglucosan PM (wood) =,7 Levoglucosan >> Schmidl et al., Atm. Env. (2008)

11 BC (µg/m3) BC (µg/m3) Comparison BC (MAAP 5012) vs EC (TOT-NIOSH) at Borgerhout (urban background (traffic)) BC (µg/m3) BC vs EC ( 09/03/2007 until 11/07/2007) BC vs EC (07/02/20 until 06/02/2011) EC (µg/m3) EC (µg/m3) BC vs EC (25//2008 until 31/12/2009) EC (µg/m3) BC/EC 2007 BC = 1.45*EC BC = 1.18*EC BC = *EC R 2

12 Project based measurements of EC and contribution of woodburning to PM PM chemical characterisation projects 1st Mix of rural, urban, suburban, industrial sites 2nd Hot spots 3th Wood burning 4th th cities Urban background, street canyon, major road -Wood burning at urban background stations -5 cities -Urban background, street canyon routine EC measurements in PM2,5 at the rural background station in Retie

13 Concentration and composition of PM within cities (Chemkar IV) 4 cities Urban background Access road Street canyon Every 4th day (= 92d x 6) From June 2011 to July 2012 PM EC/OC Ions Elements Levoglucosan at urban background Brugge : urban background access road street canyon

14 access road background canyon access road background canyon access road background canyon access road background canyon Concentration and composition of PM within cities (Chemkar IV) EC OM seasalt NO3 NH4 nssso4 mineral dust other Antwerpen Brugge Gent Oostende

15 Local contribution to PM within cities (Chemkar IV) access road streetcanyon access road streetcanyon access road streetcanyon access road streetcanyon 14 EC OM seasalt NO3 NH4 nssso4 mineral dust 12 8 µg/m Antwerpen Brugge Gent Oostende

16 7 sites Contribution of wood burning to PM (Chemkar III) Every 4th day (= 92d x 6) From Feb 20 to Feb 2011 PM EC/OC Levoglucosan Rural Urban Rural (sources) Urban Suburban Rural (sources?) Rural Houtem Gent Hamme Borgerhout Mechelen Lier Retie

17 Contribution of wood burning to PM (Chemkar IV) 4 urban background sites Every 4th day (= 92d x 6) From June 2011 to July 2012 PM EC/OC Levoglucosan Ions Elements Oostende Brugge Gent Antwerpen

18 µg/m3 PM concentrations (Chemkar III) HAM GEN HOU MEC LIE BOR RET(H) feb 01 mrt 01 apr 01 mei 01 jun 01 jul 01 aug 01 sep 01 okt 01 nov 01 dec 01 jan feb 11

19 µg/m3 Levoglucosan concentrations (Chemkar III) 1.6 HAM GEN HOU MEC LIE BOR RET(H) feb 01 mrt 01 apr 01 mei 01 jun 01 jul 01 aug 01 sep 01 okt 01 nov 01 dec 01 jan feb 11

20 µg/m3 EC concentrations (Chemkar III) HAM GEN HOU MEC LIE BOR RET(H) feb 01 mrt 01 apr 01 mei 01 jun 01 jul 01 aug 01 sep 01 okt 01 nov 01 dec 01 jan feb 11

21 µg/m3 OC concentrations (Chemkar III) HAM GEN HOU MEC LIE BOR RET(H) feb 01 mrt 01 apr 01 mei 01 jun 01 jul 01 aug 01 sep 01 okt 01 nov 01 dec 01 jan feb 11

22 µg/m3 Contribution of wood burning to organic matter in PM (Chemkar III) OM (non wood burning) OM (wood burning) OM(andere) OM(hout) HOU GEN HAM BOR MEC LIE RET(H)

23 Average contribution of wood burning to PM in summer and winter (Chemkar III) µg/m3 7 Apr-Sep Oct-Mar HOU GEN HAM BOR MEC LIE RET(H) average All year Summer Winter Winter/ Summer All stations 1,8 µg/m3 6,9 % 0,5 µg/m3 2.3 % 3,0 µg/m3.6% 5,9

24 Average contribution of wood burning to PM in summer and winter (Chemkar IV) PM (µg/m 3 ) 3.5 SUM WIN Antwerpen Brugge Gent Oostende All year Summer(Apr-Sep) Winter (Oct-March) Winter/ Summer All stations 1.4 µg/m3 5.4 % 0.3 µg/m3 1.5 % 2.6 µg/m3 8.4 % 7.8

25 µg/m3 Contribution of wood burning to PM on exceedance days (Chemkar III) PM-PMwood PMwood 50 µg/m Houtem Gent Hamme Borgerhout Mechelen Lier Retie

26 21/11/ /02/ /03/ /03/ /05/ /01/ /03/ /03/ /03/ /05/ /11/ /01/ /03/ /03/ /03/ /05/ /03/ /03/ /03/ /05/2012 µg/m3 0 Contribution of wood burning to PM on exceedance days (Chemkar IV) PM-PMwood PMwood 50 µg/m Antwerpen Brugge Gent Oostende

27 Conclusions Concentrations of EC and BC are highly influenced by traffic Average contribution of wood burning to PM : 1.8 µg/m : 1.4 µg/m 3 Average contribution of wood burning to PM in winter 6 to 8 times higher than in summer Winter : 3.0 µg/m 3 Winter : 2.6 µg/m 3 During exceedance days the contribution can even be more important : average contribution of 6 µg/m : average contribution of 3 µg/m 3 27

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