1 LEARNING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE THROUGH ON-LINE READING ACTIVITIES CESAR AUGUSTO QUINTERO MAHECHA. UNIVERSITY OF QUINDIO FACULTY OFEDUCATION MODERN LANGUAGES PROGRAM ARMENIA 2010
2 LEARNING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE THROUGH ON-LINE READING ACTIVITIES CESAR AUGUSTO QUINTERO MAHECHA Research Project report Advisor ALEXIS GUEVARA HENAO UNIVERSITY OF QUINDIO FACULTY OFEDUCATION MODERN LANGUAGES PROGRAM ARMENIA 2010
3 Introduction The research project entitled LEARNING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE THROUGH ON-LINE READING ACTIVITIES was directed to fifth graders from one of the elementary schools of the departments of Colombia with the approval of the different coordinators, teachers and people related to the institution. The main reason to carry out this project is because the teacher researcher considered that on-line activities used appropriately, interactively, and, with guidance, will become tools for the development of English skills especially, the reading skill. The purpose is to make use of the different activities that the internet offers and create learning activities which are mainly based on online learning exercises that could be used to "enhance reading skills in the students in class. For having a better understanding of the Action Research Project, the teacher-researcher highlighted that the study tried to go beyond the problem, and, parallel to that, provided some practical solutions making use of reading activities and different tools that the internet offers to everyone. This action research was developed taking into account the central focus of the problem which was the lack of reading comprehension skill in students. Some literature review was made by the teacher researcher with the purpose of expanding knowledge concerning the issue
4 Rationale The main reason the teacher researcher conducted the study part was because he observed a specific context the classroom in which he found out a lot of problems concerning reading skills in fifth graders, since the development of reading at primary levels is elementary. Taking into account personal interest on this issue, the teacher researcher believed that this research project could influence every student by the implementation of the information communications technology. In that way, the learners would interact and perform different on-line reading activities. Besides, technology can be used in order to leave old teaching practices aside and begin to experiment an interactive teaching and learning environment. Thus, Students can be plugged into computers to do drill and practice activities which are different from workbooks. Teachers can use multimedia technology to give more colorful, stimulating lectures. In that way, teachers will supply some of the learners needs and see improvements in their learning process by the means of implementing useful activities and techniques teaching reading through learning on-line activities. The teacher researcher believed that teachers could take advantage of those tools in order to solve or improve learning problems, and in this way, make the teaching of English interactive and meaningful for learners.
5 1. Description of the context and settings This research has been conducted in a Colombian public school; this institution is situated in the department of Quindío, Colombia, South America, a place historically known for many tourist attractions. At present time, it has appropriate physical conditions, for instance, six classrooms all the classrooms are well organized and cleaned also, the school has a big place where the students play and enjoy in their resting time. The institution has a small park especially for children besides, this school has a special room for the teacher`s meetings, and it has a small restaurant, and a small room with three computers. Mission and vision The Mission of the institution is to orientate its Educative Process those processes stipulate the formation and orientation of integral students from the primary levels until the secondary levels in order to develop their personal identity and contribute to the development to the local and national environment. According to the vision of the institution, in the year 2015, the institution will be recognized as an excellent and competitive institution in the local educative setting and national setting. The academic community The average overall number of students is approximately 350. The students of the school are five to twelve years old and of different social status, from low class. All those students are assisted by an average number of 8 professors, four in the morning and four in the evening, and the English schedule is only three hours per week
6 2. Description of the problem The teacher identified the problem after observing the weak level of English, with regard to reading skill. There, he realized that the main problem was that the school did not provide meaningful activities for students; many of the topics were taught in isolation. Another point was that the different activities did not call the attention of the pupils. Besides, those activities made in class were not appropriate for the student s age. Also, all of the lessons were based on the translation method. The teaching of English in that setting did not permit the students to accomplish suitable learning since the different activities were not appealing for them. There was a real importance of using different on- line activities in order to solve those learning problems and make the students perform the reading skill successfully in the second language. Another important point was the diagnostic stage which was done by the teacher researcher; it consisted of the application of instruments which helped the teacher in charge of the project to take valuable data. Thus, four different instruments were designed with the specific purpose of collecting useful information that would make possible the analysis and the identification of the reading problems in the institution. With the application of the instruments and comparing them by means of triangulation, the problem was clarified and showed to the teacher researcher that the research project of on- line activities would be used as a way to enhance reading skill.
7 3. Research question All this was compiled in one question that contains reading skills and on-line activities. How can on - line activities enhance reading skill in the students?
8 4. Objectives 4.1 General objective: -To enhance the reading strategies in English by means of on-line activities. 4.2 Specific objectives: -To foster autonomous learning in the students in the learning process. -To foster learners self-development in the reading skill.
9 5. Theoretical framework 5.1 E-learning On line activities is also known as e- learning. It is commonly recognized as a powerful and valuable extension to traditional educational initiatives and learning management systems (LMS) which are key tools that support new educational models. According to Campbell (2004), in the school sector E- learning refers to the use of both software-based and on-line learning, whereas in business, higher education, the military and the training sectors, it refers solely to a range of on-line practices. In addition, Downes (1999) defines E-learning as basically learning that is facilitated and supported via information and communications technology ICT. (Downes, 1999, p5). Masie (1997) says Online learning is the use of network technology to design, deliver, select, administer, and extend learning. In the same manner, Rosenberg (2001) described how e- learning "refers to the use of Internet technologies to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance" (Rosenberg, 2001, p28). Bernard Luskin argues that the "E" must be understood to have broad meaning if e-learning is to be effective. Luskin says that the "e" should be interpreted to mean exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational in addition to "electronic", that is a traditional interpretation. This broader interpretation allows for 21st century applications. Also, Rosenberg (2001) described the importance of the Internet to enable networking for the shared storage/retrieval of information in the context of what he saw as the broadest view of learning. However, having access to vast amounts of information online is to deny the importance of social interaction and the communication and interaction that take place as part of the practice of teaching. Networking is not just about information and linked technologies, it is something that people can engage in most effectively online and
10 provide one of the real strengths of e-learning( Rosenberg, 2001,p 29) E-learning strategies Taking into account this issue, there has been a range of exciting strategies for utilizing the Internet in schools in order to promote excellent learning environments and bring benefits to the educational system by the used of new technologies. In the spirit of innovation, the early adopters have been given time and space to explore a range of opportunities and possibilities without too many rules to bar their progress. As time passed more and more people such educators, institutions, and specialists in the field of education have become interested and absorbed by the teaching and learning potential of the Internet for themselves, and for their e-literate students. The possibilities and vision for e- education was becoming stronger and stronger with a clear need for an e-education strategy that compliments the ICT strategies of the future. (Campbell, 2001, p4). Rosenberg (2001) highlighted the importance of an e-learning strategy and warned that this was not just about utilizing tools. An effective e-learning strategy must be more than the technology itself and the content it carries. It should focus on critical success factors that include building a learning culture, encourage true leadership support, deploying a nurturing business model, and sustaining the change throughout the organization. (Rosenberg, 2001, p11). As many theorists have argued and practitioners have experienced for themselves, on line- learning is but a subset of learning in general thus, we can expect issues relevant to how adults learn generally to also be relevant in an on line- learning context (Herrington and Oliver, 1999).
11 5.2 Theory and practice of On-line learning. Some behaviorist, cognitivist, and constructivist theories have contributed in different ways to the design of on line-materials, and they will continue be used to develop learning materials for online learning for instance behaviorist strategies can be used to teach the facts (what); cognitivist strategies, the principle and processes (how); constructivist to teach the real life and personal applications and contextual learning. There is a shift toward constructive learning, in which learners are given the opportunity to construct their own meaning from the information presented during the online sessions. (Anderson, 2004, p39). In addition to the existing learning theories, connectivism should be used to guide the development of online learning, since the other learning theories were developed before we became a networked world (Anderson, 2004). In this way, connectivism and connective knowledge serve as a framework for the different theories relate to teaching and practice since it outlines and helps to understand how the educational system can be in the future and how these theories are going to be implemented within the classrooms and the real impact in students. According to Siemens (2004), connectivist theory is for the digital age, where the individual learns and works in a networked environment. As a result, we do not have control over what we learn, since others and that requires new learning. Thus, on line learning environments are also viewed as opening the door to educational opportunities where none existed before. Technology, however, brings with it its set of encumbrances and difficulties and its successful implementation requires careful networks of student support (Davis, Little and Steward 2008).
12 5.2.1 Foundations of educational theory for on-line learning There is ongoing debate whether using a particular delivery technology improves the learning (Beynon, 2007; Clark, 2001; Kozma, 2001). It has long been recognized that specialized delivery technologies can provide efficient and timely access to learning materials; however, Clark (1983) claims that technologies are merely vehicles that deliver instruction, and do not themselves influence student achievement. As Clark notes, meta-analysis studies on media research show that students gain significant learning benefits from audiovisual or computer media. The use of any particular delivery technology is a great opportunity to see new ways to carry out learning for introducing students to new or difficult concepts. Nowadays, times tables or grammar are incorporated into platform games that use positive reinforcement to encourage children to move onto new difficulty levels of learning. This interactive element is essential to ensure learners to feel that they have some control over their education and see progress in the learning process Benefits of on-line learning Using on-line learning delivery helps learners to immerse into training content. Text, graphics, illustrations, photographic images, animation, full-motion video, narration, music and sound effects are used to create an engaging learning environment that can train bot only students but also teachers consistently, economically and with better learning and retention. According to Bonk and Reynolds (1997), to promote higherorder thinking on the web, on-line learning must create challenging activities that enable learners to link new information to old; in order to acquire meaningful knowledge.
13 Increasingly, organizations are adopting on- line learning as the main delivery method to train employees. At the same time, educational institutions are moving toward the use of internet for delivery, both on campus and at distance. For organizations and institutions to make this often expensive move, there must be a perception that using on-line learning provides major benefits. For learners, online learning knows no time zones, and location and distance are not issues. In asynchronous online learning, students can access the online material anytime, while synchronous online learning allows for real- time interaction between instructors and students (Simmons, 2002). For instructors, tutoring can be done anytime, anywhere. On line materials can be up date, and learners can see the changes immediately. When learners are able to access materials on the internet, it is easier for instructor to direct them to appropriate information based on their needs. If designed properly, online learning systems can be used to determine learner s needs and current level of expertise, and to assign appropriate materials for learners to select from, to achieve their desired learning outcomes (Anderson 2004) Reading skill What is reading? This is seen as a simple question but it is filled with complexity. People from various disciplines have attempted to define reading, and in the searching of a proper definition it is not surprising to find educators, physiologists, linguists, sociologists to have filled volumes with their definitions about reading. Thus, one definition emphasizes the mental process involved in reading and the different values that may be derived from the process (Romero, 2008) Also, current reading research incorporates the basic tenets of cognitive psychology and schema theory (Gillet and Temple, 1990). In the current model, readers are active participants who use before, during and after reading strategies to engage with the text. By using the reading process, readers are more than passive participants who merely receive information from the text. As readers interact with the text, they construct meaning by using their prior knowledge (Marr and Gormey, 1982).
14 Lapp and Flood (1978) state that all definitions of reading fall into two categories. First, there are those who view reading primarily as a decoding process, a breaking of a visual code. In a second view, reading for meaning is emphasized from the very earliest stages of the instruction; in this view reading as a comprehension process is stressed. In the same way, Smith (1993) has arrived at some characteristics of reading. 1. Reading is a complex process. Ones reading performance is affected by a number of correlates so that is not easy to explain why an individual s reading may be satisfactory or unsatisfactory. 2. Reading is two way process. Reading is commutation between author and reader. Communication gap between author and reader results too poor comprehension. When that gap is bridge, better comprehension is better. 3. Reading is largely a visual process. Normally good eyesight is required in good reading. 4. Reading is an active process. It is a thinking process. A reader usually reacts physically, emotionally or intellectually about what he reads. 5. Reading makes use of a linguistic system which enables readers to be more effective users of written language.
15 5.2.4 Reading skill acquisition Reading skills acquisition is the process of acquiring the basic skills necessary for learning to read; that is, the ability to acquire meaning from print (Romero, 2008). According to the report by the US national Reading panel (NRP) in 2000, the skills require for proficient reading are phonological awareness, (sounds-symbol correspondence), fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension. -Phonemic awareness: the ability to distinguish and manipulate the individual sounds of language. Also, it includes rhymes, syllables, and onsets and rimes. -Phonics: method that stresses the acquisition of letter-sound correspondences and their use in reading and spelling. This helps beginning readers to understand how letters are linking to sounds (phonemes), patters of letter sound correspondences and spelling in English, and how to apply this knowledge when they read. -Fluency: the ability to read orally with speed, accuracy and vocal expression. The ability to read fluently is one of the several critical factors necessary for reading comprehension. If a reader is not fluent, it may be difficult to remember what has been read and to relate the ideas expressed in the text to his or her background knowledge. This accuracy and automaticity of reading serves as a bridge between decoding and comprehension. -Vocabulary: a critical aspect of reading comprehension is vocabulary development. When a reader encounters an unfamiliar world in print and decodes it to derive its spoken pronunciation, the reader understands the word if it is in the readers spoken vocabulary. Otherwise, the reader must derive the meaning of the word using another strategy, such a context.
16 -Reading comprehension: the NRP describes comprehension as complex cognitive process in which a reader intentionally and interactively engages with the text. Reading comprehension is heavily dependent on skilled word recognition and decoding, oral reading fluency, a welldeveloped vocabulary and active engagement with the text. Those are skills required for proficient reading according to the US national Reading panel. (Howlett, 2002, p3) Reading skills in EFL Reading whether in a first or second language context involves the reader, the text, and the interaction between the reader and text. The act of reading in a second language was often viewed as merely a slower version of doing the same task on the native language. This process is also a meaning-making process involving an interaction between the reader and the text. Readers use mental activities in order to construct meaning from text. These activities are generally referred to as reading strategies or reading skills. (Singhal, 1998). It is at this point where content schema and reading comprehension both meet. Content schema or cultural orientation in terms of background knowledge is also a factor that influences L2/FL reading. According to Smith (1973), Reading engages a trade-off between visual and non-visual information The more that is already known, the less visual information is required to identify a letter, a word, or meaning from text. The importance of background (cultural) knowledge in reading is of great relevance to Schema Theory which states that reading a text implies an interaction between the reader s background knowledge and the text itself (Fuhong, 2004).
17 In a similar way, Nutall (1982) affirms that if students have no need to use the foreign language outside the classroom the only function of the FL for them seems to be: to be learnt; and their reason for reading it is: to learn to read it. This is sterile and is not a surprise if students motivation is low. (Nutall, 1982, p5) Implementing e-learning in EFL Emerging technologies and their affordances require that educators rethink their fundamental assumptions about teaching and learning (Vrasidas and Glass, 2002). Technology affordances played a major role in reshaping teaching and assessment and have revolutionized the use of portfolios as a pedagogical, reflective and assessment tool (Mason, 2002; Vrasidas and Glass, 2004). Many studies over the past twenty years have attempt to measure the impact of the introduction of new information and communication technologies (ICT) on the second language performance of learners (Higgins, 1983). Early studies of the role in language learning generally confined themselves to an analysis of content and task authenticity, rather than authenticity of experience. More recently, however, author have begun to explore notions of multiliteracy whereby to be considered multiliterate, students today must acquire a battery of skills that will enable them to take advantage f the diverse modes of communication made possible by new technologies and to participate in global learning communities (Kaspar, 2000 p 305). The use of ICT in the language learning process might, therefore, have an impact well beyond the language classroom, as students not only develop linguistic and sociocultural expertise thought ICT, but also acquire ICT related skills thought the target language. On this basis, it could equip the individual to participate fully in all aspects of modern society (Kaspar, 2000) within dynamic and ongoing process of perpetual information (Neilson, 1989).
18 5.2.7 The changing word of English language teaching. As technologies embed themselves in everyday discourse an activity, a curious thing happens. The more we look, the more they slip into the background. Despite our attention, we lose sight of the way they shape our daily lives (Bruce and Hogan, 1998, p 270). Things change, however, as technology becomes the normal and expected means of communication, and education. (Bruce and Hogan 1998). They point out, important changes occur in expectations about the abilities students have to acquire to be successful language users. The abilities required by English language users should be directly relevant to English language teachers. Moreover the bond between technology and language use in modern world should prompt all language professionals to reflect on the ways in which technology is changing the profession of English language teaching in particular, and applied linguistics as a whole. If technology has as Bruce and Hogan (1998) suggests, slipped into the background, it may be necessary to attempt to bring it back into the foreground to explore its implications for language teachers and researchers. For example Kurzweil,(1999) predicts significant changes in different areas in which English language teaching and research are involve. In particular, he predicts a lot of changes in which can take place in communication and education because of the advances of technology and the speed of intellectual progress.
19 6. Methodological design 6.1Type of Study The type of study of this project is basically action research since the researcher conducted a reflective process of progressive problem solving in which he gathered important data in order to find a possible solution to the main problem related to the reading skill. Also, the teacher researcher inquired about the ways in which the particular public institution operated and how the students improved in the reading skill. This project shows some important features of an action research project such as detecting a problem by observing techniques, developing a plan for improvement, implementing it, observing and at the same time documenting the effects of that plan, and reflecting on the effects of implementation to obtain final conclusions. This project involves some important steps of action research, but it also shares some characteristics of a descriptive research since it has some statistical results which are mainly based on descriptive data collected by means of observations, questionnaires, interviews, journals and surveys. The design, the instruments, the formats, the interpretation and the conclusions based on the triangulation are presented in a clear way in order to facilitate the understanding of it. Needless to say that
20 this project has characteristics of both action and descriptive research, the data gathered through the process share two perspectives, qualitative and quantitative. Thus, this action research project has been carried out within the classroom taking into account scientific methods. The final product of the research project can be analyzed from a scientific perspective.
21 6.2 Participants The population of this project was fifth graders who were students of a public school with an average of ages between nine and ten years old. Their mother tongue was Spanish. Afterwards, a sample of fifty students was selected for practical reasons. This group was selected since they were eager to work and also for their good willing to collaborate; the research showed to help not only the students but also the teacher researcher. Another participant who was involved in this research project was the teacher who collaborated in many activities; besides, the teacher had his own perspective in respect to the phenomena. Some other teachers were also requested for helping a little bit during the implementation stage.
22 7. Phases of the research 7.1 Phase I: Diagnostic stage The diagnostic stage consisted of the application of some instruments Description of the Instruments In order to diagnose, four instruments were used, one survey to students, one check-list to the teacher, one questionnaire to the teacher, and one exam to students. Graph: 1 description of diagnostic instruments Instrument Description Interpretation criteria Survey to students Appendix 1 Check list to teacher Appendix 2 Questionnaire to teacher Appendix 3 Test to students Appendix 4 Composed by six questions and four multiple choices. Composed by nine questions and yes or no options for reviewing the teacher performance and one chart for comments Composed by seven open questions that allow multiple answers. Composed by nine questions, seven with three multiple choice and two questions of reading comprehension. Quantification of responses and statistical medias were used to determine the results The results were given through interpretation of the responses taking into account the categories based on online activities. The results were given through interpretation of the different responses of the teacher. Quantification of responses and statistical medias were used to determine the results Triangulation The following chart displays the triangulation of the instruments implemented by the teacher researcher in relation to the categories such reading skill and on-line activities.
23 Instruments Graphic: 2 triangulation of instruments CATEGORIES SURVEY TO THE STUDENTS CHECK LIST TO TEACHER PERFORMANCE QUESTIONNAIRE TO THE TEACHER TEST TO STUDENTS CONCLUSIONS READING SKILLS 37.5% of the students expressed to understand little about English readings and 25% of the students expressed to understand a little of the English readings. The check list showed that the teacher did not emphasized her class in reading skill The teacher expressed to implement copies and workshops in order to enhance reading skill The level of students is emerging since there is a lack of writing within the classroom. The majority of the students in reading skill are in emerging level because of the lack of writing in class. See Appendix 1 See Appendix 2 See Appendix 3 See Appendix 4 ON-LINE ACTIVITIES 43.75% of the students showed a high interest in the implementation of on-line activities in the classroom The teacher did not use on-line activities in the classroom The teacher is totally in agreement with the implementation of on-line activities in the classroom The majority of the students are interested in the implementation of on-line activities in the classroom Finally, with all the information gathered, the teacher researcher concluded that the level of the reading skill of fifth graders at the Elementary School is emerging. Based on the triangulation of the instruments and the interpretation of the data gathered, there is a high percentage of the students had an emerging level with regard to the reading competence then there is an obvious need to put into practice on-line activities in order to enhance reading skill in students, but there is an important factor the majority of the students are interested in the implementation of on-line activities in the classroom in order to improve the weakness in the reading skill.
24 7.2 Design and Implementation of Action Strategies Structure and Design of the Research Proposal As the problem has been detected, reading skill, was previously observed and adequately documented, the way to tackle it was through the use of different on-line activities using new technologies such as internet. To reach this aim, three different cycles were designed with three different lesson plans, and activities The Cycles The stimulus provided was mainly based on three lesson plans which were carried out taking into account the different levels of difficulty from the easiest to the hardest ones. Cycle I: Short story about a special Christmas present. This activity was made taking into account on-line activities from internet. The first part of the activity consisted on reading the text called a special Christmas present in that reading student had to answer nine questions with multiple choices after that, the student had to click on the best answer for each question based on the information given in the text. The second part consisted on recreating the story; the students had to build the story by choosing one of three sentences given in the web page according to the order of the ideas. If the choice was correct, the sentence was added to the story. The last exercise was based on a summary of the story in which the student had to complete the text by typing the correct word into each space and when the student had finished he or she clicked on check and look if the answers were right.
Psychology of Learning to Read Learning Goals Explain the six skills necessary for learning how to read. Explain instructional strategies for each of the six skills. 1 Background Teachers play a very important
Learning Today Smart Tutor Supports English Language Learners By Paolo Martin M.A. Ed Literacy Specialist UC Berkley 1 Introduction Across the nation, the numbers of students with limited English proficiency
READING SPECIALIST STANDARDS Standard I. Standard II. Standard III. Standard IV. Components of Reading: The Reading Specialist applies knowledge of the interrelated components of reading across all developmental
Reading Competencies The Third Grade Reading Guarantee legislation within Senate Bill 21 requires reading competencies to be adopted by the State Board no later than January 31, 2014. Reading competencies
Jan/Feb 2007 What Does Research Tell Us About Teaching Reading to English Language Learners? By Suzanne Irujo, ELL Outlook Contributing Writer As a classroom teacher, I was largely ignorant of, and definitely
Лю Пэн COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING READING Effective Elementary Reading Program Effective approach must contain the following five components: 1. Phonemic awareness instruction to help children learn
Courses Description ELI 600 Second Language Acquisition 3 This course introduces the students to the major theories and issues in second language acquisition, as well as the theories and assumptions that
Phonics and Word Work Introduction Foundational Skills This guide explores how explicit and systematic phonics and word work instruction is included in the ReadyGEN program. It looks at the resources that
WiggleWorks Aligns to Title I, Part A The purpose of Title I, Part A Improving Basic Programs is to ensure that children in high-poverty schools meet challenging State academic content and student achievement
Selecting Research Based Instructional Programs Marcia L. Grek, Ph.D. Florida Center for Reading Research Georgia March, 2004 1 Goals for Today 1. Learn about the purpose, content, and process, for reviews
HOW SHOULD READING BE TAUGHT? Rayner, K., Foorman, B., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2002). How should reading be taught? Scientific American, 286, 84-91. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0302-84
III. Mystery Clue Game for second grade Social Studies Susan Wilson 1. Important Background Information: Activity Title: Mystery Clue Game for Barter and Money Economies Bibliography: Mitgutsch, A. (1985).
Albert Einstein Academies Charter Elementary School Language Policy 2015 2016 Teaching our children today to advance our shared humanity tomorrow What is the Purpose of the Language Policy? Achieve a common
Student Learning Outcomes in Hybrid and Face-to-Face Beginning Spanish Language Courses Casilde A. Isabelli University of Nevada, (United States of America) Isabelli@unr.edu Abstract This study investigates
Kelly Waldo Senior Capstone Paper Paoze Thao, PhD California State University Monterey Bay Teaching Young Children How to Read: Phonics vs. Whole Language Introduction and Background I am interested in
I.B. SPECIFIC TEACHING FIELDS Standards for Certification in Early Childhood Education [26.110-26.270] STANDARD 1 Curriculum The competent early childhood teacher understands and demonstrates the central
Helping English Language Learners Understand Content Area Texts English language learners (ELLs) experience intense problems in content area learning because they have not yet acquired the language proficiency
EDD- 7914 Curriculum Teaching and Technology by Joyce Matthews Marcus Matthews France Alcena Assignment 1: Online Technology for Student Engagement: Kahoot Instructor: Dr. Shirley Walrod Nova Southeastern
Karen's Linguistics Issues, June 2001 This Month's Articles Previous Months Computer-Assisted Language Learning (Call) And The Internet by Solange Moras Cultura Inglesa de São Carlos, Brazil, June 2001
Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts Reading: Foundational Print Concepts RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. o Follow words from
317 INTRODUCTION TO INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA. (1) An introductory instructional media experience including basic production and utilization techniques for media materials and operation of commonly used educational
AP French Language and Culture Curriculum Framework 2011 2012 Contents (click on a topic to jump to that page) Introduction... 3 Structure of the Curriculum Framework...4 Learning Objectives and Achievement
Programme Specification: BA Teaching English as a Foreign Language 1. Programme title Teaching English as a Foreign Language 2. Awarding institution Middlesex University 3. Teaching institution Middlesex
Research Into Practice READING Reading Instruction and Reading Achievement Among ELL Students Principles of ELL Reading Instruction Some very straightforward principles, directly supported by research,
COMMUNICATION COMMUNITIES CULTURES COMPARISONS CONNECTIONS STANDARDS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING Preparing for the 21st Century Language and communication are at the heart of the human experience. The
INTEGRATING THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS INTO INTERACTIVE, ONLINE EARLY LITERACY PROGRAMS By Dr. Kay MacPhee President/Founder Ooka Island, Inc. 1 Integrating the Common Core Standards into Interactive, Online
North Georgia College & State University LART 7200: Trends and Practices in Reading Education (Meets Requirements for Maryland s Processes and Acquisition of Reading) Course Description This course assists
Scholastic ReadingLine Aligns to Early Reading First Criteria and Required Activities Early Reading First (ERF) is a federal grant program that is part of the President s Early Childhood Initiative, Good
CHARACTERISTICS FOR STUDENTS WITH: LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) Research has shown that students acquire a second language in the same way that they acquire the first language. It is an exploratory
Quality for All and All for Quality The motto above, Quality for All and All for Quality, was designed to represent all we stand for and value. It is the essence of our mission statement which itself encompasses
Article Summary Tazmeen Sultan is part of the Educational Technology team at a Private School, in Lahore, Pakistan. Her responsibilities include facilitating the effective use of computers and other instructional
Learning English Language by Radio in Primary Schools in Kenya By Florence Y. Odera (PhD) P.O.Box 2303, Kisumu, Kenya E-mail: Odera_florence@yahoo.co.uk Introduction and background information One of the
CELTA Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines Fourth Edition CELTA (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) is regulated
Enhancing Technology College Students English Listening Comprehension by Listening Journals Jung-chuan Chen* Department of Applied Foreign Languages, Nanya Institute of Technology Chung-Li, Taiwan, 32034
The National Reading Panel: Five Components of Reading Instruction Frequently Asked Questions Phonemic Awareness What is a phoneme? A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word. For example, the word
Florida Reading Endorsement Alignment Matrix Competency 1 The * designates which of the reading endorsement competencies are specific to the competencies for English to Speakers of Languages (ESOL). The
An Early Childhood Practitioner s Guide: Developmentally Appropriate Literacy Practices for Preschool-Age Children SUMMARY In her discussion of user-friendly and developmentally appropriate literacy strategies
Online Student Engagement as Formative Assessment Ricardo Kawase 1 and Antigoni Parmaxi 2 1 L3S Research Center, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol,
Name: Angela McCrary Steele IRA Standards Artifacts Rationale Standard 1. Foundational Knowledge. 1.1 Candidates understand major theories and empirical research that describe the cognitive, linguistic,
Language and Literacy In the sections below is a summary of the alignment of the preschool learning foundations with (a) the infant/toddler learning and development foundations, (b) the common core state
Course Guide Masters of Education Program Note: 1 course = (3) credits Students need 12 credits (4 courses) to obtain Graduate Diploma Students need 30 credits (10 courses) to obtain M.Ed. or M.A Graduate
econtent Construction for the ipad: Designing for comprehension Session Themes Revisit the characteristics and skills for reading proficiency Examine a UDL approach to econtent Design Accessibility benchmarks
Research into competency models in arts education Paper presented at the BMBF Workshop International Perspectives of Research in Arts Education, Nov. 4 th and 5 th, 2013. Folkert Haanstra, Amsterdam School
Implementing E-Learning Designed Courses in General Education Prasart Nuangchalerm 1, Krissada Sakkumduang 2, Suleepornn Uhwha 3 and Pacharawit Chansirisira 4 1 Department of Curriculum and Instruction,
g lo b a l e d u cato r awa r d w i n n e r Global Connections 1: Global Society 2015 Unit 1: My Culture, My Family Create A Language 2015 Global Educator Award Winner: sharon mcadam PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Elementary MEd I. The Relationship of the Program with the Unit s Conceptual Framework Shaping Tomorrow: Ideas to Action The Early Elementary Education program for prospective elementary education candidates
Howard Community College Fall Courses for Educators Fall courses begin August 22, 2015 and end December 14, 2015. For additional information, contact Fran Kroll at 443-518-4854. Fall Semester Tuition &
Reading Street and English Language Learners How do you identify English language proficiency levels on Reading Street? How do English language learners (ELLs) differ from other learners? ELLs have varying
SECTION 4: MASTER OF EDUCATION DEGREE Beginning with the summer session in 1954, a fifthyear program of teacher education leading to the degree Master of Teaching was instituted at Northwestern Oklahoma
Teaching and Managing a Project-based English Course to the College Students in Diverse Levels of English Proficiency Yoshihiko Yamamoto, Syuhei Kimura Ritsumeikan University, Japan 0429 The Asian Conference
Office of Disability Support Service 0106 Shoemaker 301.314.7682 Fax: 301.405.0813 www.counseling.umd.edu/dss A Guide to Services for Students with a Learning Disability (Revised 4.28.14) Do I Have A Learning
Implementing E-Learning Designed Courses in General Education Prasart Nuangchalerm 1, Krissada Sukkhamduang 2, Suleeporn Uhwa 2, Pacharawit Chansirisira 3 1 Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty
appendix 3 curriculum, instruction, and assessment: rigor and relevance The old adage of learning best by experience is really true. Research confirms that more learning occurs when students are immersed
Programme Specification (Postgraduate) Date amended: March 2012 1. Programme Title(s): MA in Applied Linguistics and TESOL 2. Awarding body or institution: University of Leicester 3. a) Mode of study Campus:
What is U.S.A. Learns? U.S.A. Learns is a free Web site funded by the U.S. Department of Education to support immigrants who want to learn or improve their English skills as they become part of American
WORLD-CLASS INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND ASSESSMENT The English Language Learner CAN DO Booklet Grades 9-12 Includes: Performance Definitions CAN DO Descriptors For use in conjunction with the WIDA English
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This chapter presents the statistical analysis of the collected data based on the four research questions. The first section demonstrates the effects of the strategy instruction on the
Criteria for Evaluating Instructional Materials in Science, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight Instructional materials are adopted by the state for the purpose of helping teachers present the content set
Using ABA for the Treatment of Autism: The CARD Program Autism Symposium Aruba 2010 Adel C. Najdowski, PhD, BCBA Center for Autism & Related Disorders, Inc. Presentation Outline Brief Introduction to CARD
Fornreris and Campbell, Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning in the Health Sciences, Facione and Facione (eds.), California Academic Press. 1 Measuring Thinking Worldwide This document is a best practices
Strand: Reading Literature Key Ideas and Craft and Structure Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RL.K.1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text RL.K.2. With prompting
Supporting English Language Learners Through Technology SUMMARY English language learners benefit from the reinforcement of vocabulary and concepts through pictures, graphics and video. They also benefit
Portfolio Information Practicum in Interior Design Lesson Plan Performance Objective Upon completion of this assignment, the student will be able to create a portfolio to document personal knowledge and
APPENDIX A Teaching Performance Expectations A. MAKING SUBJECT MATTER COMPREHENSIBLE TO STUDENTS TPE 1: Specific Pedagogical Skills for Subject Matter Instruction Background Information: TPE 1. TPE 1 is
Executive Summary Principles and Standards for School Mathematics Overview We live in a time of extraordinary and accelerating change. New knowledge, tools, and ways of doing and communicating mathematics
Revised February 23, 2012 Student Handbook Master s in Reading Shippensburg University of PA READING PROGRAM Table of Contents Introduction 2 Pedagogical Knowledge Base for Literacy Practitioners In Master
Integrating Reading and Writing for Effective Language Teaching Ruwaida Abu Rass (Israel) Writing is a difficult skill for native speakers and nonnative speakers alike, because writers must balance multiple
DICTATION IN THE ESP CLASSROOM: A TOOL TO IMPROVE LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY Galina Kavaliauskienė and Irena Darginavičienė Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania Introduction Dictation has been used
E-Learning at school level: Challenges and Benefits Joumana Dargham 1, Dana Saeed 1, and Hamid Mcheik 2 1. University of Balamand, Computer science department Joumana.email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Comparison of Computer Assisted Language Learning Software before Investment Dinçer Biçer , Ramazan Şükrü Parmaksız  Bülent Ecevit University Email: email@example.com  Bülent Ecevit University
Shape of the Australian Curriculum: English May 2009 COPYRIGHT Commonwealth of Australia 2009 This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only
Teachers' Perspectives about the Effect of Tawjihi English Exam on English Instruction at the Second Secondary Stage in Jordan Dr. Mohammad Abd Alhafeez Ali Ta'amneh Assistant Professor of Teaching English
Certificate of Leadership Program. An initiative with UBC Peer Programs that engages students in a reflective practice through the use of educational technologies with the aims of developing greater awareness
Modern foreign languages Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment targets (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007
Academic regulations for THE MASTER'S DEGREE IN ENGLISH THE FACULTY OF HUMANITIES THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS 2007 1 Framework conditions Title Prepared by Effective date Prescribed points Master s degree
1 Which elements of digital competence should be acquired at school? Liisa Ilomäki, Anna Kantosalo and Minna Lakkala The authors of these documents or materials ("the works") are Liisa Ilomäki, Anna Kantosalo
A Study in Learning Styles of Construction Management Students Amit Bandyopadhyay, Ph.D., PE, F.ASCE State University of New York -FSC Abstract Students take in and process information in different ways.
Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Nursery & Primary School Modern Foreign Language Policy September 2014 Review Date: September 2016 INTRODUCTION This subject policy is one in a series that makes up the Whole