# Educator Resource Packet

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1 Educator Resource Packet A part of series Powered by with This game and the resource packet are made freely available to teachers with the generous support from: Packet Design: 2121.LA

2 CONTENTS Introduction What is the Gravity Ether? How do I use it in the classroom? The Educators Resource Packet Concepts Force and distance Orbits Mass, inertia and gravitational force Level editors and game simulations Sample Lesson Plans 1. Using games for science literacy time 60 minutes directed at literacy skills standards: 2. Teaching force and distance time 60 minutes directed at content standards: (Mini Unit) Conduct an investigation about mass with the level editor time 4 hours directed at content and scientific skills standards: 17 Appendices Engineering design process diagram Linking the games to standards

4 CONCEPTS Force and Distance The first part of the game addresses the relationship between force and distance; in particular through the Universal Law of Gravitation: Gravity Ether gameplay reinforces the idea that distance (r) gets bigger force will get smaller. By playing through the first few levels of the game, students will see that planets move fastest (experience the most force) when they are very close to a blackhole. screenshot from the game: planet and blackhole Implicit Learning in Action: The first challenge level tests a student s understanding of force and distance by asking him or her to accelerate 3 planets to a high speed. The student must add a black hole some distance from the planets and then remove the black hole when the planet gets close, at its maximum velocity. This implicitly requires an understanding that high forces are created at close distances to planets, and that high forces lead to high velocities. Sample Questions the Game Can Teach and Reinforce: - If there is a black hole to the right of a planet, where does the planet go? - How can you make a planet move a certain distance and then stop moving? - How would you move a planet towards a corner and keep it there? - How does the distance of a black hole to a planet affect the force on a planet? - How does the distance from the blackhole impact the speed of the planet s motion? - Can you design a plan to move the planet from the bottom right hand side of the screen to the upper left hand side? More information about which force and distance standards are addressed by the Gravity Ether can be found in Appendix 2. 4

5 CONCEPTS Orbits The second set of three levels involve orbits. Students will learn how the distance and speed of a planet from a sun impacts a planet s ability to orbit around the sun. screenshot from the game: planets in orbit Implicit Learning in Action: In levels 4-6 and the Orbit Challenge, students will learn how a planet can orbit a sun or a black hole and how the distance and speed of the planet impacts this orbital motion. Sample Questions the Game Can Teach and Reinforce: - What type of motion does an orbiting planet exhibit? - What happens to an orbiting planet if the blackhole is removed? - How can you get an orbiting planet to stop orbiting? - How do you get a planet to orbit around a sun? - Describe your plan to get a stationary planet to begin orbiting around a sun. More details in regards to specific orbits standards are addressed by the Gravity Ether can be found in Appendix 2. 5

6 CONCEPTS Mass, Inertia and Gravitational Force The third set of levels addresses mass. Planets differ in size and density, which will in turn affect their total mass. These levels are designed to specifically call their attention to three features impacted by planet mass More massive planets have more inertia. This makes it easier for more massive planets to break obstacles in the level, and to slow down less when they do so (since they have more total momentum). The likelihood of a planet breaking is related to (inversely proportional to) its mass. Therefore, in a collision between a more massive and less massive planet, the less massive planet is more likely to break. A planet s acceleration depends on it s own mass and the mass of the object pulling it. This means that if you put a light and heavy object nearby each other, both feel the same force but the lighter object will accelerate faster. This also means that if you put a light and heavy object nearby a black hole, both will feel different forces, but accelerate towards the black hole at the same rate. This is a relatively advanced concept, but is illustrated in the third challenge level. screenshot from the game: variety of planets. Implicit Learning in Action: By playing levels 7 through 9 and the Mass Challenge, students will gain a better understanding of the relationships between mass, inertia, and gravitational force. Sample Questions the Game Can Teach and Reinforce: - What happens when two planets with the same density collide at the same speed? - What happens when a dense planet collides with a less dense planet? - Can you compare the difference in motion between a light planet and a heavy planet? - How would a heavy and light planet move if they were placed some distance apart from each other? - How does the density of a planet affect it s movement? - What would happen if a heavy and light planet were placed some distance apart with a blackhole between them? - How can you distinguish between a light planet and a heavy planet? - Create an investigation (using the games level editor) to sort the planet s by mass, from the most massive to least massive. More information in regards to what specific mass and inertia standards the Gravity Ether addresses are listed in Appendix 2. 6

7 CONCEPTS Level Editor and Game Simulations Gravity Ether s level editor allows students to practice creating a level that has certain goals and constraints within this simulation of space. When the student is using the level editor, the student is directly practicing skills in the engineering design process (Appendix 1). Student can then use the game as a simulation space to conduct experiments and practice science inquiry. screenshot from the game: the Create button, gives the students the opportunity to apply what they learned. Sample Questions the Game Can Teach and Reinforce: - What was your thought process when you were developing this level? - How does the game relate to the motion of real objects in space, like planets or satellites? - What are the specific challenges in the level you designed? Are they in varying difficulties? - Can you design a challenging but not too challenging level for other students to play, using playtesting feedback from other students as data to inform your design? - What are some concepts you applied in your designed level that you brought from previous levels you played? - Can you develop and use a model in the level editor to mimic the earth and moon (or some other planets in our solar system)? The level editor of Gravity Ether provides a unique platform for teachers to address the Next Generation Engineering Design and Common Core standards. More about how the Gravity Ether aligns to specific standards is provided in Appendix 2. 7

8 LESSON 1 Using Games for Science Literacy Standards adressed: Common Core Literacy in Science Lesson for 6-8th grades. Goal of this lesson: This lesson uses the Ether game as a simulation that subsidizes student learning from scientific texts. It is a station-based lesson that asks students to analyze information from multiple sources and synthesize this information into a system showing interactions between benefit/problem relationships present in space exploration. Station 1 Video - 10 min Reflection and Assessment Station 3 Station 2 Game - 10 min Text - 10 min 30 min Total 60 minutes Lesson Plan Standard Compare and contrast the learning scientists have been able to achieve from using space probes with the problems they may encounter exploring space. CSS: RST 68.7: Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. Learning Target Students will compare and contrast the learning scientists have been able to achieve from using space probes with the problems they may encounter exploring space by reading the CCSS exemplar text Space Probe, playing the Gravity Ethers game, and viewing the video Wringing out Water on the ISS and citing each of these sources in a flow chart. Assesment Students will create a flowchart that addresses these points: - 4 examples of the learning accomplished by scientists in space - 4 problems encountered by scientists exploring space - 4 relationships between phenomena (could be relation ships between problems, learning connected to problems) - Each piece of evidence cited by source (text, video, game or combinations) Example attached 8

9 LESSON 1 Lesson Structure Station 1 Video - 10 min Station 3 Station 2 Game - 10 min Text - 10 min Students will be at each station for 10 minutes Prompt students to take notes about the information they are learning at stations with instructions to focus specifically on the learning and problems scientists encounter while exploring space. Station 1 Video Wringing out Water on the ISS 10 minutes link: Possible guiding questions for students to consider while watching video: - How does running this experiment in space different from how we would do it on earth? - Besides the water acting strangely, what else do you observe being different about the space environment? Station 2 Space Probe Text 10 minutes Students will read and take notes on Space Probe text. Teacher may ask students to incorporate different strategies for enabling comprehension, such as Talking to the Text, KWL chart, etc. Station 3 Gameplay 10 minutes Download at Students will play the Gravity Ether for 7 minutes, taking notes on learning for 3 minutes. Questions to ask students in regards to game play: What did you like about the game? - What was the most challenging? - What strategies did you use? - What did you learn about gravity, density, the properties of planets? Teacher may want to brainstorm guiding ideas to frame learning, such as: - Note how the density of planets impacts their movements - Observe how the lack of gravity in space affects different objects - Note problems a space probe may encounter as it tries to move through space 9

10 LESSON 1 Lesson Structure (cont.) Reflection + Assessment 30 minutes Create Learning vs. Problems In Space Flowchart Students will work independently or in groups to create a flowchart with 8 examples of the learning accomplished and problems encountered by scientists exploring space, noting the relationships between phenomena and citing which source (text, video, game or combinations) they have acquired this information from. Note: Teacher will need to walk through process of creating flowcharts and delineating relationships if students are unfamiliar with task. Example attached 10

11 LESSON 1 Common Core Exemplar Text Space Probe A space probe is an unpiloted spacecraft that leaves Earth s orbit to explore the Moon, planets, asteroids, comets, or other objects in outer space as directed by onboard computers and/or instructions send from Earth. The purpose of such missions is to make scientific observations, such as taking pictures, measuring atmospheric conditions, and collecting soil samples, and to bring or report the data back to Earth. Numerous space probes have been launched since the former Soviet Union first fired Luna 1 toward the Moon in Probes have now visited each of the eight planets in the solar system. In fact, two probes Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are approaching the edge of the solar system, for their eventual trip into the interstellar medium. By January 2008 Voyager 1 was about 9.4 billion miles (15.2 billion kilometers) from the Sun and in May 2008 it entered the heliosheath (the boundary where the solar wind is thought to end), which is the area that roughly divides the solar system from interstellar space. Voyager 2 is not quite as far as its sister probe. Voyager 1 is expected to be the first human space probe to leave the solar system. Both Voyager probes are still transmitting signals back to Earth. They are expected to help gather further information as to the true boundary of the solar system The earliest probes traveled to the closest extraterrestrial target, the Moon. The former Soviet Union launched a series of Luna probes that provided humans with first pictures of the far side of the Moon. In 1966, Luna 9 made the first successful landing on the Moon and sent back television footage from the Moon s surface. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initially made several unsuccessful attempts to send a probe to the Moon. Not until 1964 did a Ranger probe reach its mark and send back thousands of pictures. Then, a few months after Luna 9, NASA landed Surveyor on the Moon. In the meantime, NASA was moving ahead with the first series of planetary probes, called Mariner. Mariner 2 first reached the planet Venus in Later Mariner spacecrafts flew by Mars in 1964 and 1969, providing detailed images of that planet. In 1971, Mariner 9 became the first spacecraft to orbit Mars. During its year in orbit, Mariner 9 s two television cameras transmitted footage of an intense Martian dust storm, as well as images of 90 percent of the planet s surface and the two Martian natural satellites (moons). Encounters were also made with Mars in 1976 by the U.S. probes Viking 1 and Viking 2. Each Viking spacecraft consisted of both an orbiter and a lander. Viking 1 made the first successful soft landing on Mars on July 20, Soon after, Viking 2 landed on the opposite side of the planet. The Viking orbiters made reports on the Martian weather and photographed almost the entire surface of the planet. From ASTRONOMY & SPACE V2, 1E Gale, a part of Cengage Learning, Inc. Reproduced by permission. Astronomy & Space: From the Big Bang to the Big Crunch. Edited by Phillis Engelbert. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Cengage Learning,

12 LESSON 1 Learning vs. Problem In Space Flow Chart Rubric POINTS Examples of Learning example of the learning accomplished by scientists in space 2 examples of the learning accomplished by scientists in space 3 examples of the learning accomplished by scientists in space 4 examples of the learning accomplished by scientists in space Problems Encountered in Space 1 problem encountered by scientists exploring space 2 problems encountered by scientists exploring space 3 problems encountered by scientists exploring space 4 problems encountered by scientists exploring space Source Source (video, text, game) cited for a few pieces of evidence Source (video, text, game) cited for a few pieces of evidence Source (video, text, game) cited for most pieces of evidence Source (video, text, game) cited for every piece of evidence Relationships Between Evidence 1 relationship between pieces of evidence is noted 2 relationships between pieces of evidence are noted 3 relationships between pieces of evidence are noted 4 relationships between pieces of evidence are noted Exemplar Flow Chart: 12

13 LESSON 2 2 Teaching Force and Distance Standards adressed: Next Generation Science Standards: Physical Science Standard for Middle School. Goal of this lesson: This lesson plan teaches force and distance throught the workshop model. The lesson includes time for gameplay, class discussion of points related to Newton s First Law and assessment via differentiated exit tickets. Warm Up Demonstration + Discussion Gameplay Reflection + Assessment 7 min 8 min 30 min 15 min stop for short reflection Total 60 minutes Lesson Plan Standard Learning Target Using Gravity Ethers simulator to understand force and distance in relation to Newton s First Law NGSS: MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. Students will answer questions independently about motion and forces. Assessment Exit ticket: focuses on how objects react when forces are applied, specifically in relation to blackholes. Exit tickets attached 13

14 LESSON 2 Lesson Structure Warm Up 7 minutes Ask students to pick three questions to answer independently from questions below: What is a force? How can you demonstrate force? What will happen to an object when you pull it? Where do you see different types of motion? What is a blackhole? What happens to planets and other space objects when it s near a blackhole? Demonstration + Discussion 8 minutes Ask varying students to demonstrate different types of forces and motions: lift (vertical movement) or sliding (horizontal movement) After the demonstration, coordinate a class discussion with the students. This would ideally be a Think, Pair, Share or some other student led conversation. Alternatively, this can be a teacher led discussion. Discussion Points - An object will stay at rest unless a force is applied. - We will play a game called the Gravity Ether, where the blackhole produces force. Blackholes act as a force to pull an objects, like planets, towards them. - Today, we are going to play a game and see what impact the force of a blackhole can have on space objects. Remember to think about the size of the object as well as the distance to/from the blackhole. - Notice the direction and magnitude of how space objects move as you play this game and explore how blackholes work. Game Play 30 minutes Introduce the game as a simulation of space and gravity forces. Remind students to observe what happens in the game as they play, and be ready to share their observations. Then let them engage in free play, individually or in groups depending on the technology availability in your classroom. Playing in pairs is often ideal, as it encourages discussions during gameplay. After 10 minutes of gameplay, break for a short reflection activity. Mid Gameplay Reflection Activity (5 min). Ask students to close laptops or turn off ipads for 5 minutes, and lead them in a reflection activity. The goal is for students to share their in game observations with other students This can be done 14

15 LESSON 2 Lesson Structure (Cont.) with any number of reflection activities, we would encourage them to be as student- led as possible. Possibilities include a Think, Pair, Share or generating a list of Game Strategies to compare with other students, or simply a teacher- led discussion. We give an example of potential Think Pair Share questions below. Think Pair Share after 10 minutes of game playing These questions focus on concepts addressed by Newton s first law: - How can you make the object move in the direction you want? - How can you make the space object move really fast? Reflection and Assessment 15 minutes Class Discussion (10 minutes) Recap of gameplay. Students can return to another Think, Pair, Share, or this can be a teacher- led discussion. Some sample points to reinforce: - In space there are many blackholes. Space objects such as planets and asteroids can get pulled into the black hole. - As objects get closer to blackholes, the force applied by the blackhole gets stronger. This will cause the object to move faster into the blackhole. - When a space object is very far from the blackhole, it won t experience much force and therefore it won t move as much. Exit Ticket (5 minutes) See next page for exit ticket attached. Exit tickets attached 15

16 LESSON 2 Exit Ticket A Draw an arrow indicating how the planet will move: 1) 2) Planet Black Hole Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 3) If a planet is located at equidistance from two blackholes, how will it react? Exit Ticket B Using arrows to indicate the movement of planets, draw a scene containing two blackholes and three planets. Each planet should have an arrow showing how the planet would move: Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 2) How does distance from a force impact the movement of an object? 3) If an object is travelling through space at 65 mph and no outside forces act upon it, how will it react? 16

17 Mini MINI UNIT Unit Investigation About Mass with Level Editor Standards adressed: - RST : Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. - MS-ESS1-3: Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system. - Practice 3: Planning and Carrying out Investigation - Practice 4: Analyzing and Interpreting Data - Practice 8: Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information Goals of Mini Unit: Students will write a short reflection essay that analyzes the results of their investigation. It will ask students to evaluate and sort the planets from greatest mass to lowest mass including: - A description and justification of the method by which they sorted the planets and came to their results; - A synthesis of how data about planets was collected and analyzed; - A justification of the validity of their results (how do they know their sorting is correct); - An analysis of how their investigation results can be applied to determining mass in the solar system. 17

18 MINI UNIT Investigation About Mass with the Level Editor Day 1 Experience the game and think about the role of mass in the gameplay. Warm Up Gameplay Reflection + Assessment 10 min stop for short reflection 35 min Total 60 minutes Day 2 Create an investigation plan to measure mass of planets using the Level Editor. Discussion 10 min Investigation Brainstorm 30 min Create a Plan 15 min Total 55 minutes Day 3 Get peer-feedback on their investigation plan, and carry out their investigation. Peer Review 15 min Investigation 30 min Reflection Worksheet 15 min Total 60 minutes Day 4 Finish their investigation and present their results in a written essay/report. Discuss Rubric Brainstorm Essay Writeup 10 min 10 min 40 min Total 60 minutes 18

19 MINI UNIT Day 1 Experience the Game and Think About the Role of Mass Warm Up Gameplay Reflection + Assessment 10 min 35 min 15 min stop for short reflection Total 60 minutes Lesson Plan Standards Learning Target Assessment Play and make observations about the role of planet properties in the game. NGSS: MS-ESS1-3: Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system. CCS: RST : Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically into words. Students will be able to describe the different properties of planets in the solar system. Students will understand how some of those properties (size, mass) affect planets response to gravitational forces in the context of the game. Students will complete a short exit ticket that records their observations about the role of mass in the Gravity Ether game. Exit tickets attached 19

21 MINI UNIT Exit Ticket Day 1 1. Write down a game strategy you found most effective in the game. 2. Write down a property of planets that affected the game strategy you wrote above. How did that property affect your game strategy? 21

22 MINI UNIT Day 2 Investigation plan to measure mass of planets - Level Editor Discussion Investigation Brainstorm Create a Plan 10 min 30 min 15 min Total 55 minutes Lesson Plan Standards Create an investigation plan that will help you analyze the relative mass of planets. NGSS: MS-ESS1-3: Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system. Practice 3: Planning and carrying out Investigations Practice 4: Analyzing and interpreting data CCS: RST : Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically into words. Learning Target Students will create an Investigation that will help them to analyze the relative mass of planets. Note: students will have to sort every planet in the game by mass. Assessment Student groups will hand in an investigation plan about how they will use the Gravity Ether to determine the relative mass of all the planets in the game. Worksheet attached 22

23 Discussion 10 minutes MINI UNIT Day 2 Use a class discussion technique that you are comfortable with. Recap the strategies from the previous class. Review Mass: - Do bigger or smaller planets have more mass? - Do denser or lighter planets have more mass? - What if we have a big, light planet, and a small, dense planet, which has more mass? Investigation Brainstorm 30 minutes Option 1 Introduce the game s level editor as an exploration and investigation tool. Then, task students with creating an investigation plan that can sort the planets by mass. You can scaffold this activity in many ways, depending on the student s comfort level with inquiry activities. It is important to give students time to create their own mini investigation plans on the level editor, let them explore and learn to manipulate the platform, as well as test out ideas as they go. If your students are comfortable and familiar with inquiry activities, you can leave them to explore in groups and facilitate as needed, with some general prompts, like: - Did any of the game strategies from Day 1 relate to mass? Can you use them here? - How can you measure the mass of a planet? - How can you figure out if one kind of planet is more massive than another? If your students are less comfortable or experienced with such open-ended structure, you can make this section a little more guided. You can work through one example of how to measure mass with the class together for the first 10 minutes, and then leave the next 20 minutes for your students to generate a similar method. Option 2 Ethers Level Editor Demo - Together, create a mini investigation in the editor. - Possible mini-investigation: add some blocks in the middle of the screen, and add a planet on the left side of the screen and a sun on the right. Start the simulation see how many blocks the planet breaks. - Now go back to editing mode and replace the planet with a new one. Run the simulation again and count a different number of blocks that break. Note: these examples are intentionally built to not work well. Then, if students want to use the idea they will have to redesign and refine it. You can prompt students to explore further by asking: - What was not very good about this investigation? - How could you design a better investigation? 23

24 MINI UNIT Day 2 Create a Plan 15 minutes Create a Draft of an Investigation Plan Worksheet attached See Investigation Plan worksheet below Challenge groups to create an investigation plan that seeks to determine the relative mass of all the planets in the game (i.e. they need to sort every planet in the game by mass). This investigation plan will push students to formalize the ideas they have been generating up to this point. Investigation plans will probably fall into one of these four main categories. It s less important that a student ends up with a certain type of investigation, and more important that they understand the strengths and weaknesses of the investigation that they have chosen. Block breaking: how many blocks can a planet break after reaching a certain speed? Time to accelerate: Students can mimic the Mass challenge level, and time how long it takes different planets to accelerate forward. Having stopwatches handy can be good for this. Breakage test: Break two planets into each other, and see which one (if any) breaks. This is probably the most reliable measurement of mass, but the data will be the most difficult to interpret. Orbit test: Shoot two planets past each other so that they form a binary orbit. Record which planet has the bigger orbit. 24

25 GROUP INVESTIGATION Day 2 Group Members: 1) How will you measure the mass of different planets? Describe the steps you will take on the level editor to collect your data: Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: 2) How do you know that your system for measuring the mass of each planet is correct? 3) What problems do you foresee with your planet categorization system? 25

26 MINI UNIT Peer Feedback on Investigation Plan + Carry Out Investigation Day 3 Peer Review Investigation Reflection Worksheet 15 min 30 min 15 min Total 60 minutes Lesson Plan Carry out an investigation on the level editor and reflect on results. Standards NGSS: MS-ESS1-3. Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system Practice 4: Analyzing and Interpreting Data Practice 8: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information Common Core: RST : Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. Learning Target Assessment Students will work in groups to test the investigation they created to categorize planets by mass and independently write and reflect on their investigation by completing the Investigation Worksheet Part Two on their own. Investigation Worksheet Part 2 Students will reflect on how they investigated planet mass with the level editor. Worksheet attached 26

27 Peer Review 15 minutes MINI UNIT Day 3 Have Students Talk about their Investigations Via the Speed Dating Strategy Give students two minutes to describe their investigations to peers. Teacher may consider guiding questions for students to discuss, including: - How will you use the editor to investigate planet mass? - What steps will you take to investigate planet mass? Other options for sharing their investigations could include: presenting to small groups or assigning this task as homework to share with their parents. Alternatively, all of the students plans can be written on a board, and whole class can compare and contrast different investigation plans, deciding which one is best. Investigation 30 minutes Have the groups carry out their investigation plans, each student can follow the plan and run the investigation on their own level editor. Reflection Worksheet 15 minutes Students reflect on how they investigated planet mass via the level editor. If possible, students can also take screenshots of the way they tested their planets in the editor and submit those pictures as part of their final short essay. Worksheet attached 27

28 Group Investigation Day 3 Group Members: 1) How did you measure the mass of different planets? 2) Draw out the investigation your group created on the simulator here: 3) What did you learn about planet mass from your investigation on the level simulator? 4) Draw out the planets from least to most mass here, include labels: 28

29 MINI UNIT Day 4 Finish Investigation + Present Results in a Written Essay Discuss Rubric Brainstorm Essay Writeup 10 min 10 min 40 min Total 60 minutes Lesson Plan Standards Learning Target Reflect on results of level simulator investigation by completing reflection essay/lab report. NGSS: MS-ESS1-3: Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system Practice 4: Analyzing and Interpreting Data Practice 8: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information Common Core: RST : Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. Students will independently write a short reflection essay/report that interprets and justifies the results of their planet mass investigations. Assessment Reflaction essay including information about sorting the planets from the greatest mass to lowest mass including: - A description of the method by which they achieved these results. - A synthesis of how data was collected and analyzed. - A justification of the validity of their results (how do they know it s correct). - Complete categorization of each planet in the game by mass. - An analysis of how these results can be applied to determining mass in the solar system. Rubric attached 29

30 MINI UNIT Day 4 Discuss 10 minutes Discuss Planet Categorization Short Essay Rubric Go over each requirement on the rubric and answer questions. Rubric attached Brainstorm 10 minutes Groups Work together to Brainstorm Ideas Allow students to talk with their investigation groups about their results, data collection methods, and justification of results. Essay Writeup 40 minutes - A description of the method by which they achieved these results. - A synthesis of how data was collected and analyzed. - Results of investigation (all planets are categorized from least to most massive). - A justification of the validity of their results (how do they know it s correct). - An analysis of how these results can be applied to determining mass in the solar system. Suggested Follow Up Students will independently write a short essay, using the learning they did in their groups to talk about the investigation they planned to sort the planets from the greatest mass to lowest mass including: - Allow students to provide feedback to each other s essays - Have students create a puzzle level in the game, which has a solution that depends on using planets of different mass - Discuss with students how will they redesign their Gravity Ether investigation plan knowing what they have learned through the essay and provide them time to redesign - Discuss with the students how they can use the investigation from Day 3 to design a challenging level on the Gravity Ether. 30

31 MINI UNIT Day 4 Planet Categorization Short Essay Rubric POINTS Description of Investigation No description of investigation group carried out on simulator Description of investigation carried out on simulator unclear Description of investigation carried out on simulator well thought out Detailed description of investigation carried out on simulator Description of Data Collection No description of how data was collected from simulator Mention of data collection, little effort to describe system Mention of data collection, system unclear Detailed description of how data was collected from simulator Categorization of Planets No planets are categorized from least to most massive Some planets are categorized from least to most massive Most planets are categorized from least to most massive All planets are categorized from least to most massive Justification of Results No justification of your results Incomplete justification of results Some justification of results Complete justification of results Analysis of How Results Relate to Mass No analysis of how these results can be applied to determining mass in the solar system Very little analysis of how these results can be applied to determining mass in the solar system Some analysis of how these results can be applied to determining mass in the solar system Complete analysis of how these results can be applied to determining mass in the solar system 31

32 APPENDIX 1 The Engineering Design Process What is the challenge? What are the limits? How can you solve it? Think up lots of ideas. Pick one and make a plan. Make a drawing or a model. Explore Find out what others have done. Gather materials and play with them. Try It Out The Works This flow chart was created by The Works as a simple, kid friendly representation of the Engineering Design Process described in NGSS. 32

33 APPENDIX 2 Core Concepts and Middle School Standards Adressed From the Middle School NGSS: Force and Distance Orbits Mass and Inertia 1. MS-ESS1-2. Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system. 2. MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. 3. MS-PS2-4. Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. 4. MS-PS2-5. Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. 5. MS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system 6. MS-PS3-5. Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object. From the Middle School NGSS: 1. MS-ESS1-1. Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons. 2. MS-ESS1-2. Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system. 3. MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. 4. MS-PS2-5. Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. 5. MS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement o objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system From the Middle School NGSS: 1. MS-ESS1-3. Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system. 2. MS-PS2-1. Apply Newton s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects. 3. MS-PS2-5. Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. 4. MS-PS3-5. Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object. 5. MS-PS2-4. Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. 33

34 APPENDIX 2 (Cont.) From CCSS Literacy in Science Anchor Standards Reading Anchor #7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. 1. RST.6-8.7: Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). 2. RST : Translate quantitative or technical information expresse in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. 3. RST :...evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. Level Editors and Games as Simulations Reading Anchor #8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 1. RST : Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. Reading Anchor #9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. 1. RST.6-8.9: Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. 2. RST : Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts. 3. RST : Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., 34 d texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. Writing Anchor #7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 1. RST.6-8.7:...answer a question (including a self-generated question)...generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. Speaking and Listening Anchor #5: Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations. 1. SL.8.5: Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence SL : Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence... 34

35 APPENDIX 2 (Cont.) From CC Math Standards*: 1. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively 2. MP.4 Model with mathematics 3. MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically From the Middle School NGSS: Level Editors and Games as Simulations (Cont.) 1. MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. 2. MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. 3. MS-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success. 4. MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing an modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. From the NGSS Science and Engineering Practices (across grades)** Practice 1: Asking Questions and Defining Problems Practice 2: Developing and Using Models Practice 3: Planning and Carrying out Investigations Practice 4: Analyzing and Interpreting Data Practice 5: Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking Practice 6: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions Practice 7: Engaging in Argument from Evidence Practice 8: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information * Note that the CC Math Standards are based on 3 concepts that NGSS claims to align with across its standards. It should be noted that in many activities wich involve using the level-editor as a simulation tool also involve interacting with mathematical relationships in a visual way. In fact, that is basically what a good simulation is- an animated, visual representation of mathematical relationships. In other words, playing the game forces students to conceptualize relationships, whereas using the level-editor allows students to model and represent those relationships. ** The Science and Engineering Practices are embedded in each specific age-level standard. Creating levels for other users to play is a design process that builds upon these practices (even if the level designed does not illustrate a specific middle school standard, and is just intended to be fun to play). 35

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