Machine Tools for High Performance Machining

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1 L.N. Lopez de Lacalle A. Lamikiz Editors Machine Tools for High Performance Machining Springer

2 Content Contributors xix 1 Machine Tools for Removal Processes: A General View 1 L. Norberto Lopez de Lacalle and A. Lamikiz 1.1 Basic Definitions and History Historical Remarks The Functions and Requirements of a Machine Tool User and Technological Requirements The Basic Mechanism The Machine Structure Machine Foundations Structural Components Materials Structural Analysis Modularity Guideways Guides with Limit Lubrication Rolling Guides Hydrostatic Guides The Definition of the Main Motion The Definition of the Drive Trains The CNC Implementation Machine Verification Typical Machines for Several Applications and Sectors A Machine for Big Structural Turbine Parts A Horizontal Milling Centre for Automotive Components A Milling Centre for Moulds A Milling Machine for Big Dies and Moulds Conventional Machines for Auxiliary Operations CNC Milling Machines for General Production 40 xi

3 xii Content A Heavy-duty Lathe A Mitre Band Saw Transfer Machines A Milling and Boring Centre The Book Organisation 43 References 44 2 New Concepts for Structural Components 47 J. Zulaika andf. J. Campa 2.1 Introduction and Definitions Optimised Machine Structures A Comparison Among Different Machine Configurations Structural Components in Machine Structures Robust Rams and Columns Structural Optimisation in Machines Mechanical Requirements for Eco-efficient Machines FEM Modelling Topological Optimisation Structural Materials Involved Parameters Conventional Materials for Structural Components Innovative Materials for Structural Components Costs of Design Materials and Structures The Influence of Innovative Materials on Productivity Active Damping Devices The Implementation of ADDs to Machine Structures The Influence of New Structural Concepts on Productivity The Influence of New Design Concepts for Structural Components The Influence of ADDs on Productivity Future Trends in Structural Components for Machines 72 References 72 3 Machine Tool Spindles 75 G. Quintana, J. de Ciurana andf. J. Campa 3.1 Introduction Types of Spindles Belt-driven Spindles Gear-driven Spindles Direct Drive Spindles Integrated (Built-in) Drive Spindles Spindle Configurations Common Configurations: Vertical and Horizontal Spindles 81

4 Content xiii Machines with Rotary Headstocks A Main Spindle with an Auxiliary Spindle Twin Spindles and Multi-spindles Automatic Head Exchange Basic Elements of the Spindle Motors Bearings The Toolholder The Drawbar The Shaft The Sensors The Housing Spindle Properties and Performance Spindle Power and Torque versus Spindle Speed Curves The Stiffness Dynamic Behaviour and Vibrations The Thermal Behaviour Spindles in Use: Other Problems Spindle Selection Conventional Machining or HSM Tool Selection The Workpiece Material Power and Spindle Speed Requirements Brief Conclusions 125 References New Developments in Drives and Tables 129 A. Olarra, I. Ruiz de Argandona and L. Uriarte 4.1 Introduction Precision and Dynamics Linear Drives by Ball Screws Dimensioning The Rotary Screw Other Configurations Linear Drives by Rack and Pinion The Elimination of the Gap Dimensioning Dynamic Models of the Drives Linear Drives by Linear Motors Mounting Configurations Rotary Drives Mechanical Transmissions Direct Rotary Drives 146

5 xiv Content 4.6 Guidance Systems Friction Guides Rolling Guides Hydrostatic Guides Aerostatic Guides The Present and the Future Rolling Guides with Integrated Functions The Hydrostatic Shoe on Guide Rails Guiding and Actuation through Magnetic Levitation 158 References Advanced Controls for New Machining Processes 159 J. Ramon Alique andr. Haber 5.1 Introduction and History Computer Numerical Control and Direct Numerical Control Networked Control and Supervision New Machining Processes High Speed Machining Micromechanical Machining An Introduction to Nanomachining Processes Today's CNCs: Machine Level Control The Interpolation Process The Position Control Servomechanism Advanced CNCs: Multi-level Hierarchical Control The Control of the Machining Process The Supervisory Control of the Machining Process: Merit Variables The Sensory System for Machining Processes Correct Monitoring Conditions Machining Characteristics and their Measurement Two Case Studies Open-Architecture CNC Systems Networked Control and Supervision Programming Support Systems: Manual Programming Computer Assisted Programming Graphical Simulation Current CNC Architectures Systems Based on Multi-microprocessor Architecture The PC Front-end The Motion Control Card with a PC The Software-based Solution Fully Digital Architectures: Towards the Intelligent Machine Tool 214 References 216

6 Content xv 6 Machine Tool Performance and Precision 219 A. Lamikiz, L. N. Lopez de Lacalle and A. Celaya 6.1 Introduction and Definitions An Introduction to Precision Machining Basic Definitions: Accuracy, Repeatability and Resolution Historical Remarks and the State of the Art Basic Design Principles and an Error Budget Sources of Errors in Machine Tools Error Budget Estimation Basic Principles for Precision Machine Design Error Propagation Thermal Errors CNC Interpolation Errors Errors Originated by the Machining Process Errors Originated in the CNC Program Generation Errors Originated by the Tool Wear Tool Deflection Error Verification Procedures Standard Procedures for Machine Tool Validation Test Parts A Brief Conclusion 258 References New Developments in Lathes and Turning Centres 261 R. Lizarralde, A. Azkarate and O. Zelaieta 7.1 Introduction Machine Configuration High Production Lathes Turning Centres: Multi-tasking Machines The Latest Technologies Applied to Lathes and Turning Centres General Configuration Technologies Complementary Technologies to Improve Machine Performance Special Machining Processes Applied in Multi-tasking Machines The Laser Application Roller Burnishing and Deep Rolling Ultrasonic Assisted Turning Cryogenic Gas Assisted Turning High-pressure Coolant Assisted Machining 277 References 278

7 xvi Content 8 High Performance Grinding Machines 279 R. Lizarralde, J. A. Maranön, A. Mendikute and H. Urreta 8.1 Introduction The Machine Configuration The Machine Architecture Materials Applied in Structural Parts Main Components Wheel Dressing Systems Process Lubrication and Cooling Integrated Measuring Devices Special Grinding Processes Peel Grinding-Quick Point Speed Stroke Grinding Creep Feed Grinding High Efficiency Deep Grinding Machine and Process Monitoring and Control Monitored Parameters and Applied Sensors Control Strategies 304 References Wire Electrical Discharge Machines 307 J. A. Sanchez and N. Ortega 9.1 Introduction The WEDM Process Accuracy and Speed WEDM Machines Wire Transport and Wire Thread Devices Machine Automation Workpiece Fixturing Systems Filtering Systems Wires for WEDM The Wire EDM of Advanced Materials Aeronautical Alloys Tungsten Carbide Advanced Ceramics and PCD Thin-wire EDM 330 References Parallel Kinematics for Machine Tools 335 O. Altuzarra, A. Hernandez, Y. San Martin and J. Larranaga 10.1 Introduction Main Characteristics of the Parallel Kinematic Machines A Classification of the Parallel Kinematic Machines A Design Methodology for Parallel Kinematic Machines The Motion Pattern 340

8 Content xvii The Type Synthesis The Position Analysis Velocity Analysis, Singularities and Dynamics The Optimisation The Kinematic Calibration of PKMs A Mathematical Approach Measuring on External Methods Self-calibration Strategies The Control of Parallel Kinematic Machines Models Specific to Parallel Kinematics Machines The Dynamic Controller The Model-based Predictive Controller Conclusions and Future Trends 365 References Micromilling Machines 369 L. Uriarte, J. Eguia andf. Egana 11.1 Introduction and Definitions The Micromilling Process Micromilling Tools Applications Miniaturised Machine Tools Machine Drives Conventional Ball Screw Configuration Friction Drives The Linear Motor New Tendencies: Hydrostatic Screws Guideways Special Rolling Guides Configurations Aerostatic and Hydrostatic Guides New Tendencies: Magnetic and Flexure Guidance Systems The High Speed Spindle and Collet Alternatives: Hydrostatic and Magnetic Spindles Measuring Systems Examples The Kern Pyramid Nano The Kugler Microgantry nano 3/5X 395 References Machines for the Aeronautical Industry 399 J. Fernandez and M. Arizmendi 12.1 Aeronautical Business Aerospace Components Aerospace Structures 401

9 xvüi Content Aerospace Engines Accessories Aerospace Materials Costs, Weight and Precision in Machine Tools for Aerospace Machining The Drive to Reduce Aircraft Costs The Drive to Reduce Aircraft Weight The Drive for Aircraft Component Precision Machine Tools for Aeronautical Components Machine Tools for Machining Aeronautical Structures Machine Tools for Machining Engine Components Machine Tools for Machining Accessories and Structure Fittings 417 References Machine Tools for the Automotive Industry 421 Ciro A. Rodriguez and Horacio Ahuett 13.1 World Trends in Automotive Production The Economic Impact of the Automotive Industry Machining Processes in Automotive Production Manufacturing System Architecture: High Volume Production Versus Flexibility Dedicated Machines Flexible Cells Hybrid Systems Technology Trends 433 References 435 Index 437

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