STUDY THE DAMPING EFFECT OF TWO TYPES OF METALS (CK 45, 40 X) USING OILS (ASTRALUBE AND SHIELD) IN TERMS OF HARDNESS AND TENSILE

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1 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN (Print), ISSN (Print) ISSN (Online) Volume 6, Issue 3, March (215), pp. 1-7 IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (215): (Calculated by GISI) IJMET I A E M E STUDY THE DAMPING EFFECT OF TWO TYPES OF METALS (CK 45, 4 X) USING OILS (ASTRALUBE AND SHIELD) IN TERMS OF HARDNESS AND TENSILE HAMID HUSSEINALI Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research Middle Technical University, Kut - Technical Institute, Wasit, Iraq ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the circles of damping by using two types of oils ((ASTRALUBE and SHIELD)) as well as the use of central damping of a third oil resulting from the mixing of these two oils on the hardness and tensile strength of the two types of minerals have been chosen and two iron Carbon type (CK 45) and on alloy type (4 X), where the operation took place by damping these metals to those medias oily three after he was placed in a furnace dedicated to raise the temperature of each of them to ( 85 ) degrees Celsius and the installation of such class for an hour each and every one Lang. The results showed that the highest hardness was obtained was (HRC4.5) of the metal (CK45) in the middle shale mixed and tensile strength and yield was (8, 63), respectively, and with comparison with the alloy 4 X)) was the hardness of the alloy (HRC 39.5) in the same center oil and tensile strength and yield was (775,611). Either the values of the rest of the hardness and tensile strength resulting from the remaining medias were less on this, the output of the mixing media oils is the most appropriate to give the value of high hardness and high tensile strength. INTRODUCTION Most of the engineering properties of metals and alloys are related to their structure. Equilibrium structure can be predicted for an alloy with the help of an equilibrium diagram. Mechanical properties can be change by varying the relative properties of micro constituents. In practice, change in mechanical properties is achieved by a process known as heat treatment. This process consists of heating a metal or alloy to a specific predetermined temperature, holding at this temperature for required time, and finally cooling from this temperature. All these operations are carried out in solid state. Sometime, it becomes necessary to repeat these operations to impart some 1

2 characteristics. Therefore, heat treatment may be defined as heating and cooling operation (s) applied to metals and alloy in solid state so as to obtain the desired properties. Heat treatment of metals is an important operation in the final fabrication process of many engineer components. The object of this process is to make the metal better suited, structure and physically, for some specific application [1]. Most of the oils used as quenchants are mineral oils. These are, in general, paraffin based and do not possess any fatty oils. Quenching in oils provides slower cooling rates as compared to those achieved by water quenching. The slow cooling rate developed during oil quenching reduces the possibility of introduction of hardening defects in the quenched work piece. The temperature difference between the case and core of the work piece is less for oil quenching than for water quenching. Quenching oils are graded according to their viscosity values. Commonly used quenching oils have the viscosity values of about 1 SUS (Saybolt Universal Seconds) at 4c. For these oils, the duration of the first stage is found to be longer than the corresponding value achieved by water quenching. In addition to this, the cooling rate in second stage is also considerably lower, and the duration of this stage is shorter than that associated with water quenching. On account of all these factors, these oils are not considered well suited as quench ants where severe quenching is desired. However, they offer less distortion. For majority of application these oils are used at temperature varying from room temperature to 65 c. however, in certain cases, specially where slow cooling rates are required, oils are maintained in the temperature range c. For obtaining faster cooling rate, oils with viscosity values as low as 5 SUS at 4 c are employed. These oils are referred to as fast quenching oils. The duration of the fast stage is considerably less for these oils than for common oils. The initial cooling rate associated with these oils than approaching the value developed by water quenching. Hot quenching oils generally possess viscosity values in the range 25-3 SUS at 4 c. these include plain and inhibited mineral oils, which are generally used in the temperature range 1-15C. The use of these stable oils may result in low distortion and cracking. These oils are very well suited to quenching intricately shaped objects. Marquenching oils have viscosity values more than 2 SUS at 4C. These oils are inhibited to provide excellent oxidation and thermal stability. Marquenching oils are generally used at temperature higher than 15 C. These oils have specific advantage such as uniform cooling rate, minimum possible distortion and cracking. The presence of water as an impurity in quenching oils is most undesirable. It may lead to development of non-uniform hardness distribution, distortion and crack; water can be removed by heating oil to 13 C for about 4 hours [2]. If a slower cooling rate is desired, oil quenches are often utilized. Various oils are available that have high flash points and different degrees of quenching effectiveness. Since the boiling points can be quite high, the transition to third-stage cooling usually precedes the martensite start temperature. The slower cooling through the M to Mi martensite transformation, leads to a milder temperature gradient within the piece, reduced distortion and reduced likelihood of cracking. Heating the oil actually increases its cooling ability, since the reduced viscosity assists bubble formation and removal. Problems associated with oil quenchants include water contamination smoke fumes spill and disposal problems and fire hazard in addition quench oils tend to be somewhat expensive [3]. TEMPERING The tempering process takes place after steel is hardened, but is no less important in metal heat treatment. Tempering temperatures are usually below the lower transformation temperature. The main purpose of tempering is to increase the steel s toughness, yield strength and ductility, to relieve internal stresses, to improve homogenization, and to eliminate brittleness [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1, 11]. The transformation to martensite through quenching creates a very hard and brittle structure. Untempered martensite is typically too brittle for commercial use and retains a lot of stresses. As 2

3 discussed above, in surface hardening, only a thin surface layer of the work piece is heated. The surface is raised to a relatively high temperature in a short period of time. A significant surface-tocore temperature difference and steel transformation phenomena results in the buildup of internal stresses. Reheating the steel for tempering after hardening and quenching, leads to a decrease or relaxation of these internal stresses. In other words, because of tempering it is possible to improve the mechanical properties of the work piece and to reduce the stresses caused by the previous heat treatment stage without losing too much of the achieved hardness. Tempering temperatures are usually in the range of 12 68C ( F). If the steel is heated to less than 128C (2488F), there is no change in the metal structure, and tempering will not take place. Low-temperature tempering is typically performed at temperatures of C ( F). The main purpose of low-temperature tempering is stress relieving. Hardness reduction typically does not exceed 1 2 points HRC. If the tempering temperature is higher than 68 C (11128F), essential changes in the structure of the steel may result that can lead to a significant loss in hardness. Hardness reduction exceeds 15 points HRC and maximum hardness is typically in a range of HRC. Therefore, tempering is always a reasonable compromise between maintaining the required hardness and obtaining a low-stress and ductile microstructure in the metal [12]. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The following procedure has been applied for the experiment; six types of samples were used in this research three from (CK45) and three from (Alloy 4X). The compositions of these are types as shown in the table given below: CK45 Alloy 4 X Table 1: compositions of (CK 45 and alloy 4X) C SI C SI Mn Cr S Mn P Figure 1 Sample of work piece 3

4 Oil types Two type of oil are used in this research: 1- Aster lab, the specification of this oil show in the table below: Table 2: specification of shield oil Properties value Test method SAE grade 2w5 SAE J3 Specific density at 15 c.889 ASTM D 1298 Colour ASTM 2.5 ASTM D 15 Flash point COC-C 2 ASTM D 92 4 C - cst ASTM D 1 C-Cst 19.2 ASTM D 445 Viscosity index 12 ASTM D 227 Poor point- c 2-24 ASTM D 97 TBN base number mg KOH/g 8 ASTM D :- Shield, the specification of this oil show in the table below. Table 3: Specification of shield oil TYPICAL PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICS 2W-5 Kinematic Viscosity (IP 4 C 1 C mm2/s Viscosity Index (IP 226) kg/m3 (IP 365) 888 Flash Point C (PMCC) (IP 34) 215 Pour Point C (IP 15) 27 After that mix the two type of oil above to gather to obtain on three different kinds of medias. After heating the six samples to temperature equal to 85 C [13] and fix the temperature for 45 minute inside the furnace then hardening by that through of following procedures: 1- put the samples (CK45, alloy 4X) in the first media (asterlab). 2- put the second sample (CK45, alloy 4X) in second media (shield). 3- put the third sample(ck45, alloy 4X) in the third media (mix). Then do the Tempering at 35 C and shutdown the furnace then left it inside the same furnace for cooling.the hardness tester device and tensile test were used on the sample above, the results are shown in the table 4 and figures below: Metal Oil Table 4: Hardness by HRC ASTRALUBE SHIELD MIX Ck Alloy 4x

5 1 8 Sress Figure 2 Variations of Stress and for CK 45 8 Stress Figure 3 Variations of Stress and for Starlab CK 45 Figure 4 Variations of Stress with for Mix CK 45 5

6 Stress Figure 5 Variations of Stress with for Shield Alloy 4X stress Figure 6 Variations of Stress with for Starlab Alloy 4X Stress Figure 7 Variations of Stress with for Mix Alloy 4 6

7 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 1- From the result is appear the higher impartibility it was 4.5 for the material CK 45 in the in the mix as shown in chart number (3). 2- The Higher impartibility for alloy 4 X it was 39.5 in the mix oils as shown in chart number (6). 3- The resistant of tensile for the material CK 45 it was the higher rank result in the mix oils, while the higher rank result in the alloy 4 X it was in mix oils and it was the higher among anthers oils. 4- We found in the mix oils is the best one if used in the hardening. REFERENCES 1. T.V. Rajan and C. P. Sharma, heat treatment principles and techniques, Ronald A. Kohser 28 materials and process in manufacturing tenth edition 3. S.L. Semiatin and D.E. Stutz, Induction Heat Treatment of Steel, ASM International, Metals Park, OH, A. D. Demichev, Surface Induction Hardening, St. Petersburg, Russia, 199 (in Russian). 5. American Metal Treating Co., General Presentation, ASM, Heat treating, in Metals Handbook, 9th ed., Vol. 4, ASM, Cleveland, OH, K. Shepeljakovskii, Induction Surface Hardening of Parts, Mashinostroenie, Moscow, K. Weiss, In-line tempering on induction heat treating equipment, Proceedings of the First International Induction Heating Seminar, Sa o Paulo, Brazil, General Presentation of HWG, Germany, K. Weiss, In-line tempering on induction heat treating equipment relieves stresses advantageously, Industrial Heating, December, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC STANDERD SHEET,GUIDE LINES FOR HEAT TREATMENT, TENTAIVE MATERIALS FOR C.T.F. 13. Jyoti Prakash, S. P. Tewari and Bipin Kumar Srivastava, Effect of Longitudinal Weld Pool Oscillation (Lwpo) on Tensile Properties of Is Steel Welds International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 5, Issue 1, 214, pp , ISSN Print: , ISSN Online: Er. Jaitinder Mittal (Ap) and Er. Kumar Gaurav, Tensile Behaviour of Aluminium Plates (583) Welded by Friction Stir Welding International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 5, Issue 2, 214, pp , ISSN Print: , ISSN Online: Maridurai T,Shashank Rai, Shivam Sharma, Palanisamy P, Analysis of Tensile Strength and Fracture Toughness Using Root Pass of Tig Welding and Subsequent Passes of Smaw and Saw of P91 Material For Boiler Application International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 212, pp , ISSN Print: , ISSN Online:

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