# Formulas and Functions with Excel

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1 Formulas and Functions with Excel Kiruthika Ragupathi Assistant Director (Educational Technology) (CDTL) National University of Singapore

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 4 Exploring the Excel Workspace... 4 Navigating the Workbook... 4 Setting up Data... 6 Inserting a new column or row... 6 Formatting the worksheet... 6 Verifying Data... 8 Formulas and Functions... 8 Constructing a formula... 8 Inserting a function Built-in Functions Mathematical Calculations Conditional Calculations Cutting up & Piecing together Text Strings using Text functions Using Look up tables / References Pivot Tables Create a PivotTable from worksheet data Statistical functions Basic Statistical built-in functions Linear regression functions Statistical Analysis Using the Analysis ToolPak Descriptive Statistics More Information... 28

3 Synopsis Need to perform complex calculations and data analysis? The usage of formulas and functions is what gives an Excel spreadsheet much of its power. This workshop explores the formula and functions that are useful for computing and managing data. This course begins with mathematical principles and moves on to basic formula construction. Participants will learn about mathematical functions, statistical functions, conditional calculations, and lookup tables. In addition, the use of Analysis ToolPak will be discussed aiding in the generation of descriptive statistics and regression. Objectives By the end of this workshop, participants should be able to: Set up and verify data Understand the mathematical order of operations used by Excel Use the appropriate type of cell reference Construct basic formulas Use statistical functions Perform conditional calculations Use Analysis Toolpak 3 Formulas and Functions with Excel

5 Below is a picture of a blank workbook and descriptions of the more frequently used items. File Menu Open, start and save workbooks Home Ribbon Adjust appearance and data type Function Button Insert any of Excel s preset functions into cells Columns & Rows Clicking column (vertical and row (horizontal identifiers will select the whole group Formula Bar This area allows you to clearly edit individual cells Sheet Selection Tabs These allow you to switch between sheets in your workbook. You can rename, colour tabs an insert more worksheets Creating a new workbook Start a new workbook by clicking the File menu and selecting New. In the New Workbook window, click Blank workbook. When you start Excel, a blank worksheet opens. Selecting cells Edit individual cells by clicking on them. Click a cell and drag the mouse pointer to select a range of cells. You can also select entire rows and columns by clicking on the number or letter heading of that alignment. To select non-adjacent cells, hold down the CTRL key, and then click the cells that you want. Adding data manually To enter data manually into the spreadsheet, double click on the cell you want to edit. Notice that whatever you type appears in both the cell and the cell editor at the top. When you are finished typing, press Enter. Adding a new worksheet Click the Insert Worksheet tab at the bottom of the screen. Insert Worksheet To insert a new worksheet in front of an existing worksheet, select that worksheet and then, on the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Insert, and then click Insert Sheet. You can also right-click the tab of an existing worksheet, and then click Insert. On the General tab, click Worksheet, and then click OK. 5 Formulas and Functions with Excel

7 A new formatting concept called the document themes has been introduced in Excel 2007 and can be found in the Page Layout Tab. These allow you to set many formatting options at once. Data Types The data type manages how Excel will display and interpret data in the cells. For instance, you may choose percentages as a fraction, decimal or whole number. It is important that excel interprets your data correctly since Excel s functions depend on the type of data being manipulated. After you type numbers in a cell, you can change the format in which they are displayed. The most commonly used data types for student data management in Excel are: Number: cells that contain only numerals, commas, and decimal points that can be used in numerical calculations. Click the cell that contains the numbers that you want to format. On the Home tab, in the Number group, point to General, and then click the format that you want. When you click on More Number Formats on the category list, the Format cells dialog box opens (similar to that in the older versions). To add the format cells icon to your Quick Access toolbar, right-click on the More Number formats and choose the Add to Quick Access Toolbar. Percentage: multiplies the cell value by 100 and displays the value with a %. Text: cells that contain letters, numbers, spaces, or any other keyboard character. Freeze Panes This is used to keep titles in sight when you scroll down a page. To freeze panes, first split the worksheet so that you can look at two areas independently. On the View tab, in the Window group, select Split. A thick grey bar should appear on the sheet. To make a split, drag the grey bar to a position next to or below the title row. When you have positioned the bar where you would like it, select Freeze Panes from the Window group of the View tab. The thick grey bar will be replaced by a thin black line and the row/column will stay in place. 7 Formulas and Functions with Excel

10 Sample Formulas Formulas can be a combination of built-in functions and your own formulas. Let us take a look at some sample formulas. 1. This formula multiplies 200 x 7, returning 1400 and only uses literal values: = 200*7 2. This adds the values in cells B2 and C2: = B2+C2 3. This subtracts the value in the cell B3 from the value in cell B2 and then multiplies the result by the value in cell B4 = (B2-B3)*B4 4. This formula uses the SUM function to ass the values in the range C1:C12 = SUM(C1:C12) 5. This one compares the value in cell A1 and Value in cell B1. If the values in the two cells are identical, then the formula returns TRUE otherwise, it returns FALSE. = A2=B1 6. For example, to find the average of the values in the cells A2 to A10 you could do this several ways: = (A2 + A3 + A4 + A5)/4 = SUM (A2,A3,A4,A5)/4 = SUM (A2:A5)/4 = AVERAGE (A2,A3,A4,A5) = AVERAGE (A2:A5) These formulas would all give the same result if all the cells contained values but the easiest one to type is probably the bottom one. It is also safer to use the AVERAGE function as that calculates how many values there are in the range you select, using =SUM(A2:A5)/4 would lead to an error if one of those cells was intentionally a blank row as you may only have 3 actual values in that range. Inserting a function A function is a predefined/prewritten formula that takes a value or values, performs an operation on a range of cells you select, and returns a value or values. Functions are used to simplify and shorten formulas on a worksheet, especially those that perform lengthy or complex calculations. Excel refers to each range of cells in the function as an argument. For complex calculations, it might be necessary to use as many as 3 to 4 arguments. 1. Select the cell where you would like the average score to appear. 2. From the Formulas tab, choose Insert Function. 10 Formulas and Functions with Excel

11 3. Or, you could also click on the Function button, found just before the formula bar to use any of Excel s preset functions. 4. The Insert Function dialog box appears. 5. Under Select a function, choose from the range of functions available. 6. For example, choose the SUM function and click OK. 7. The Function Arguments dialog box as shown below appears. 8. For example let us consider the SUM function that adds all the numbers in a range of cells. 9. Under the Number1 type the range of cells that you want to use or you can also drag the mouse to select the range of cells to be included as the function s arguments and click Ok. 10. The formula result is displayed on the window for you as a preview. 11 Formulas and Functions with Excel

12 Built-in Functions Excel has a variety of built-in functions that can be accessed using the Formula Wizard. 1. Click in the cell where you want the result of the formula to be placed. Now click on the = sign in the formula bar. 2. Click on the drop-down arrow to the left of the formula bar to select the function you wish to use. 3. Click on the More Functions... option at the bottom of the list to display a window showing all the available functions. 4. When you have selected the function, the Insert Function dialog box opens to help you complete the arguments after the function so that Excel calculates the right result. 5. When each function is selected a short description of the function and the type of arguments to be used is displayed in the dialog box. 6. For a function like the SUMSQ function you need to select a range of cells (C2:F2 in this case) to add together the sums of the squares of the arguments chosen. 12 Formulas and Functions with Excel

13 7. An example of the result of by computing the formula is shown at the bottom of the dialog box. Then, click the OK button when you are satisfied with the output. 8. The result will now be displayed on the selected cell of your spreadsheet. If you click on the cell containing the result, the formula used will be displayed in the formula bar. In the Insert Function dialog box, you can choose All from the list or choose a specific category of functions you are interested in that may contain the function and look for it in there. 13 Formulas and Functions with Excel

14 Built-in functions can be categorised as follows: Function Category Mathematical/Trigonometric Logical Text Lookup/Reference Statistical Database Date/Time Engineering Financial Information What it does Take a number as data, transform it, and produce a numerical result. For example, sine and absolute value are math functions. Consider a condition and return True or False Manipulate or create strings Manipulate or examine areas of a worksheet Return statistical values to sets of numbers. For example, average, count, min, max, etc. Same as statistical, however datasets are taken from a database Perform calculations on dates, times, and combinations of dates and times Perform commonly used engineering calculations, many of which relate to Bessel Functions, Complex Numbers or converting between different bases Helpful when calculating such things as interest, monthly payments, and assist in what-if scenarios Used to get information about the contents of a cell Mathematical Calculations Function What it Does SUM Adds its arguments SUMIF Adds the cells specified by one or many given criteria SUMPRODUCT Returns the sums of the products of two arrays SUBTOTAL Returns a subtotal of a filtered list or database TRUNC Truncates a number to an integer ROUND Rounds a number to a specified number of digits ROUNDUP Rounds a number up, away from zero INT Rounds a number down to the nearest integer ABS Returns the absolute value of a number MOD Returns the remainder from division SQRT Returns a positive square root POWER Returns the result of a number raised to a power 14 Formulas and Functions with Excel

15 SUM =SUM(A1,B6,G6) =SUM(A1:A23) =SUM(A1:A23,F3:F34) will return the sum of the values in cells A1, B6 and G6 will return the sum of the values in cells A1 to A23 will return the sum of the values in cells A1 to A23 plus the sum of the values in cells F3 to F34 For example, if you would require a yearly summary report, you want to sum the values in cells B2 of each of the monthly sheets. You have named your sheets "Jan", "Feb", etc. Then to calculate, key in the following formula: =Jan!B2+Feb!B2+Mar!B2...+Dec!B2 You can also write this as follows: =SUM(Jan:Dec!B2) SUMIF The general format for the SUMIF formula is as follows: =SUMIF(range where the criteria is to be applied, criteria, sum what). A B C D 1 Date Country Name Amount 2 05/01/2011 IN Lim /01/2011 SG Peter /01/2011 US Lim /01/2011 AU Peter /01/2011 DE Lim /01/2011 CN Peter 6 Example 1: Sum the values of the cells D2 to D7, only if they are greater than 5 =SUMIF(D2:D7,">5",D2:D7); Result should be 20. Example 2: Sum the values of the cells D2 to D7 if the value in cells C2 to C7 is Lim or equivalent to the value in cell C2. =SUMIF(C2:C7,"Lim",D2:D7) ; Result should be 14. or =SUMIF(C2:C7,C2,D2:D7) SUMPRODUCT Let's say that you have a series of quantities in cells A1 to A5 and a series of unit prices in B1 to B5. With SUMPRODUCT you can calculate total sales with this formula: =SUMPRODUCT(A1:A5,B1:B5) Basically SUMPRODUCT sums A1 multiplied by B1 plus A2 multiplied by B2 and so on. But you could also apply specific conditions to it. =SUMPRODUCT(A1:A5,B1:B5, (C1:C5="Lim")*1) SUBTOTAL When the Filter Data is used, then the SUBTOTAL function is a very useful and interesting function. The function SUBTOTAL allows to count, to sum or to calculate the average of filtered elements of a database. 15 Formulas and Functions with Excel

16 The function requires two arguments: the first is a number between 1 and 11 that specifies the operation to be executed: 1(for AVERAGE); 2(for COUNT); 3(for COUNTA); 4(for MAX); 5(for MIN); 6(for PRODUCT); 7(for STDEV); 8(for STDEVP); 9(for SUM); 10(for VAR); 11(for VARP). the second is the range covered by the functionand Hence, if you want the sum of B2:45, then use the following: =SUBTOTAL(9,B2:B45) Rounding up the decimals When you specify in the format of a cell that you want only 2 decimals Excel shows only 2 decimals (rounding up) BUT you should note that still uses all the decimals. For example, if in cell A1 you entered and use a 2 decimal format, you will see Now if in cell B1 you write the formula =A1 and make the format "General" you will see still see Hence, functions like INT, TRUNC, ROUND, ROUNDUP and ROUNDDOWN will enable you to use a specific number of decimals in your calculations. TRUNC The TRUNC function does the same as the INT or ROUNDDOWN functions. The TRUNC function removes decimals without rounding. If you have 2.2 or 2.7 in cell A1 =TRUNC (A1,0) will return 2. Interestingly enough if you have in B1 using a minus sign in the second argument of TRUNC =TRUNC(B1,-3) will return (12,000). This is very useful when you don't want to show the hundreds, the tens and units in a report. ROUND This function removes decimals rounding up the last decimal if the next one is 5 or over. So if you have in cell A1 and use the formula =ROUND(A1,2) the result will be 4.13 if the value in A1 is the result will be ABS =ABS(A1) will return 5 if in cell A1 you have -5 or 5. This function removes the sign. MOD The modulo is the remainder left after a division. =MOD(32,6) is 2 because you have 5 times 6 in 30 and the remainder is 2. SQRT and POWER To extract the square root of a number you will use a formula like: =SQRT(16) that will result in 4 because 4 multiplied by 4 is 16 or =SQRT(A1) that will also result in 4 if the value in cell A1 is 16. There is no specific Excel function to extract the cubic root or any other root, but can be achieved by using POWER function. You can raise a number to a power (multiplying it by itself a certain number of times with this function. Hence: =POWER(4,2) will result in 16 (4 times 4) or =POWER(A1,2) will also result in 16 if the value in cell A1 is 4. =POWER(A1,1/2) will give the square root of the value in cell A1 =POWER(A1,1/3) will give the cubic root of the value in cell A1 16 Formulas and Functions with Excel

18 Cutting up & Piecing together Text Strings using Text functions Function CONCATENATE LEFT MID RIGHT REPT LEN EXACT MATCH What it Does Joins together two or more text strings =CONCATENATE(A2,B2) Returns a specified number of characters from the start of a supplied text string =LEFT(C2,8) Returns a specified number of characters from the middle of a supplied text string =MID(A2,2,2) Returns a specified number of characters from the end of a supplied text string =RIGHT(A2,3) Returns a string consisting of a supplied text string, repeated a specified number of times =REPT(A2,3) Returns the length of a supplied text string =LEN(A2) Tests if two supplied text strings are exactly the same and if so, returns TRUE; Otherwise, returns FALSE. =EXACT(A2,F2) Returns the relative position of an item in an array that matches the specified value in a specified order. =MATCH(D2,\$D\$2:D2,0) Using Look up tables / References Excel's VLOOKUP function, which stands for vertical lookup, is used to find specific information that has been stored in a spreadsheet table. VLOOKUP is a function that is used in a worksheet to return a value from a table (either in the same sheet, another sheet or another workbook) that is related to the value you give it. Say you have a parts list in a table on one sheet containing thousands of parts numbers and their related information. The table shows the part number in the first column, the part description in the second column, the parts supplier in the third column, the parts price in the fourth column and so on. On a separate sheet you have an invoice with columns for the Quantity, the Part number, the part Description, the Price and the Total. When you enter the part number in the Part number column of the Invoice, the VLOOKUP function is used to get the details for Description column and the unit price column for the part number. Although the IF( ) function can be very useful in these circumstances, it is limited to either TRUE or FALSE outcomes. But in these types of examples with large inventories or contact list, we need a function that can handle multiple outcomes. The VLOOKUP( ) function is ideally suited for this sort of calculation. Here s the syntax of a VLOOKUP Function: =VLOOKUP(lookup value, lookup table range, value column) 18 Formulas and Functions with Excel

19 With the VLOOKUP( ) function (short for vertical lookup) you can specify lookup values for different outcomes. For example, if you have a list of parts in a worksheet, you can create a formula that assigns the part description or remarks based on the part number. To use a VLOOKUP( ) function, you must first create a lookup table with a range of values. A sample lookup table to handle parts and their description/remarks is shown below. Part Number Description Suppliers Price D001 Nut A1 traders Pte ltd \$2.00 D002 Bearing XYZ Dealers \$4.00 D003 Bolt Universal Parts Distributors \$1.50 D004 Motor Pulley Sam Motors and suppliers \$15.00 D005 Gear Amro Parts co. Ltd S70.00 In this sample, the formula is =VLOOKUP(\$D19,PartsList!\$A\$1:\$D\$11,2,0) The first argument, the lookup value, is the value you wish to look for in the lookup table which is the part number in this example. The lookup table range is the range on the worksheet that contains the lookup table. You can use a reference to a range or a range name. The values in the first column of the table are the values searched by lookup_value. These values can be text, numbers, or logical values. Finally, the value column in argument 3 is to indicate which column of the table is to be used for the actual result. Specify the value column by indicating what numeric column of the lookup table to use. In the Parts-Description lookup table above, use column 2 if you want part description. Range_lookup specifies whether you want VLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match. Note: The first column of a vertical lookup table must be in sorted order. 1. In the Lookup_value (first) argument box, select cell A4 (the value for which the calculation is made). 2. Select the Table_array (second) argument box; use the separate table that has been created earlier. In our example, the lookup table is in 'PartsList'!A2:D11. Look up table has been created in the worksheet named PartsList and is in the columns A2 to D11. Now adjust the formula such that the table array becomes an absolute reference, 'PartsList'!\$A\$2:\$D\$ In the Col_Index_num (third) argument box, type in the number of the column in the data table. A Col_index_num of 1 returns the value in the 1st column in table_array; a Col_index_num of 2 returns the value in the 2nd column in table_array and so on. In this example, we are using the 2 nd column, hence the value is 2 4. Range_lookup can be either a 0 or 1, else you could use TRUE or FALSE. By default, it is set as TRUE. However, if an exact match is needed, choose 0 or FALSE. 19 Formulas and Functions with Excel

20 5. Hence, the lookup function to get details of a particular part number will be: =VLOOKUP(A4,Lookup!\$A\$2:\$D\$11,2,FALSE) 6. Check if the result is as expected, and then click OK. Pivot Tables The Pivot tables in Excel are very useful and powerful feature and can be used to summarize, analyse, explore and present your data with ease. PivotTable report is especially designed for: Querying large amounts of data Sub-totalling and aggregating numeric data, i.e., summarising data by categories and subcategories, and creating custom calculations and formulas. Expanding and collapsing levels of data to focus your results, and drilling down to details from the summary data for areas of interest to you. Transposing data moving rows to columns or columns to rows (or "pivoting") to see different summaries of the source data. Filtering, sorting, grouping, and conditionally formatting the most useful and interesting subset of data to enable you to focus on the information that you want, without having to write any formulas Presenting concise, attractive, and annotated online or printed reports. 20 Formulas and Functions with Excel

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