Information Sharing and Data Protection in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

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1 Information Sharing and Data Protection in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Towards Harmonised Data Protection Principles for Information Exchange at EU-level Bearbeitet von Franziska Boehm 1. Auflage Buch. xii, 468 S. Hardcover ISBN Format (B x L): 15,5 x 23,5 cm Gewicht: 877 g Recht > Öffentliches Recht > Umweltrecht > Europäisches, internationales Umweltrecht schnell und portofrei erhältlich bei Die Online-Fachbuchhandlung ist spezialisiert auf Fachbücher, insbesondere Recht, Steuern und Wirtschaft. Im Sortiment finden Sie alle Medien (Bücher, Zeitschriften, CDs, ebooks, etc.) aller Verlage. Ergänzt wird das Programm durch Services wie Neuerscheinungsdienst oder Zusammenstellungen von Büchern zu Sonderpreisen. Der Shop führt mehr als 8 Millionen Produkte.

2 Contents Introduction... 1 I. Brief Background on Data Protection in EU Law... 3 II. What is the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice?... 6 III. Research Topic: Information Sharing in the AFSJ and Data Protection Rights... 8 IV. Terminology V. Limitations of the Research VI. Sources VII. Outline of the Research A Data Protection Standard in the AFSJ I. Brief Historical Review and Reasons for Data Protection II. Council of Europe: Art. 8 ECHR, Convention No. 108 and Recommendation R (87) Data Protection Guarantees of Article 8 ECHR Data Protection Elements and Restrictions with Regard to Articles 5, 6, 10 and 13 ECHR Convention No. 108 for the Protection of Individuals with Regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data Recommendation No. R (87) 15 Regulating the Use of Personal Data in the Police Sector Conclusion: Towards Basic ECHR Principles for Security-Related Data Processing III. European Union Standards Main Data Protection Instruments in the AFSJ and Their Scope EU Data Protection Principles in the AFSJ Conclusion: Data Protection Rules in the AFSJ are Still a Patchwork vii

3 viii B C Contents AFSJ Actors in the Light of the European Data Protection Standard I Brief Background Information II European Agencies and OLAF Europol Eurojust OLAF Frontex Joint Situation Centre of the Council European Judicial Network Conclusion: Fragmented Data Protection Framework Versus Increasing Powers of the AFSJ Agencies and OLAF III Data Processing in European Information Exchange Systems The Schengen Information System The Visa Information System The Customs Information System Eurodac Proposal for an Agency Managing Large IT Systems (SIS II, VIS and Eurodac) from a Data Protection Point of View Conclusion: Stagnating Data Protection Framework in Contrast to Increasing Functionalities of the EU Information Systems Cooperation and Data Exchange of the AFSJ Actors and Their Compliance with the European Data Protection Standard I Inter-Agency Data Exchange and OLAF Europol-Eurojust Europol-OLAF Europol-Frontex Eurojust-OLAF Eurojust-Frontex Conclusion: Unsatisfactory Data Protection Framework in AFSJ Inter-Agency Information-Sharing II Data Exchange Between AFSJ Agencies and Europe s Information Systems: SIS, CIS, VIS and Eurodac Europol-SIS II Access Europol-VIS Access Europol-CIS Access Europol-Eurodac Access Eurojust-SIS II Access

4 Contents ix 6. Eurojust-CIS Access Conclusion: Unbalanced Interests Law Enforcement Access and Respect of Data Protection Principles D Perspectives and Suggestions for Improvement I. Key Findings II. Lawfulness of the Expanding AFSJ Functionalities III. Limits of Preemptive Storing and Law Enforcement Access to Databases of a Non Law Enforcement Nature Pre-Emptive Storing in View of the Case-Law No Coherent Solution by the European Court of Justice for Law Enforcement Access IV. Reforming the Supervisory Structure and Creating a General Notification Duty The Need for a Central Supervisory Authority Upgrading the Rights of the Supervisory Body to Guarantee Effective Protection Towards a General Notification Duty V. Aligning the Data Processing Framework in the AFSJ: Improvement Suggestions Procedural Requirements and Legal Basis Catalogue of Stored Data Avoiding Unclear Terms and Harmonising Key Terms Framing the Access Conditions Improving the Protection of Victims, Witnesses and Persons Whose Data are Pre-Emptively Entered in Security Related Databases Individual Rights Notification Control of Data Recording and Binding Security Rules Improving the Protection and the Transparency of Information Originating from Private Parties or Third States Common Rules on the Relations to Third Parties Managing the Time-Limits Dual Control: Introducing an Internal DPO Improving the Decision Making and Introducing Sunset and Review Provisions VI. Towards Harmonised Data Protection Principles for Intra-AFSJ Information Exchange Restricting the Purpose of Transfer Defining Unclear Legal Terms Designating the Accessing Actors and Authorities Harmonising the Access Procedure

5 x Contents 5. Coordinating the Access Conditions Data Protection and Data Security Rules Follow-Up of the Transferred Data Cooperation Between Data Protection Authorities Penalties in Case of Misuse Access Right, Correction, Deletion and Notification Keeping of Records Implementing Effective Monitoring and Evaluation Specific Rules Concerning Europol and Eurojust and JIT Cooperation VII. The Important Impact of the Lisbon Treaty Concluding Remarks Documents I. Conventions, Treaties, Acts and Related Documents II. Council of Europe III. EU Related Documents Table of Cases I. ECtHR Cases and Decisions of the Commission of the Council of Europe II. EU Cases Bibliography