Design of Bridges. Introduction. 3 rd to 4 th July Lecture for SPIN Training at the University of Dar es Salaam

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1 Design of Bridges Introduction 3 rd to 4 th July

2 FUNCTION OF A BRIDGE To connect two communities which are separated by streams, river, valley, or gorge, etc. 2

3 EVOLUTION OF BRIDGES 1. Log Bridge or Culvert 3

4 2. Improved Log -Tree trunk Bridge 4

5 3. Clapper Bridge - Stones Arching principle 5

6 4. Canoes joined with timber 6

7 5. Rope bridges 7

8 6. Improved Rope Bridge Suspension bridge principle 8

9 COMPONENTS OF A BRIDGE Deck or Slab: supported roadway on abridge Beam or Girder: A rigid, usually horizontal, structural element Abutment: The outermost end supports on a bridge, which carry the load from the deck Pier: A vertical supporting structure, such as a pillar Foundation 9

10 Truss Bridge All beams in a truss bridge are straight. Trusses are comprised of many small beams that together can support a large amount of load and span great distances. 10

11 Types of Bridges Beam Bridge Consists of a horizontal beam supported at each end by piers. The weight of the beam pushes straight down on the piers. The farther apart its piers, the weaker the beam becomes. This is why beam bridges rarely span more than m. 11

12 Types of Bridges Beam Bridge Forces When something pushes down on the beam, the beam bends. Its top edge is compressed together, and its bottom edge is pulled apart. 12

13 Types of Bridges Arch Bridges The arch has great natural strength. Thousands of years ago, Romans built arches out of stone. Today, most arch bridges are made of steel or concrete, and they can span up to 800 feet. Forces The arch is squeezed together, and this squeezing force is carried outward along the curve to the supports at each end. The supports, called abutments, push back on the arch and prevent the ends of the arch from spreading apart. 13

14 Types of Bridges Suspension Bridges This kind of bridges can span 600 m to 2000 m -- way farther than any other type of bridge! Most suspension bridges have a truss system beneath the roadway to resist bending and twisting. 14

15 Types of Bridges Suspension Bridges Forces In all suspension bridges, the roadway hangs from massive steel cables, which are draped over two towers and secured into solid concrete blocks, called anchorages, on both ends of the bridge. The cars push down on the roadway, but because the roadway is suspended, the cables transfer the load into compression in the two towers. The two towers support most of the bridge's weight. 15

16 Cable Stayed Bridge The cable-stayed bridge, like the suspension bridge, supports the roadway with massive steel cables, but in a different way. The cables run directly from the roadway up to a tower, forming a unique "A" shape. Cable-stayed bridges are becoming the most popular bridges for medium-length spans of between 160m and 1,000m 16

17 Decision On Type Of Bridge Bridge Survey flood plain cross sections inspection reports existing bridge information (scour, etc) water elevations existing roadway profile photos Geotechnical Report soil / geological formations slopes and grading foundation problems soil properties Factors affecting choice of superstructure location, city or rural span length vertical clearance maintainability environmental aspects transportation to site issues cost Factors affecting choice of substructure location and geometry subsoil conditions height of support members (piers and abutments) 17

18 Design Parameters Bridge Structures are designed depending on the following parameters: Available Hydrological data Effective Span Conditions of subsoil Loads to be applied Materials Shapes 18

19 SUPERSTRUCTURES Cross sections of bridge superstructures known as Shallow Superstructures (a) Slab bridge (b) Slab-on-girder bridge with T-beam type of construction 19

20 (c) Slab-on-girder bridge with steel girders (d) Voided slab bridge 20

21 Cross sections of Cellular type of bridges (a) Single-cell bridge (b) Multicell bridge 21

22 (c) Multispine bridge with steel boxes (d) Multispine bridge with concrete boxes 22

23 Bow string arch Frame (Portal) 23

24 Drainage Culverts Culverts are normally designed to allow water flow beneath an embankment where the traffic passes. The simplest types being steel and concrete pipes. Rectangular frame culverts are more common for large streams. Embankment Single cell concrete box culvert Double cell concrete box culvert 24

25 Circular Culverts (Concrete) Embankment Embankment Circular concrete culvert (precast) Double vault circular concrete culvert (cast in-situ) 25

26 Embankment Steel pipe culvert 26

27 Other Drainage Structures Ford or Trough Water on slab Water in pipes (and on slab during rain season) fill 27

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