2 What is mass spectrometry? A versatile analytical technique used to determine the composition of chemical samples either at the atomic or molecular level. Ionic forms of samples are separated according to differences in component massto-charge (m/z) ratio. Signals from each different isotopic composition Isotopes usually stable Keep in mind charge, z, in (+1, +2, +3, etc.); not knowing z can result in mass errors by a factor of 2, 3, etc. Dichloromethane CH 2 Cl 2 12 C 1 H 2 35 Cl 2 = C 1 H 2 35 Cl 2 = C 1 H 2 35 Cl 37 Cl = C 1 H 2 35 Cl 37 Cl = C 1 H 2 37 Cl 2 = 88 Isotope % Natural Abundance 12 C C 1.07 } 35 Cl Cl m/z Textbook value is a weighted average Cl At. wt. =
3 Basic instrumental setup for mass spectrometry Molecular mass spectrometry Chapter 20 Fig
4 Generating ions for molecular mass spectrometry Two major classes Gas phase: Sample vaporized then ionized Desorption: Solid or liquid sample is directly converted into gas phase ions * * * * *
5 Molecular mass spec ion source considerations Gas-phase Thermally stable compounds with bp less than 500 o C Limited to masses less than 1000 Da (atomic mass unit; amu) Desorption Does not require volatilization Analytes up to 100,000+ Da Hard vs. soft sources Hard sources leave molecule in excited energy states which relax via bond cleavage. Give daughter ion fragments at lower m/z. Soft sources minimize fragmentation. Resulting spectra has fewer peaks.
6 The electron impact source Gas phase source: classical method still used today Sample is thermally vaporized and bombarded with beam of electrons Electrons are expelled from molecule due to electrostatic repulsion Result: singly charged positive ions (primarily) Fig M + e- M + + 2e-
7 The electron impact source, continued Highly inefficient process and often gives complex spectra with many fragmented species Daughter ions But, good sensitivity Most common ion source in (small) molecular mass spec 1-pentanol Fig. 20-4
8 Chemical ionization sources Gas phase source; M = molecule of interest Gas phase atoms of the sample are collided with ions generated from electron bombardment of a reagent gas Reagent gas is often CH 4, which is ionized to CH 4+, CH 3+, and CH 2+. CH 4+ + CH 4 CH 5+ + CH 3 CH 3+ + CH 4 C 2 H 5+ + H 2 Ionization of sample typically occurs via proton transfer (H + ) or hydride transfer (hydride is H - ) CH 5+ + MH MH 2+ + CH 4 C 2 H 5+ + MH MH 2+ + C 2 H 4 C 2 H 5+ + MH M + + C 2 H 6
9 Comparison of electron impact and chemical ionization sources Electron impact is a much harder ionization method. Chemical ionization is softer but still classifies as a hard method. Fragmentation can be an advantage or disadvantage; can add certainty or uncertainty. Both are limited to volatile and thermallystable compounds Electron impact Both are MS of 1-decanol Chemical ionization -OH
10 Field desorption Usually a soft ionization method Multi-tipped electrode is coated with sample solution (solid or liquid phase, not gas) Electrode is inserted into compartment and a high voltage is applied, and maybe heat The sample ionizes and goes into the gas phase by electrostatic repulsion; it desorbs from the surface it was on
11 Hard vs. Soft ionization Mass spectra of glutamic acid via different ionization sources Electron impact Field desorption Fig. 20-6
12 Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) Demonstrated almost simultaneously in 1988 by German and Japanese research groups Hillenkamp & Karas (Germany) and Tanaka (Japan) Tanaka won the 2002 NP Sample is dispersed in matrix (usually a crystalline solid) and exposed to laser beam Matrix material absorbs radiation and explodes producing desorbed and ionized analyte molecules. Can analyze very large molecules without fragmenting; SOFT ionization Fig
13 Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Microchannel plate detectors Matrix/Analyte Crystals Extraction Ion Optics Reflectron Dr. Eric Monroe Bruker
14 Electrospray ionization (ESI) Desorption method First described in 1984 John Fenn (Virgina Commonwealth University) awarded 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry With Koichi Tanaka (Shimadzu) for soft laser desorption (precursor to MALDI) Extremely useful for characterizing large biopolymers (oligonucleotides, peptides, proteins, etc.) having masses greater than 100,000 Da. Also very useful for inorganic and synthetic polymer research.
15 esi.html Electrospray ionization (ESI): How it works Sample (in solution) passed through needle biased at several kv Charged droplets pass through capillary where solvent evaporates and molecules begin to inherit the droplets charge Droplets shrink until their surface tension can no longer support the charge density Rayleigh limit Coulombic explosion occurs and the droplet bursts into smaller droplets that repel each other Process repeats until all of the solvent in gone and analytes are multiply charged. A very big deal because it couples flowing, liquid samples to mass spec!
16 ESI: A few more images
17 Electrospray ionization (ESI), continued Multiply charged analytes have low m/z ratios Typically less than 1500; interfaces with quadrupole mass analyzer; more later Molecular mass can be determined from isotopic peak distribution (back calculation) No fragmentation disadvantage in some applications Use MS/MS (mass spec followed by mass spec again) to gain more structural knowledge of the molecule Readily interfaces with solution-phase Takes place at atmospheric pressures and temps (RT) Liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis
18 ESI-MS Data Note multiple charges and low m/z ratios Large, complex, complete molecules MW = 1060 Da MW = 14,700 Da antipsychotic and antihypertensive g/mol
19 Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI) Method developed by Prof. Graham Cooks (Purdue) Mass Spectrometry Sampling Under Ambient Conditions with Desorption Electrospray Ionization, Science, 2004, 306, A fine spray of charged droplets hits the surface of interest, from which it picks up small organic molecules and large biomolecules, ionizes them, and delivers them as desolvated ions into the mass spectrometer Now electrospray can be applied to surfaces and interfaces!!! R.G. Cooks, Z. Ouyang, Z. Takats, and J.M. Wiseman, Science, 2006, 311,
20 After generating ions Sorting ions by mass Detection of ions Single-channel detectors Faraday cup Electron multiplier Array transducers for ions Microchannel plates Micro-Faraday array microfabricated array of Faraday cups
21 Faraday cup The charge from positive ions striking plate is neutralized by electrons supplied from ground by external circuit via a load resistor. The voltage dropped across the resistor can be amplified and is proportional to the number of ions that struck the collector. The Faraday cage eliminates reflections of ions or secondary electrons ejected from collector. Response is independent of energy, mass, chemistry, etc. A universal charge detector. Inexpensive and simple design. High impedance amplifier limits time resolution. But, not as sensitive as electron multiplier (next). cations in Fig e - in to neutralize entering cations
22 lectron Multipliers
23 Electron multipliers Similar to photomultiplier tubes used in optical detection Ions strike cathode generating a burst of electrons that are subsequently amplified by a series of dynodes. Multipliers with ~20 dynodes can give gains of Rugged, reliable, high-current gains with fast response times (nsec) Used for most routine mass spectrometry applications Continuous-dynode multiplier Discrete multiplier; individual dynodes Fig. 11-2
24 Microchannel Plate detector 18mm An MCP detector is like placing 1,000s of electron multipliers in parallel right next to each other. They are typically used in time-of-flight instruments because of their exceptional speed and sensitivity.
25 Microchannel plate an array detector for ions Electro-optical ion detector (electrons and light) Analogous to optical detectors, detector arrays allow multiple ion trajectories (different ions) to be monitored simultaneously The utility of this type of detector will be discussed later Think diode array versus single diode Fig Individual electron multipliers: 1000-fold!
26 Mass analyzers Sort ions based upon m/z ratio Exert forces upon ions in order to differentiate m/z ratios Ions can be manipulated by electric and magnetic fields. Ions that traverse a magnetic field have a bent trajectory Efficiency of ion sorting described by resolution: Common types Magnetic sector Double-focusing Time-of-flight Quadrupole Quadrupole ion trap FT-Ion cyclotron resonance Orbitrap R m m m is the mass difference between the two peaks m is the average mass of the peaks Needed resolution varies dramatically based upon application!!! Better R often means more $ or more complex instrumentation!
27 Magnetic sector analyzers Ions are injected into a circular path (electro)magnet and only those of a certain m/z ratio are able to balance the centripetal (F C ) and magnetic forces (F M ) in successfully traverse the path; others hit the sides. Mass selection is achieved by sweeping the field, B (more typical) or V. Resolution mv KE = zev = ½ mv 2 FM Bzev Fc r 2 mv Bzer Bzev v r m 1 2 KE zev mv 2 Fig Assumption: all ions have same KE after acceleration through Slit B m z 2 2 B r e 2V B=magnetic field strength e=electron charge v=velocity V=accelerating voltage r = radius m = mass
28 Limitations of magnetic sector Not all ions of same m/z have identical kinetic energy A Boltzmann distribution emerges from ion source Causes broadening in m/z transmitted to detector Solution: Use a second focusing element before magnetic sector double focusing Kind of like a pre-filter Two bent, electrostatic plates; at constant dc potential
29 Double focusing analyzer Ions are first passed through electrostatic energy filter to isolate a single kinetic energy Resolution 100,000! Neir-Johnson design Single channel measurements Early design Mattauch-Herzog configuration Better for array detectors that capture entire mass spectra
30 Time-of-flight mass analyzer (TOF) Ions are generated in pulses and accelerated (also in pulses, but with a lag) in a V field into a field-free drift tube All ions (theoretically) have the same kinetic energy so higher mass species will traverse the drift tube more slowly (big mass = slow v) 1 2 KE mv 2 Resolution better than, but sensitivity (quantitation) not as good as quadrupoles (next). Advantages: simplicity, ruggedness, virtually unlimited range, and fast data acquisition (entire mass spectrum collected simultaneously) t F L m 2Vez t F =flight time L=distance from source to detector V=accelerating voltage
31 Reflectron configuration: a variation on standard TOF Faster ions penetrate more deeply into electrostatic reflector and thus travel a longer distance. Correcting for KE distribution from ion source Result: Faster and slower ions of same mass arrive at the detector simultaneously. Improved resolution but lower sensitivity: more components = more lost molecules
32 Quadrupole mass analyzer Mass isolation is achieved with alternating applied electric fields DC voltage is applied to rods opposite one another and AC voltage is superimposed. The same thing, but opposite sign of applied voltage on the other two rods Important: The DC and AC voltages are both essential and are always controlled and scanned together. The repulsion (or not) of an ion is dependent upon its velocity which tracks with m/z. Limited, but tunable, mass range passes. A ions focused toward z-axis during + half of AC cycle B ions attracted to x rods during half of AC cycle
33 Quadrupole mass analyzer, continued Only ions having a specific m/z ratio are confined within and traverse the entire quadrupole without becoming unstable and colliding with a rod. Most commonly used mass analyzers today for a range of applications More compact, less expensive, and more rugged than TOF instruments better quantitation! Good resolution (R ~ 1 amu) Much less than TOF Fast! 100-ms scans, full mass spectra Nominal mass range is up to 1500 m/z Best go up to m/z. Four parallel electrode rods
34 Putting it all together: Helpful video Small molecule mass spectrometry Ionization, quadrupole mass analyzer, and detector
35 Quadrupole ion trap Can store ions of particular m/z ranges and selectively eject particular m/z ions for up to 15 minutes, for some species Rugged, compact, and cheap, but limited dynamic range and accuracy in m/z measurement. Useful for MS/MS and other applications where one wants to store or accumulate ions for subsequent analysis.
36 Linear ion trap Rods are segmented to allow independent electrical contact. Potential well created in middle traps ions Higher capacity than standard quadrupole ion trap
37 Tandem mass spectrometry selection A pre-selected ion is fragmented and the pieces analyzed again by mass spectrometry. Parent ion (M n+ ) fragmented into product ions Fragmented via: Electron capture dissociation Collisions with gas (often CH 4 ) Photo-induced dissociation (w/laser) Valuable tool for identification of species with the same parent ion mass because the fragments will differ Soft ion sources preferable for MS step 1 Harder sources preferable for MS step 2 usually soft M + m/z = 279 M + m/z = 279 usually hard(er) Fig Fig
38 Types of MS/MS instrumentation Tandem-in-space MS/MS Often multiple quadrupoles that can act both as mass analyzers and collision chambers Image below Tandem-in-time MS/MS Collision is done inside of mass analyzer FT-ICR and quadrupole ion traps are ideally suited Fig A triple quadrupole mass spec!
39 A few other helpful videos LC-interfaced triple quad MS/MS LC-interfaced qtof
41 Applications of molecular mass spectrometry Versatile detection technology Not only detects, but provides additional detail in the detection process. Qualitative and quantitative applications Identification of compounds and determination of purity Hyphenated techniques GC/MS, LC/MS, CE/MS, GC/MS/MS, LC/MS/MS, and LC/MS n
42 Traditional MS/MS-based proteomics Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, their structure and function 1) Sample collection and 1-D PAGE for rough separation 2) Tryptic digest to yield peptides (more manageable). Whole proteins cannot be unequivocally identified by mass alone. 3) LC purification and ESI injection 4) MS spectrum obtained and peptide composition can be identified, but not sequenced 5) MS/MS fragment analysis allows the linear sequence to be reconstructed Replaced by LC after digestion Nature, 2003, 422,
43 Types of peptide fragments
44 Common non-proteolytic fragmentation methods Collision activated dissociation (CAD) Collision-induced dissociation (CID) Fragments at amide bonds giving b and y ions Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) Fragments at amide bonds giving b and y ions Electron capture dissociation (ECD) Low energy electrons used to fragment peptide often at backbone giving c and z ions Mainly used on FT- instruments Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) Radical anions (antracene and azobenzene) used to fragment molecular ions (not direct fragmentation) giving c and z ions Also applicable to simpler quadrupole instruments Both are very useful for studying posttranslational protein modifications because they only cleave the backbone of the polypeptide
45 Proteomics: Protein and peptide sequencing using MS/MS Single-letter amino acid designations Fragments obtained by proteolytic digestion b n is the left fragment y m is the right fragment MS/MS b n + y m = 775 = MW From Introduction to Proteomics: Tools for the New Biology, by Daniel C. Liebler, 2002, Humana Press
46 Proteomics: Protein and peptide sequencing using MS/MS The bottom-up approach to analysis: analyze the proteolytic pieces with MS/MS Problem: Often only partial peptide sequence coverage is achieved From Introduction to Proteomics: Tools for the New Biology, by Daniel C. Liebler, 2002, Humana Press
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