Force Science re-states its case in light of recent no-kill bill proposal. A special report from the Force Science Institute

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1 President s Message Changing times There have been a lot of changes in the last several weeks. Changes in the Chief s Office, how we do business and The Rap Sheet. We will also hold a runoff election in July for PPA president. Election update PRSRT STD U.S. POSTAGE PAID Portland, Oregon Permit 5314 Portland, OR NW 19th Ave The Rap Sheet Published by Rap Sheet, Inc. Officer Dave Dobler Interim President There will be a runoff election between Doug Justus and Daryl Turner for PPA president. The votes from the fi rst election were counted on Friday, June 18. The results of the election were: Daryl Turner received 44% with 298 votes. Doug Justus received 39% with 262 votes. John Grable received 15% with 101 votes. Write-in candidates received 10 votes. Runoff election ballots will be mailed July 2. Ballots must be returned by July 20 and will be counted July 21. We will post the results of this runoff election on the PPA website as soon as possible and send out a fax to the precincts. I want to thank PPA Vice Presidents Jim McCausland, Scott Robertson, Mark Snyder, Jason Lile and Jim Habkirk for their help in counting the votes. FPD&R issues The PPA has had a lot of requests for aid regarding denied claims through FPD&R. I have had a number of conversations with members, attorneys and FPD&R regarding some of these issues. I wanted to take time to remind the membership to document everything. If you suffer a minor injury on the job, you need to document it in both the injury log and through your supervisor via the FPD&R forms. Taking the time to document a seemingly small injury might save you a denied claim later. Many serious injuries start with what we think are simple sprains or strains we assume will go away. Sometimes they are indications of a more serious condition. Please take the time to protect yourself by documenting these injuries and keeping copies for your personal fi les. Grievance updates In the future, grievance information and updates will be added to the PPA website to provide up-to-date and timely information to the membership. We are currently working on one possible grievance settlement and have scheduled dates (this summer and fall) for arbitrations on several issues. We have also been working with BHR and the Chief s Offi ce to settle some SAP-related grievances so people will be paid the amount they are due. Continued on page 4 Volume 41 Number 6 June 2010 The Portland Police Association Maintaining the vigil since 1942 Why shooting to wound doesn t make sense scientifically, legally or tactically Force Science re-states its case in light of recent no-kill bill proposal A special report from the Force Science Institute Do police officers really have to kill people when they shoot them? Couldn t they be more humane and just aim for arms or legs? As reported in Force Science News, New York state Senator David Paterson [D.-Harlem] pondered those questions in 2006 and concluded that officers were needlessly killing suspects. In response, he introduced legislation that would require officers to try to shoot offenders limbs instead of targeting locations that would more likely stop the threat but could also result in death. Paterson proposed that any officer who employed more than the minimum force necessary to stop a life-threatening suspect be charged with felony manslaughter. Law enforcement exploded in protest and Paterson withdrew the bill. But the battle isn t over. The New York Post has recently reported that Brooklyn Assembly Members Annette Robinson [D.-Bedford Stuyvesant] and Darryl Towns [D.-East New York] have introduced a minimum force bill that would require officers to shoot a suspect in the arm or the leg and to use firearms with the intent to stop, rather than kill. When I encounter civilian response to officer-involved shootings, it s very often Why didn t they just shoot him in the leg? Dr. Bill Lewinski, executive director of the Force Science Institute, told Force Science News in a 2006 interview centered on Paterson s proposed legislation. When civilians judge police shooting deaths on juries, on review boards, in the media, in the community this same argument is often brought forward. Shooting to wound is naively regarded as a reasonable means of stopping dangerous behavior. In reality, this thinking is a result of training by Hollywood, in which movie and TV cops are able to do anything to control the outcomes of events that serve the director s dramatic interests. It reflects a misconception of real-life dynamics and ends up imposing unrealistic expectations of skill on real-life officers. Vice President Joe Biden agrees. When Michael Paladino, president of New York s Detectives Endowment Association, showed him the bill he reportedly scoffed and suggested that it be called the John Wayne Bill because of the unrealistic, movie-like sharpshooting skills it demands of officers. In light of this resurfacing of misguided shoot-to-wound thinking, Force Science News is reissuing a position paper, originally introduced following Paterson s 06 proposed legislation, that discusses why shooting to wound versus shooting to stop is neither practical nor desirable as a performance standard. We hope this information proves useful to you in addressing any shoot-to-wound advocacy that may arise in your jurisdiction. Practical issues Robinson and Towns bill was drafted in the wake of the controversial shooting of Sean Bell who died after New York officers fired a total of 50 rounds at him and two other men. Sen. Paterson said his proposed legislation in 06 was motivated by the fatal shooting in New York City of Amadou Diallo, who was struck by 19 bullets when officers mistakenly thought he was reaching for a weapon as they approached him for questioning. Paterson believed that shooting an arm or leg would tend to stop a suspect s threatening actions, precluding the need to shoot the head or chest where death is more probable. By requiring only the least amount of force needed to control a suspect he apparently hoped to reduce the likelihood of excessive shots being fired. Continued on page 6

2 Editor s Statement It s been an honor to serve our readers After 40 years in business, this issue of The Rap Sheet will be the final print edition of the newspaper. The newspaper industry as a whole has been suffering from the economic downturn as well as the expansion of the Internet and desires of readers to get their news quickly via Twitter, Facebook and other social media outlets. The Rap Sheet has not been immune to these trends and has struggled with the changing times. This is not the end of The Rap Sheet, however. It will continue as an online publication and perhaps eventually as a dedicated website. There are a lot of exciting possibilities for the future. My hope is that The Rap Sheet continues to expand its profile and delivers pro-law enforcement news to PPA members and the rest of the general public. I ve decided that after nine dedicated years this will be my final issue as managing editor. Sergeant Peter Simpson Central Precinct I ve truly enjoyed my job as editor and have been part of a tradition of bringing to light the stories told by PPA members about the good times and the bad. I ve enjoyed being part of the lineage of police officer editors starting with Jim Fleming in 1969, Jeff Barker in 1979 and Loren Christensen in I took over from Loren in August 2001 and have faithfully written for and edited every issue since over 100 articles personally written and 106 issues edited. My first Rap Sheet appearance though was in 1979 in a photo from the PPA Picnic at Oaks Park. My sister Katy and I with our dad, retired Detective David Simpson, were riding on the Ferris wheel. In looking through my photo files, I found similar pictures that I took over the years of other officers and their kids. What a long, strange trip it s been. I m most proud of how The Rap Sheet covered 9/11, the changing of police chiefs, a winning contract arbitration and especially the number of officer deaths since August The issues dedicated to Officers Mark Zylawy, Jeff Parker, Kirk Huffstetler, Stephanie Dekoeyer and Craig Mendenhall were filled with stories and photos contributed by PPA members and the families of these fallen officers. I ve enjoyed getting s from members with an article or a photo attached with the subject being something for The Rap Sheet. I ve enjoyed getting articles from members who needed to vent then decided Continued on page 3 This publication will be dedicated, therefore, to the principles of objective reporting and freedom of expression which we believe are both fundamental to the operation of a democratic organization and to the free society we are sworn to protect. James Fleming, former Rap Sheet editor December 1970, Vol I, Issue I Volume 41 Number 6 June 2010 PORTLAND POLICE ASSOCIATION INTERIM PRESIDENT Officer Dave Dobler INTERIM SECRETARY- TREASURER Sergeant Doug Justus RAP SHEET STAFF EDITOR IN CHIEF Sergeant Peter Simpson ADVERTISING SALES Sergeant Pat Kelly DESIGN/PRODUCTION Susan Anderson WEBSITE phone phone The Rap Sheet is the official monthly publication of the Portland Police Association. The Rap Sheet is the only publication of its kind that represents the interests of men and women working in law enforcement in Portland. Subscription rate is $20 per year. E- mail copy submissions to the editor at The Rap Sheet office is located at 1313 NW 19th, Portland, OR Phone Articles appearing under an author s byline do not necessarily represent the opinion of the PPA. Advertising and editorial submissions are due the first Friday of every month prior to publication. PPA Officers title phone Dave Dobler Interim President Doug Justus Interim Secretary-Treasurer Matt Delenikos VP-Central Precinct John Grable VP-Central Precinct Scott Robertson VP-East Precinct Jason Lile VP-East Precinct Jim Habkirk VP-North Precinct Mark Snyder VP-North Precinct Jim McCausland VP-Dets./Criminalists Doug Justus VP-Sergeants Kevin Keaney P. C. Attorney at Law Tom Perkins VP-Services Chris Kulp VP-Services Mike Villanti VP-Traffic Division Tony Christensen Safety Committee Proud member of Bakers Local 114 page 2 FPD&R and Disability Litigation Labor and Employment Litigation Personal Injury Litigation (including Motor Vehicle Accidents) (503) Gary Manougian Safety Committee P.A.R.T. Police Alcohol Recovery Team P.A.R.T. is a group of officers who are recovering alcoholics in the Portland Police Bureau. We are made up of various ranks and come from various divisions of the Bureau. Our mission is to help alcoholics in the law enforcement community and their families achieve and maintain sobriety. We adhere to an ethical responsibility of confidentiality, which is a promise to an officer to reveal nothing about his or her circumstance to any other Bureau member. P.A.R.T. members Ofc. Rob Hawkins Central (pgr) (wk) Sgt. Larry Graham Central (pgr) (wk) Det. Lori Drew Detectives (pgr) (wk) Lt. P.J. Steigleder (Clackamas County SO) Maureen Finn The Rap Sheet June 2010

3 Continued from page 1 President s Message New Chief s Office There have been several changes in the Chief s Offi ce with the recent and pending retirements of Chief Sizer, AC Martinek and AC Eckhart. Chief Mike Reece s communication style has been very open, and we have good contact with him and his staff. I think this will be a huge advantage to everyone as we move forward. Interim Secretary-Treasurer Doug Justus and I have been meeting regularly with the Chief s Offi ce and members of City Council about a variety of issues. There is currently nothing new on our contract negotiations. We will keep you apprised of changes. The Rap Sheet I want to again thank those who have worked on The Rap Sheet over the years, Pete Simpson and Pat Kelly to name a few. The Rap Sheet will change to an online-only format in July to save money. The subsidy was just too expensive to continue with a traditional hardcopy-style paper. We hope that by cutting the printing and mailing costs of The Rap Sheet, among other changes, will help make the paper more economical in the online format and make it more interesting to our readers and advertisers. There is a Rap Sheet committee which meets regularly to see what other cost cutting and control measures are necessary to assure the membership does not need to continue to subsidize this publication. The Rap Sheet committee has also come up with some new ideas, and reconstituted old ideas, to make the paper more interesting. This committee would like the help of the membership. If you have any good ideas, articles you wrote or saw someplace else, photos etc., please contact PPA VP Jim McCausland, Scott Robertson, Mark Snyder, Interim Secretary-Treasurer Doug Justus or Interim President Dave Dobler. Dinner with the Mendenhalls Sgt. Anthony Passadore GET I experienced an incredibly bittersweet night February 12, Officers from HEAT and afternoon GET teams went to Battleground, Wash., and had dinner with Sgt. Craig Mendenhall s family. When we walked through the front door with a stack of pizzas, Teresa told us the kids had been waiting anxiously by the front window for us to arrive. The excitement on the kids faces was enough to melt your heart. I watched as they ran and played, shining our flashlights throughout the house and tackling each other. We played video games, ate ice cream and talked about their upcoming sports events. I must admit it was difficult for me to see Craig in each of their faces as they laughed and smiled. I have thought about Craig every day since he passed. To see his likeness in his children s expressions was truly inspirational. At the end of the evening the kids spent time climbing through the police cars and playing with the lights and loud speakers. It was a night I will not forget and one I truly appreciated. We are planning our next dinner with the Mendenhalls at North Precinct. We ll let you know the date so you can swing by to say hello. Stay safe and take care of each other. ABOVE: Sgt. Craig Mendenhall s kids enjoy climbing through the back seat of a police car Continued from page 2 they didn t want their opinions printed, which I always honored by hitting the delete button. I ve enjoyed the humor, often dark and strange, that cops put into their literary efforts. Most of all though, I ve enjoyed being part of making cops feel good about what they do and honoring them for sacrificing everything for their community. Acknowledgements Nine years of editing The Rap Sheet would not have been possible without the contributions of the countless members who submitted stories over the years. Like an Academy Awards speech, I m sure there is someone I ll neglect to mention but specifically the following people were dedicated writers or contributors to the success of The Rap Sheet. I want to thank them personally for all their support: Jeff Barker, Loren Christensen, Jennifer Jackson, Susan Anderson, Lars Larson, Tom Mack, Leo Painton, Robert King, Daryl Turner, Mike Stradley, Pat Walsh, Bob Roberts, Pat Kelly, KC Crews, Jim Harvey, Will Aitchison, Patricia McCaig, Connie Duckworth, Juanita Downing, Liza Dormady, Karl McDade, Rob Blanck, Jason Lobaugh, Robert Gross, Maura White, Jack Dunphy, Frank Romanaggi, Bob Gorgone, Dave Schlegel, Q Madp and David Anderson. The Rap Sheet has been a big part of my career. I m honored to have served as your editor and hope you ve enjoyed the last nine years of newspapers. It s always been about you the members, the retirees and the readers and to bring about a voice supporting police officers and highlighting the great work you do. Stay safe and continue to support the Portland Police Association, The Rap Sheet and police officers everywhere. Read us online at page 3

4 Book Em Warrior Mindset Officer J.M. Reschke, California Warrior Mindset is authored by Dr. Mike Askens; Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, Ret. United States Army; and Offi cer Loren W. Christensen, Ret. Portland Police Bureau. I ve been a police offi cer since I ve seen many changes in this honorable profession, particularly with the law and the equipment we use. The one area that hasn t been well developed is the offi cer s ability to use his or her mind to think smarter before a critical incident, to be emotionally prepared for it and to be able to cope with its aftermath, including the legal and emotional aspects which affect the offi cer and his or her family. I have read a lot of books and have been involved in a variety of critical inci- dents. I can unequiv- ocally state with the experience of an old street cop, Warrior Mindset will prepare of- fi cers to sur- vive and thrive throughout their career. This extremely well researched book is the gold standard and the holy grail for all of- ficers cers, regardless of rank. All you need to do is absorb the information, take it to heart and then apply it on the street. Warrior Mindset is available at or Contents Introduction Inspection, Qualifi cations and Review Screening Procedures Fit for Duty Physical Conditioning and Mental Toughness On Alert Arousal and Mental Toughness Condition Black Stress, Fear and Mental Toughness Mental Attack Plan Tactical Arousal Control On the Wall Concentration Skills Strategic Vision Tactical Performance Imagery Personal Psy Ops Tactical Self-Talk Cognitive Counter Response Negative Thought Stopping Personal Briefi ngs Attitude, Affi rmations and Mental Fitness Tactical Muscle Relaxation Instruction Epilogue: The Warrior INAUGURAL PPA CAMPOUT August 17 thru 22, 2010 at Hideaway Lake in the Mt. Hood National Forest Serving the law enforcement community for over thirty years Specializing in counseling officers, their spouses and their families Dr. Frank P. Colistro, Ed. D NE Broadway Portland Oregon Phone Fax Hideaway Lake has an unimproved campground with a toilet, but no fresh water. Bring your own tent and water toys. The lake is for canoes, kayaks and float toys. No motors are allowed. The PPA will provide drinking water, juice, snacks and meals to registered campers. Ron Mason will cook breakfast and dinner each day. Snacks to tide you over will be provided. Space is limited. Please RSVP before August 10. To register, call Annie at the PPA office. page 4 The Rap Sheet June 2010

5 HEAT extends thanks to officers and community We are writing to express our gratitude for the support of the men and women of the Portland Police Bureau and our Portland community. Police officers face unpredictable risk in our jobs every day. In confronting these risks, we make many sacrifices in terms of our safety. Our family and friends are also The true character of this organization is one of professionalism, integrity and compassion. Look around you at roll call and know you are surrounded by good people. We are grateful for our friends and colleagues. We are proud to work alongside these good, honorable people. We thank you for your support. Thank you! Sgt. Don Livingston, Ofc. Cody Berne, Ofc. John Billard, Ofc. Chris Burley, Ofc. Jim Defrain, Ofc. Ryan Foote, Ofc. Patrick Murphy and Ofc. Andy Polas BELOW: HEAT and GET Officers enjoy an evening with Sgt. Craig Mendenhall s family Michael Colbach PERSONAL INJURY ATTORNEY NW 19th Avenue Portland, OR oregonaccidentattorney.com At Justa Pasta, pasta is not just food... it s Life. Justa Pasta 1326 NW 19th (at Pettygrove) Portland, OR Lunch Mon - Fri 11:30-3:00 Dinner 7 nights a week 4:30-9:00 (Sun & Mon 8:30) impacted by the job pressures we face. We do this job to keep Portland safe. The events that led to the unfortunate death of Keaton Otis and injuries to Officer Chris Burley showed the strength and character of many members of the PPB and our Portland community. When Chris, our friend and team member, was injured, our shared burden and sacrifice was made real. Friends, coworkers and supervisors responded valiantly. To the officers who assisted at the scene, the TIC team and PPA leaders, the detectives who investigated, the Chief s Office and the hundreds of colleagues who came to Emanuel Hospital, made phone calls and wrote letters, we say thank you. Police work is about bull sessions in the locker room, maintaining a district, chasing bad guys, investigating crime and working with myriad community members. First Annual Z-Man Auction a huge success Sgt. John Anderson East Precinct Thanks to all of you who donated your time and items and attended the fi rst Z-Man Auction. The event was a huge success attended by slightly over 300 people. It was a great time for Bureau members, scholarship students and the business community to socialize and come together for a good cause. With the help of all, the auction raised over $140,000. I would also like to send out a continuous thank-you to all those who participate via payroll deduction. Those donations bring in almost $33,000 a year as well. We currently have 28 scholarship applications to review for the upcoming school year. With your help and contributions, the Z-Man Foundation continues to grow. I would like all of you to realize that while planning this event we were supported by the citizens, local businesses, large corporations and even the media. I encourage all of you to get involved. Not just in the Z-Man Foundation, but any of the other organizations that exist within the Bureau. Experiencing fi rst-hand the generosity and support out there for the members of our organization will help shield us from the negativity of the few. saturday, august 7, oaks park Read us online at page 5

6 Proud to service the Portland Police! Call for Auto, Home or Commercial (503) Portland Police Highland Guard The Portland Police Highland Guard is proud to serve the members of the PPB and our community. Our organization is comprised of Portland Police officers, firefighters, dispatchers and family members of the same. The Highland Guard is a 501-c3, not-for-profit, organization. Your contributions are our primary funding resource and they are greatly appreciated! Please mail them to: PPHG, PO Box 4072, Portland, OR JANET LEE HOFFMAN A TTORNEY AT L AW LAW OFFICES OF JANET LEE HOFFMAN HOFFMAN ANGELI LLP (503) SW S.W. BROADWAY,SUITE 1500 PHONE: FAX: (503) (503) PORTLAND, OREGON PORTLAND,OREGON FAX: (503) LAUNA LAWRENCE HELTON ATTORNEY AT LAW 305 N. First Avenue Hillsboro, OR Telephone Divorce Family Law Wills Trusts Continued from page 1 Lack of sense in shooting to wound Studies by the Force Science Research Center reveal some of the practical problems with these positions. Lewinski explains some of the basics of human dynamics and anatomy and the relative risks of misses and hits: Hands and arms can be the fastest-moving body parts. For example, an average suspect can move his hand and forearm across his body to a 90-degree angle in 12/100 of a second. He can move his hand from his hip to shoulder height in 18/100 of a second. The average officer pulling the trigger as fast as he can on a Glock, one of the fastest- cycling semi-autos, requires 1/4 second to discharge each round. There is no way an officer can react, track, shoot and reliably hit a threatening suspect s forearm or a weapon in a suspect s hand in the time spans involved. Even if the suspect held his weapon arm steady for half a second or more, an accurate hit would be highly unlikely, and in police shootings the suspect and his weapon are seldom stationary. Plus, the officer himself may be moving as he shoots. The upper arms move more slowly than the lower arms and hands. But shooting at the upper arms, there s a greater chance you re going to hit the suspect s brachial artery or center mass, areas with a high probability of fatality. So where does shooting only to wound come in when even areas considered by some to be safe from fatality risk could in fact carry the same level of risk as targeting center mass? Legs tend initially to move slower than arms and to maintain more static positions. However, areas of the lower trunk and upper thigh are rich with vascularity. A suspect who s hit there can bleed out in seconds if one of the major arteries is severed, so again shooting just to wound may not result in just wounding. On the other hand, if an officer manages to take a suspect s legs out non-fatally, that still leaves the offender s hands free to shoot. His ability to threaten lives hasn t necessarily been stopped. As to preventing so-called overkill from shots that are fired after a threat is neutralized, Lewinski offers these observations: Twenty years ago officers were trained to shoot then assess. They fired one or two rounds, then stopped to see the effect. This required 1/4 to 1/2 second, during which time the suspect could keep firing, if he hadn t been incapacitated. Now they re taught to shoot and assess, to judge the effect of their shots as they continue to fire, an on-going process. This allows the officer to continually defend himself, but because the brain is trying to do two things at once shoot and assess a very significant change in the offender s behavior needs to take place in order for the officer to recognize the change of circumstances. A suspect falling to the ground from being shot would be a significant change. But by analyzing the way people fall, we ve determined that it takes 2/3 of a second to a full second or more for a person to fall to the ground from a standing position. And that is when they ve been hit in a motor center that produces instant loss of muscle tension. While an officer is noticing this change, he is going to continue firing if he is shooting as fast as he can under the stress of trying to save his life. On average, from the time an officer perceives a change in stimulus to the time he is able to process that and actually stop firing, two to three additional rounds will be expended. Shooting beyond the moment a threat is neutralized is not a willful, malicious action in most cases. It s an involuntary factor of human dynamics. Given what science tells us about armed encounters, this most recent proposal is a fantasy, just like Paterson s legislation before it. They would hold officers to super-human performance and punish them criminally for being unable to achieve it. Legal issues A shoot-to-wound mandate would not be valid legally because it sets a standard far beyond that established by Graham v. Connor, the benchmark U.S. Supreme Court decision on police use of force, says former prosecutor Jeff Chudwin, now chief of the Olympia Fields (IL) PD and president of the Illinois Tactical Officers Assn. Recognizing that violent encounters are tense, uncertain and rapidly evolving, the Court does not require officers to use the least intrusive method of forcefully controlling a threatening suspect, but only what s reasonable, Chudwin explains. When an officer s life or that of a third party appears in jeopardy, shooting can be justified as reasonable. By legal definition, the possible consequences of deadly force include both death and great bodily harm. The law has never broken these two apart, Chudwin says, which is what these proposals have tried to do. The politicians who propose this kind of legislation are saying that police should only shoot someone just a little bit. Deadly force is not about just a little bit. Any time you fire a firearm, there s a substantial risk of great bodily harm or death. The law doesn t even so much as suggest that deadly force should be just enough to wound but with no probability of death. That s plain wrong legally and tactically, and sends the wrong message. Attorney Bill Everett, a former risk-management executive, use-of-force instructor, former LEO, and Force Science National Advisory Board member, agrees. As he explains it, use of force from a legal standpoint is a matter of proportionality, and there are two ways to measure it: what s necessary and what s reasonable. He draws the analogy of a house being on fire. Firefighters can pour what seems at the time to be about the right amount of water on it to stop the fire versus not using one drop more of water than necessary, even in hindsight, to put the fire out. The former fits the reasonable approach, the latter is the necessary perspective and is the essence of the shoot-to-wound/minimal force bill. When you impose a standard of strict necessity, you require officers to do a whole lot of thinking in a situation where the Supreme Court recognizes there s not a whole lot of time to think in, Everett declares. Under a shoot-to-wound directive, an officer faced with a suspect running at him with a jagged bottle is expected to think about getting target acquisition on an arm or a leg, while his own life is at risk. The hesitation it is likely to create Continued on page 7 page 6 The Rap Sheet June 2010

7 Continued from page 6 will only heighten his risk. The critical issue of officer survival aside, Everett predicts that the kind of legislation proposed would substantially expand the civil and criminal liability of police officers. He asks, What if an officer tries to wing a suspect and ends up hitting an innocent bystander? What about the liability there? What if an officer tries to shoot an offender s limb but shoots him in the chest instead? How does his true intent get judged? Right now under the Supreme Court s prevailing standard lawyers and judges in a large percentage of police shootings can look at the facts and conclude there is no basis for allowing a civil suit to go to trial. But if you change the standard, there ll be a lot more cases going to juries to evaluate: 1) did the officer intend to wound or did he intend to kill the suspect and 2) was the suspect s death absolutely necessary? A trial will become the rule rather than the exception. Who in their right mind would become a police officer in a jurisdiction where shootto- wound and standards of strict necessity became the law? Those ideas may have some humanitarian appeal, but once you go beyond the Disneyish attraction and face the reality, support for this thinking has to evaporate. Tactical issues Modern training teaches that when an officer uses deadly force the intent should be to stop the suspect s threatening behavior as fast as possible. In the words of firearms trainer Ron Avery, himself a championship shooter, head of the Practical Shooting Academy and a member of the Force Science Technical Advisory Board, shooting for an assailant s center mass is usually considered the most effective first option because the upper torso combines a concentration of vital areas and major blood vessels within the body s largest target. When the risk of failure is death, an officer needs the highest percentage chance of success he can get, Everett notes. Shooting instead for a smaller, faster-moving arm or a leg with the intent to wound rather than to incapacitate invites a myriad of tactical dilemmas. For instance: An officer s survival instinct may exert an overpowering influence on target selection. I don t care how good a shot you are, says Avery, if your life is threatened you re going to go for the surer thing first and worry about your assailant s life being saved second. If a guy is running at me with a blade, the last thing I m going to be thinking is I m going to shoot him in the arm. Hence, shooting for center mass may become a psychological default. Poor shot placement is bound to increase. Even when officers are trying to shoot center mass, they often miss. Lewinski recalls a case he was involved in where an officer firing under high stress just 5 feet from an offender failed to hit him at all with the first 5 rounds and connected with the next four only because the suspect moved into his line of fire. Hitting an arm or a leg on a moving suspect with surgical precision will be virtually impossible, Avery asserts. I could probably count on one hand the individuals who can make that kind of shot under the pressure of their life on the line. Expecting that level of performance by police officers on an agencywide basis is ludicrous. Misses may well go on to injure or kill someone else. Use of certain weapons might be discouraged. Because of the spread pattern, an officer might be precluded from grabbing a shotgun, for fear of hitting more vital areas when he tries to shoot to wound, Everett speculates. If the offender has a fully automatic weapon, say, should an officer be prevented from using the best defensive weapon he may have because it might have sweep or rise? Successful shots could be dangerous to people besides the suspect because of throughand-through penetration. Virtually every police round today is designed to penetrate heavy clothing and 10 to 12 inches of ballistic gel, explains Chudwin. Rounds with that capability will penetrate even the biggest arms and could, like misses, then travel on to hit unintended targets in the background. Successful shots that don t persuade an offender to quit leave the officer still in peril. When we know from street experience that even multiple center-mass hits don t always stop determined, deranged or drugged attackers, how many officers would be murdered by offenders who get shot in a limb and are still fully capable of shooting back? Chudwin asks. Indeed, Avery believes that shooting an offender without incapacitating him may just infuriate him, so he doubles his effort to kill you. There is no dependable correlation between wounding someone and making them stop. Shooting to wound reflects a misapplication of police equipment. Less-lethal options should be attempted only with tools designed for that purpose, Avery says. If you deliberately use deadly force to bring people into custody without incapacitating them, you re using the wrong tool for that job. Also if you shoot them in the arm or leg and you destroy muscle tissue, shatter bone or destroy nerve function you have maimed that person for life. Now attorneys can play the argument of cruel and unusual punishment and pursue punitive damages for destroying the capacity of your victim to earn wages and so on. You don t try to just wound people with a gun. Period. The experts we consulted agreed that advocates who push a shoot-to-wound agenda appear to understand little about human dynamics, ballistics, tactics, force legalities or the challenges officers face on the street. Chudwin has found that these critics of police practices can often be enlightened if they are invited to experience force decision-making scenarios on a firearms simulator. Avery has a more dramatic, if fanciful, idea. Put them in a cage with a lion, he suggests. Then let s see if they shoot to wound. Special thanks to Ron Barber at In the Line of Duty whose e- newsletter alerted Force Science to this recent Assembly bill. Comments to share? the Force Science News editorial staff at: featuring Call Me Today! Meals Lose up to 2-5 lbs per week Clinically proven No diet pills Free personal support Safe & effective Free Support Scott Chamberlain Health Coach ID# $25.00 Law Enforcement Discount!!! A Health Coach is not a substitute for a physician or qualified medical practitioner for monitoring those using Medifast Meals. Consult your physician before starting a weight-loss program. Portland police officers, thank you for what you choose to endure each day on our behalf. Snyder & Hoag, LLC FINANCIAL ADVISERS, LLC To the officers, their families and loved ones. Thank you. Innerwork Counseling Center 20 years of specialized service to police officers and their families for rapid trauma recovery, performance enhancement, marriage and family support. Raymond Peterson, Ph.D., L.P.C. Lynn Fontana, Ph.D., L.M.F.T. phone PO Box Portland, OR phone Providing Assistance for Portland s Police Departments Call or Read us online at page 7

8 Final Colleen Waibel Scholarship Award given to Holy Trinity School Sgt. Willie Halliburton North Precinct The eighth annual presentation of The Colleen Waibel Scholarship Award was presented to the 2010 eighth grade class of Holy Trinity School in Beaverton, Ore. This was the fi nal presentation of the award. Holy Trinity will dedicate and rename the school garden The Colleen Waibel Memorial Garden. Colleen Waibel was a Portland Police offi cer who died tragically in the line of duty on January 27, Colleen was a member of Holy Trinity Parish and celebrated her marriage to Portland Police Bureau member Sgt. Mark Fortner at the church in I am a former member of the school counsel at Holy Trinity and two of my children attended the school as well. I felt there was a need to recognize Colleen as a member of our community and, most importantly, acknowledge her love for children by providing a partial scholarship to students in need in her honor. On May 9, 2002, Holy Trinity School held an assembly to introduce the Colleen Wai- bel Scholarship Award. This award was created to be presented to a student who demonstrates service to their community as exemplifi ed by Offi cer Waibel. This award is designed to assist families who are experiencing fi nancial hardships and having diffi culties making tuition payments. It also recognizes students who have committed themselves to helping others, thus reinforcing Colleen s dedication to helping those in need. Members of Colleen s family, friends and past award recipients attended the presentation. I am extremely proud to be a part of such a wonderful event recognizing and celebrating a true hero of the Portland Police Bureau. Tip-a-Cop a great success Sgt. Tina Jones Family Services The results are in for the 2010 Red Robin Tip-a-Cop event where members of the Portland Police Bureau helped raise money for Special Olympics Oregon. This year we raised $2,799, which beat the past two years! This is a fantastic result, especially in these hard economic times. In 2008 we raised over $2,400 and in 2009 we raised over $2,100. This is always a fun event full of positive community interaction. I want to share with you the gratitude expressed by hundreds of our community members for the great work you all do every day. There is a lot of support out there for our members despite what is frequently voiced in the mainstream media. I want to specifically thank those who participated in the event: Lt. Pat Walsh, Lt. Rachel Andrews, Ofc. Becky Braun, Ofc. Sara Clark, Ofc. Rich Storm, Ofc. Parik Singh, Ofc. Brian Pelster, Ofc. Ben Davidson, Det. Mary Wheat, Cadet Elizabeth Vann, Cadet Oscar Cisneros, Cadet Colin Percell and videographer Marshall Santos. Thank each of you for your commitment to Special Olympics! page 8 The Rap Sheet June 2010

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