2 2 CONTENTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION... 3 Welcome at ENSCL...4 I- INFORMATION ON THE INSTITUTION... 5 A. THE FRENCH EDUCATION SYSTEM... 5 B. NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE INSTITUTION... 5 C. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTITUTION... 6 D. REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ECTS STUDENTS... 7 E. PREREQUISITE IN FRENCH... 7 F. ACADEMIC CALENDAR... 8 II- GENERAL INFORMATION... 9 A. HOW TO REACH THE ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DE CHIMIE DE LILLE? 9 B. ACCOMMODATION C. RESIDENCE PERMIT D. SOCIAL SECURITY E. UNIVERSITY LIBRARY F. ASSOCIATIONS G. SPORT H. LEISURE I. MISCELLANEOUS J. TELEPHONE K L. USEFUL ADDRESSES III- GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTITUTION A. TEACHING B. RESEARCH C. PROGRAMME OF STUDY FOR "LE CYCLE INGENIEUR" /09 version APPENDIX (Application process) 130
3 3 GENERAL INTRODUCTION This "Information Package" describes the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille and the programmes available for European students who will spend 1 or 2 semesters in the school within the ERASMUS LIFE LONG LEARNING programme. The objective of ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) is to guarantee academic recognition of studies abroad, enabling students to have access to regular courses alongside local students, with the benefit of full participation in the academic life of the host institution. It guarantees curriculum transparency by providing detailed information on the curricula and their relevance towards a degree. ECTS helps academics to make academic recognition decisions thanks to prior agreements on the content of study programmes abroad between students and their home and host institutions. ECTS credits are a value allocated to course units to describe the student workload required to complete them. They reflect the quantity of work each course requires in relation to the total quantity of work required to complete a full year of academic study at the institution, that is, lectures, practical work, seminars, private work- in the library or at home- and examinations or other assessment activities. Credits thus express a relative value. In ECTS, 60 credits represent the workload of a year of study; normally 30 credits are given for a semester, and 20 credits for a term. ECTS credits can be allocated to practical placements, and to thesis preparation when these activities are an assessed part of the official programme of study. ECTS credits are allocated to courses and awarded to students who successfully complete those courses by passing the examinations or other assessments. To help institutions interpret the grades awarded to ECTS students, the ECTS grading scale has been developed by the institution participating in the pilot scheme. This provides additional information to the student's performance to that provided by the institution's grade, but does not replace the local grade. Higher education institutions make their own decisions on how to apply the ECTS grading scale to their own system. The transcript of records shows the learning achievements of the student prior to and after the period of study abroad. Every course taken by the student is recorded on the transcript of records with not only the ECTS credits but also the grade awarded according to the local grading scale and, when available, the ECTS grading scale. The combination of grades and ECTS credits represents the performance of the students in qualitative and quantitative terms respectively. The learning agreement, which describes the programme of study abroad and is drawn up by the individual student and the institution involved before the student goes abroad. ECTS enables further studies abroad. A student may prefer not to go back to the home institution after the study period abroad, but rather stay at the host institution - possibly to gain a degree- or move on to a third institution. The institutions themselves will decide whether or not this is acceptable and what conditions the student must fulfil in order to transfer registration and/or to get a diploma.
4 4 Welcome at ENSCL! Since 1894, The Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille (ENSCL), or the National Graduate School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Lille, has been closely following scientific and technological developments in the training of its graduates. ENSCL provides its students with a solid grounding in chemistry, essentially based on chemical engineering, materials, formulation, bioprocesses and catalysis. To help them fit perfectly into today s industrial world and become responsible engineers, ENSCL offers effective tuition in foreign languages, social sciences, management, economics and administration. Being open to the entire world is also a priority for us. ENSCL has trained over 3,600 graduates whose qualities and skills are recognised worldwide. The openness of the school can also be seen in its diversified national and international recruitment policy. If the idea of becoming a graduate chemist appeals to you, then join us and share our values! Our Euroregion of Nord - Pas de Calais has a reputation for its hospitality. We will be no exception to the rule and be delighted to welcome you. We are looking forward to hearing from you! Jean Grimblot Director of the ENSCL Welcome day for international students- September 2009
5 5 I- INFORMATION ON THE INSTITUTION A. THE FRENCH EDUCATION SYSTEM Scientific university curricula are divided into three levels : - First level ( three years), leading to the Bachelor s degree - Second level (two years), leading to the Master s degree - Third level (up to three years), with the Doctoral degree Some peculiarities of the Fench higher education system may first surprise foreign students : - it does not only take place in universities, but also sometimes in High Schools ("lycées") even after having obtained a Baccalauréat (special courses preparing for specialized colleges, special technical sections - "STS"), and many Engineering Schools are compared to foreign equivalents (from 30 to 500 students per year). - French universities themselves normally do not select among candidates : the Baccalauréat (bac) itself opens the doors to Higher Education. Competition among students occurs for the entry into smaller colleges, like IUT (technical institutes), STS (special technical sections), "classes préparatoires" 1 for Engineering Schools. Competitive examinations are organized at the Baccalauréat level, or two years thereafter when leaving the "classes préparatoires" (bac + 2 level). There are a lot of engineering studies in France. They differ from one another on several grounds : programme duration, kind of entrance examination, areas covered. Foreign students cannot easily grasp a clear picture with such a great amount of sometimes small schools. The common characteristic of those Graduate Engineering Schools is the engineering degree (bac + 5 level). The classical model of specifically French engineering education system includes two stages : - two years of "classes préparatoires" - three years of higher technical education within schools. B. NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE INSTITUTION Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille Cité Scientifique Bât C7 BP FRANCE VILLENEUVE D'ASCQ CEDEX Tel. (33) Fax. (33) World Wide Web Address : Director Jean GRIMBLOT tel : + 33 (0) fax : + 33 (0) Preparation for the nationwide competitive entrance examination to French Engineering Schools
6 6 Director of Studies Jean MARKO tel : + 33 (0) fax : + 33(0) International Department Zahia TURPIN, Director ECTS/SOCRATES Coordinator tel/fax : + 33 (0) Mélanie CHARPENTIER, Incoming students Tel/fax : Location Welcome to the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, with its 4 million inhabitants, where the mercantile and industrial tradition is bordering the challenge of innovation. A land of progress strengthened by its enthusiastic youth (42 % of its population is less than 25), this region relies on an avant-garde infrastructure. Thanks to the Channel Tunnel, the North European TGV and its precious human resources, the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region has become the first European platform of exchanges, innovations and new technologies. All these achievements have combined with a huge development of the regional higher education with 7 universities. Lille is a cross-border metropolis of 1.5 million inhabitants. Its schools and 4 universities, whose foundation dates back to Philip II of Spain in 1562, have set up a common means of consultation and of common actions : the Pôle Universitaire Européen de Lille Nord Pas-de-Calais. The Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille is located on the campus of the University of Sciences and Technology of Lille (Chemistry, building C7), 11 km from the centre of Lille in Villeneuve d'ascq. Today, the town of Villeneuve d'ascq has more than 68,000 inhabitants. It offers all the facilities of a modern town, enriched by 3 universities, Grandes Ecoles, many research laboratories, successful companies... It also offers a quality of clean life likely to attract young and entreprising people. C. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTITUTION 1. Introduction Founded in 1894, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie (at that time Institut de Chimie de la faculté des sciences de Lille) is a state run higher education institution under the supervision of the French Ministry of Education. It is entitled to award engineer's degrees, which are recognised by the national committee. A lot is at stake : meeting today's needs of the industry while anticipating tomorrow's evolutions.
7 7 Like in every Engineering School, the duration of the studies is 3 years, after 2 or 3 years of preparation. 2. General structure of study Graduate Schools French Universities Anglo Saxon universities D. REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ECTS STUDENTS ECTS students can either follow first, second, or third-year courses, or make their own programme from the courses taught in several years, or do a practical placement in a laboratory or in a company. The registration form, the learning agreement together with a transcript of records and a detailed curriculum vitae have to be sent to Mrs Zahia TURPIN. The duration of the practical placement can vary and the credits allocated to them are defined according to ECTS rules (1 semester=30 credits). For the curricula programme, ECTS students should first get in touch with their home Socrates supervisor and then the Director of studies of ENSCL. Students shall not be required to pay tuition fees at the host institution ; the student may however be required to continue to pay his/her normal tuition fees to the home institution during the study period abroad. E. PREREQUISITE IN FRENCH All the courses are given in French. A good level of French is thus absolutely required. Each ERASMUS foreign student should be able to attend courses taken in French as well as work with books or documents written in French.
8 8 Linguistic preparation (39 hours): - French courses are planned : - evaluation test in mid -September - courses start at the beginning of October (3 hours/week) 3 ECTS Credits per semester are allocated for this course. The course takes place on campus. At the end of this course, students can take an examen called "Diplôme Universitaire de Lille en Français Langue Etrangère". F. ACADEMIC CALENDAR The academic year at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille is divided into 2 semesters : First semester : mid-september to end of January Second semester : end of January to the end of June Exams : First semester : January Second semester : end of may Holidays : - 1 week at the end of October - 2 weeks at Christmas (mid-december - January) - 1 week in February - 2 weeks at Easter (April) II- GENERAL INFORMATION A. HOW TO REACH THE ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DE CHIMIE DE LILLE? 1) By plane - If you arrive at Paris : - From Orly airport : The "ORLYVAL" underground links only the airport with - Line B of the RER at Antony. From "Antony" station, take the underground and stop at the "Gare du Nord" station. - timetable : from 6.00 am to pm - duration : 30 minutes - price : 8,80 - there are trains every 7 minutes - From Roissy-Charles de Gaulle Airport : There is a rail link between this airport and Lille (T.G.V)
9 9 - If you arrive at Brussels airport : A shuttle regularly links the airport and the Brussels central train station - duration : 25 minutes - price : 2,50 - If you arrive at Lille-Lesquin airport : A shuttle regularly links the airport and the town centre. - duration : 20 minutes - price : 3 2) By train + underground - Departure from Paris-Gare du Nord : For schedule and price : - Departure from Brussels : For schedule and price : - In Lille train station : To reach the University of Lille I, take line n 1 of the underground, direction "4 cantons", get off at "Cité Scientifique". - duration : 15 minutes - price of a ticket : 1,25 - price of 10 tickets : 10,30 - first and last train : 5.12 am pm (Sunday, first train at 6.24 am) There are vending machines in every station (take a supply of change) REDUCTIONS SNCF (train) "Carte 12-25" This card is sold 48. It is intended for people aged from 12 to 25 and is valid one year. With this card you can have a reduction of 50% on the price. REDUCTIONS FOR THE UNDERGROUND - "Carte VIVA" This card is delivered to students who are less than 25 years old. It costs 1,50 francs and entitles them to a reduction of 25% on subscriptions (unlimited journeys) :
10 10 - weekly coupon : 8,25 - monthly coupon : 30 - coupon for 7 to 10 months : 28,65 3) By car - By the motorway, direction Lille-Villeneuve d'ascq - take the Villeneuve d'ascq - Cité Scientifique exit. B. ACCOMMODATION The Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille has a few rooms available in university halls of residence. However, there are some conditions that the student has to follow. 1 The students accepted in Lille have to fill their ECTS accommodation form and send it to : ENSCL Service logements "ERASMUS" Cité Scientifique Bât C7 BP FRANCE VILLENEUVE D'ASCQ CEDEX 2 It is very difficult to find accommodation in Lille on arrival in September. However, in order to meet the ERASMUS students' specific needs, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille has signed an agreement with the University Accommodation Office, enabling the students to get a room. Prices for ERASMUS student : «Chambre rénovée» 165,17 per month «Chambre non rénovée» 130,91 per month As soon as the student has been awarded a room, he/she has to live in this room for the whole period of his/her stay. If he/she ever wants to move, he/she will have to find another student to rent the room for the same period. No moving is allowed without the agreement of the International Relations Office. These rooms are entirely under the supervision of ENSCL. Contact : Ms Melanie CHARPENTIER Tel./Fax (0) Room 17 Deposit : Every student has to give a deposit equivalent to one month rent.
11 11 This cheque will only be cashed if the room has been damaged or if you don't pay your rent. This money will be refunded to you upon proof from the caretaker that no damage has been declared, and if payments have been regular. Payment : The rent must be paid before the 5 of every month by cheque (no cash). Return of the deposit : Make an appointment with the secretary of the residence in order to make an inventory of fixtures the day before your departure. Present the certificate of the inventory of fixtures to him/her to return your deposit. Insurance : Every student must take out fire and water damage insurance and civil liability insurance (about 15 a year). The management accepts no liability for loss or damage to residents' personal effects. So, insurance for personal property is recommended. Rooms : Renovated rooms in halls of residence have a surface of 9 m², with a single bed, a washbasin, a fitted cupboard, a work table, a fridge, two hot plates, a plug for TV reception and a plug for telephone connection. Sheets and blankets can be rented. Shower rooms are located in the corridor (one shower for 10 students). Halls of residence are located on the university campus, close to the university restaurants and to the underground stations. Students are posted to their room in September. Generally, students have a room in the hall of residence called "Residence BOUCHER" which is very close to the ENSCL. Booking : Send the accommodation form (see in annex) before 1st May for an arrival in September and 1 st November for an arrival from the second semester. ALLOCATION LOGEMENT SOCIALE (A.L.S.)* In order to help you to pay your rent, you can benefit from the so called "Allocation Logement Sociale" delivered by the French Minsitry of Health Social affairs. To be eligible, you must have been living in France for more than three months, have a regular residence permit and have the following documents : - a birth certificate translated into French - particulars of your bank account - a certified copy of your identity card or passport
12 12 - a copy of your student identity card from your home university - a registration certificate - a certified copy of the accommodation certificate - a certified copy of the first month rent receipt established at the name of the tenant mentioning the name and address of the landlords. If you live in Lille, you should make your request to : Caisse d'allocations Familiales de Lille 82, rue Brûle Maison BP LILLE If you live in Villeneuve d'ascq, you should make your request to : Caisse d'allocations Familiales de Roubaix-Tourcoing 124, boulevard Gambetta BP ROUBAIX CEDEX 1 Attention : in order to get the ALS grant, your residence permit should be issued but it can take a long time to get it. Besides the ALS grant is not guaranteed for short period stays (less than six months). * the French law can cancel this financial aid. This information must therefore be considered as simple information. C. RESIDENCE PERMIT Students from the EC who stay in France for less than three months do not require a residence permit. However, if the student stays longer, he/she must go to the building A3 on the campus to obtain an extended study visa ("un visa long séjour pour Etudes"). It will cost 55. More information will be given to you at your arrival.
13 13 To obtain a residence permit, you must have an appointment and bring with you the following documents : - 4 recent photographs (with a light background) - a copy of your valid passport or identity card - your Birth Certificate translated into French - a record of Civil Status indicating the filiation - a declaration stating that you have sufficient resources to live in France during the academic year (for example your letter proving that you are a SOCRATES student and a letter from your parents declaring that they are responsible for your finances). The letter must be translated into French and include the original signature. - a copy of the ENSCL enrolment certificate - an accommodation certificate to prove your residence in France Students coming from outside the European Economic Space must apply for a visa to the French Embassy in their home country. D. SOCIAL SECURITY 1. European Union students On his/her arrival in France, the student should bring the E111, E106, E121 ou E128 form he/she got from his Social Security Office or private insurance in his/her country. The student will have to pay for any medical costs (doctor, medicine...) of the place he/she lives in France. If the student lives in Lille or Villeneuve d'ascq, he/she should send his/her prescriptions to : CPAM Relations Internationales - Service migrants 6 rue Rémi Cooghe BP ROUBAIX CEDEX 1 When sending the first request for refund, the student should enclose : - the care slip together with the medical prescription - the price labels on medicines - the original of the E111 or E128 form (it will be sent back to you later) - some particulars of his/her bank account (in France or abroad) - a letter stating that he/she is a SOCRATES student Your consultation will be refunded at 70% and your medicine between 35% and 65%. If you wish to be refunded at 100%, you can subscribe for a complementary insurance ("Mutuelle", between 132 and 264 /year (SMENO) and between 47 and 451 (LMDE)).
14 14 SMENO Furet du Nord Galerie du Ventoux Centre commercial V VILLENEUVE D'ASCQ LMDE 96/98 rue de l'hôpital Militaire Lille If the student cannot provide an E111 or E128 form or any insurance certificate recognized by the French State, he/she will be able to subscribe for the student social security system on the condition that he/she is registered as a student in France, and he/she is under 28. It will cost him/her about 174. If this is not possible, the student will have to subscribe for a private insurance (contact the CPAM). Civil liability Generally the E111 or E128 form or any other insurance does not cover third-party damage. Every European student has to subscribe for : - physical injury caused in private life - material damage The SMENO offers students this type of insurance which covers the civil liability for 20 /year. Insurance for the housing : from 16 /year.
15 15 2. Students without a European form (outside EEE) Any student coming from a country outside the European Economic Space will have to subscribe for the French Student Security System even if he/she is already covered by his/her social security system in his/her country or a French private insurance. It will cost him/her around 180 /year.
16 16 E. UNIVERSITY LIBRARY It is divided into three sections (Law, Literature and Medical Sciences-Pharmacy, Sciences). The students can use any of these sections, whatever their specialization. They just have to register, with their student card, at the library. The registration is free. Opening hours (from November to June) : 8.00 am pm from Monday to Friday 9.00 am am Saturday Closure during : - the Christmas holidays - the Easter holidays - August Lending : 5 documents Lending duration : - books, thesis, periodicals : one fortnight - periodicals in the reading room (except the latest number) : one week Other libraries : Bibliothèque Municipale de Lille, 32/34 rue E. Delesalle. Bibliothèque Municipale de Villeneuve d'ascq, 96 chaussée de l'hôtel de Ville. F. ASSOCIATIONS 1. The "Association des élèves-ingénieurs" The Association's target is to represent its members, to improve the students' working conditions, to organize activities for them, and in particular annual galas, to participate in student events, to help maintain close links between the ENSCL, its students and the former students (each student is sponsored by a former student). 2. "ENSCL-ACTIVITES" Association Created in 1983, it is a non-profit-making organization. It is an association which type is the "Junior Entreprise", managed by the students who put their knowhow and ultramodern equipment at the service of companies.
17 17 3. INTERNATION STUDENTS CLUB Our international students club readily welcomes international exchange students. Your programme manager will put you in contact with them. Here is the address of the association which welcomes international students : Club d Accueil International ENSCL Bureau des Elèves Cité scientifique tel : always put us in cc The association helps international students adapt to the French way of life. Its main aims are : - to welcome foreign students from the day of their arrival : accommodation, introduction to the campus, evenings out, conferences... - to promote the Northern region with a view to its tourist attractions, innovative companies, cultural entertainment... - to solve the problems of everyday life (medical care, medicines, travel discounts...) and university life (lecture notes, teacher contact...) - to put international exchange students in contact with French students. G. SPORT The University of Lille I favours the practise of sport for its students, including the promotion of competition. Through an important sport center, it provides the students with the means to participate in great number of sport activities (football, rugby, basket, volley, handball, swimming-pool, field hockey, athletics, cross-country, tennis...). H. LEISURE Tourist Office in Lille 42, place Rihour LILLE Tourist book of Lille (in French or in English) : get it from the International Office. Tourist Office in Villeneuve d'ascq : Allée du Chat Botté VILLENEUVE D'ASCQ Cultural places in Villeneuve d'ascq : - The Theatre : l'espace Rose des Vents
18 18 - The Ferme St-Sauveur - The cinemas - The Musée d'art Moderne - The Centre de Culture Scientifique - The bibliothèque municipale (library) - the Espace Concorde - The Maison d'activités Culturelles et de Colloques (MACC) I. MISCELLANEOUS Cost of miscellaneous expenses : University Restaurant about 2.60 /meal University residence about 200 /month Books and stationery about 65 Private room from 230 to 305 /month Underground tickets (a book of 10) 10,20 J. TELEPHONE You need phonecards for allmost all public telephones. You can buy them in post offices and at tobacconists. - When phoning abroad from France, dial 00 + country code + phone number - When phoning France from abroad, dial phone number (without the first "0") Numbers to dial in emergency : - police : 17 - fire brigade : 18 - SAMU (mobile emergency medical service) : 15 - SOS "mains et doigts" : (clinique de Lille Sud, 96 rue G. Delory LESQUIN) - Centre Hospitalier Régional (CHR) : (2 rue Oscar Lambret à Lille - metro line n 1) - Treatment Centre for poisoning cases : (rue du professeur J. Leclerc à Lille) K. An electronic address is given to each foreign student a few weeks after arrival at ENSCL.
19 19 L. USEFUL ADDRESSES Town Councils : Hôtel de Ville de Lille Place R. Salengro LILLE Hôtel de Ville de Villeneuve d'ascq Place S. Allende VILLENEUVE D'ASCQ Post Offices : In Villeneuve d'ascq : - la Poste Centrale de Villeneuve d'ascq, rue de Lille tél : et la Poste du Triolo, rue Traversière tél : In Lille : - la Poste Centrale de Lille, 7 place de la République tél : Banks : - Scalbert Dupont, rue Trudaine, Villeneuve d'ascq tél : Banque Populaire du Nord, 12 place de la République Villeneuve d'ascq tél : BNP, 20 place S. Allende, Villeneuve d'ascq tél : contact Karine BLONDEAU tél : Crédit Lyonnais : 28 rue Nationale - Lille tél : Crédit Lyonnais : Centre Commercial V2 Villeneuve d'ascq tél :
20 20 III- GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTITUTION A. TEACHING The teaching at ENSCL aims at training engineers with expertise in chemistry, and physico-chemistry as well as chemical engineering, and geared to the various requirements of firms in the fields of chemistry, parachemistry and metallurgy. The students are put in touch with the different aspects of their future jobs through courses in economics and management, visits to factories, work placements, and eventually a research project involving practical applications in a firm. The core courses are metallurgy, solid state chemistry and chemical engineering. A strong emphasis is laid on languages - English, German, in which all the graduates are expected to be fluent, and optional Japanese. B. RESEARCH In order to maintain a high level of training for its students, the school has to integrate the latest developments in research and technology into its curriculum. This can only be made possible if the institution can make use of a competitive infrastructure within its own laboratories. This is the reason why for many years the ENSCL has developed a research policy which is particularly active in the fundamental field as well as in applied sciences. This development takes place in full collaboration with the USTL as part of the close links between the two structures. The research teams of the school have been awarded the status of CNRS-associated units, which is a recognition of the scientific expertise of the work carried out. Each one of the teams has established fruitful relations with the industrial world and the scientific community at a national level, be it private or public, through the registration of patents and the publication every year of a great number of articles in international reviews. It is thanks to the financial help provided by the Ministry of Education that ENSCL can follow a policy requiring both high technology equipment and motivated and dynamic teams. This help will enable it to increase its contribution to the development of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region.
21 21 RESEARCH LABORATORIES LABORATOIRE DE CRISTALLOCHIMIE ET PHYSICOCHIMIE DU SOLIDE UPRESA CNRS N 8012 Permanent staff: 22 Total number: 37 Address : Phone : + 33 (0) Director : École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille Avenue Mendeleïev Bâtiment C7a BP VILLENEUVE D ASCQ CEDEX M. le Professeur Francis ABRAHAM Research Fields: Solid State Chemistry Ionic, electronic and mixed conductors Mixed Valence Materials Electrochemical separation of oxygen gas Tetrahedral anion based materials Conductive glasses Precursors and new routes for oxide synthesis Scientific equipment: X-ray powder diffractometers Four circle and CCD X-ray single crystal diffractometers High temperature x-ray diffraction (up to 1600 C) Impedance spectroscopy Ionic transport number measurements Thermogravimetry Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Differential Thermal Analysis Solid State NMR Electron microscopy Key-words : Ceramics Electronic conductivity Ionic conductivity Structure determination Phosphates Magnetic properties Main fields of applications: Gas separation Energy storage and savings Electrochemical membranes Refractory materials and glasses Environment