Optimizing Water Resources Allocation System and Improving Water Resources Supply Capacity

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2 Optimizing Water Resources Allocation System and Improving Water Resources Supply Capacity Zhang Shiwei Department of Planning and Programming Ministry of Water Resources, P.R.China May. 2015

3 Contents Ⅰ Main Features of Water Resources in China Ⅱ Challenges of Water Supply Ⅲ Strategies and Measures Ⅳ Summary

4 Main Features of Water Resources in China

5 1 Low per capita water resources The 2nd national survey and assessment of water resources The first national water census m 3 Per capita water resources in some countries Surface Water: 2.74 (Trillion m 3 ) Total: 2.84 Groundwater: Duplicated Amount: 0.72

6 2 Uneven distribution of water resources Precipitation is concentrated in summer. Variation of river runoff between dry and wet years could reach 2-6 times inter-annual. 100 (%) Flood season Drought season Precipitation 200mm Precipitation 800mm 0 长 江 黄 河 淮 河 海 河 珠 江 辽 河 Ytze Yel Huai Hai Pearl Liao 汛 期 非 汛 期 Rainfall during the year

7 3 Mismatch between resources and productivity South North <20% water resources m 3 Unbalance Serious in Yellow, Huai and Hai Rivers(YHH Rivers)

8 Water supply status Increase of water supply capability Water supply capability >700 billionm 3 Water supply billionm 3 Water supply capability Farmland irrigated 63,473,000 hm 2 farmland 50% under irrigation annual mean 0.8% Water supply

9 Water supply status Increase of water-use efficiency Compared with 2000 Water consumption for every 10,000 RMB of GDP 63% Water consumption for every 10,000 RMB of industrial value-added 64% Effective utilization coefficient of irrigation water 9%

10 Water supply status Improvement of water infrastructure Reservoirs built Storage capacity Utilization rate 98, billionm 3 22%

11 Challenges of Water Supply

12 1 Lacking water supply capacity water deficit water shortage cities water shortage district >36 billionm 3 >400 cities 12 key economic zones 21 national key economic areas by 2030 Urbanization rate 70% Distribution of China's watershortage degree water consumption >680 billion m 3 urban population >1.1 billion

13 2 Lower efficiency of water use Water consumption for each RMB 10,000 GDP,each RMB 10,000 industrial added value and urban water supply network leakage rate averages are higher than international advanced level. Unit:m 3 Efficiency of water use in China VS some developed countries

14 3 Insufficient water for ecology system Water for ecology system is weak. The groundwater overdraft area amounted to 280,000 km 2. A serious of ecological problems such as river blanking, shrinking lakes and wetlands. Distribution of groundwater overdraft (Red area) Changes of surface area of Dongting Lake

15 4 Impacts of by climatic change Water resources systems uncertainty increasing Reduction of water resources Decreasing 17% in three of level one water zones. Weakness of water conservancy control Runoff regulation of reservoir only 30% Weakness of water supply safety All kinds of water supply projects account for 35% of total water supply 15 % Dry riverbed of Yangtze River at Chongqing Changes in the total amount of water resources between 1956~1979 and 1980~2000

16 Strategies and Measures

17 1 Water-Saving society policy Water demand management The most stringent water resources management system By 2030 Ceiling of water supply 700 billion m Agriculture Effective utilization coefficient of irrigation water 0.6 Total saving water Goals of saving water by Industry Water consumption per 10,000 RMB of industrial valueadded 40 m 3 84 billion m 3 Unit: billion m Domestic water Leakage rate of water supply network 10%

18 2 Water resource and ecology protection Treatment and remediation of key rivers and lakes By 2030 Quality standard compliance rate of key rivers, lakes, reservoirs 95% Quality standard compliance rate of water source areas 100% Water for aquatic ecosystem return 40 billion m 3

19 3 River, lake and reservoir connecting project South-north diversion and distribution Fourtransverse and threelongitude East-west balance Water resources distribution Yellow river Hai river The Eastern The Central Route Huai river Route The Western Route Yangtze Water transfer from south to north should reach 27.5 billion m 3

20 3 River, lake and reservoir connecting project Construct such inter-basin water diversion projects as the Yangtze River to Huai He River Diversion Project and the Yunnan Middle Water Diversion Project, etc.

21 4 Construction of water supply infrastructure Water source projects By 2030, annual average amount of water supply 94.6 billion m 3 Drinking water safeguarding projects By 2020, centralized water-supply population 90% Drought-relief emergency water reserves

22 5 Increasing water sector investment 25 Billion EUR per year 22 From 2011 through 2014, equivalent for water sector projects arranged by the central government % 88 billion Euro 5 Just mentioned by Minister Chen lei, China will make an investment before 2020 for water projects billion Euro Among these projects, water supply projects account for. 60% of total

23 Summary Low water resources, uneven distribution form the features. Challenges of water supply. Comprehensive measures to address the issues.

24 Thank you

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