1 Using CBM to Progress Monitor English Language Learners Webinar Provided for National Center on Student Progress Monitoring Laura M. Sáenz, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Special Education at UT-Pan American
2 Overview of Presentation Part 1: Introductions and ELL Background Part 2: PM with CBM Benefits, Limitations, and Materials for ELL Part 3: RTI and ELL Part 4: A Closer Look at CBM in a RTI Model
3 Part 1: Introductions and ELL Background
4 Introductions Dr. Laura Sáenz
5 Geography Lesson
6 Definition of ELL Students who speak a language other than English and are in the process of learning English (Bender & Shore, 2007). Includes students who could benefit from ELL support services. Students receiving ELL services Students exited from ELL programs Does NOT include fluent bilingual students
7 ELL Demographics: What is Known Population of ELL has increased dramatically over the past 20 years Tremendous ethnic, linguistic, cultural, economic and academic diversity among ELL Largest and fastest growing group: Hispanic, Spanish speakers Diversity affects regions of the country in different ways.
8 Types of Programs English immersion By design or by default English immersion + ELL pull-out or pull-in services Maintenance bilingual education programs Transitional bilingual education programs Two-way or dual language programs
9 Issues and Challenges Increasing accountability for ELL in NCLB in other legislation Schools have not successfully closed the gap between minorities, including ELL, and their white counterparts ELL meeting state standards, but not national standards Research has focused on language of instruction and not substance of instruction
10 Part 2: PM with CBM Benefits, Limitations, and Materials for ELL
11 Progress Monitoring Progress Monitoring (PM) is conducted frequently and is designed to: Determine whether students are benefitting appropriately from an instructional program Identify students who are not demonstrating adequate progress Build more effective programs for the children who are not benefitting appropriately. Compare the efficacy of different forms of instruction and design more effective, individualized instructional programs. CBM is one form of PM
12 What is CBM? Assessment procedure used to determine initial and ongoing competence in a specific academic domain (e.g., reading or math). Yields scores that represent global competence in the target domain. Reading example: Words read correctly from a grade-level passage tells about overall reading competence. Math example: Number of digits correct tells about overall math competence.
13 CBM Research Has been researched for almost 30 years Often used by special education teachers Recent attention is due to its potential utility in a Responsiveness-tointervention model CBM is reliable and valid
15 For More Information: NCSPM On-line Training dingcbm_module/player.html Self-paced module How to administer How to score How to graph How to set goals How to make decisions
16 Distinguishing Features of CBM Each CBM test is an alternate form of equivalent difficulty CBM is usually conducted with generic tests, designed to mirror popular curricula Measures are given at regular intervals Uses data to determine goals and progress towards goals Displays data graphically
17 Current Uses of CBM Screening to identify children who might be considered at risk. Monitoring student progress and making instructional decisions. Informing and supporting decisions about special education referral. Writing IEP goals/objectives.
18 Basic Idea Conduct initial CBM assessment Assess students regularly Compare student performance to an established goal Use CBM graphs to determine if an instructional change is needed or goals need to be increased
19 CBM Data Considerations CBM performance level (benchmarks) CBM Trend-line vs. CBM goal line CBM Rate of growth (slope) CBM four-point method
20 Trend-line 30 Problems Correct in 7 Minutes X X X goal-line trend-line Weeks of Instruction
21 Slope Points Correct X X Martha s slope: (10 6) 8 = Weeks of Instruction
22 Four-Point Method WIF: Correctly Read Words Per Minute goal-line goal-line X X Most recent 4 points most recent 4 points Weeks of Instruction
23 What are the potential benefits of PM with CBM for ELL? Informed Instructional Decisions Teachers can use CBM data to determine when it is necessary to adjust instruction for ALL ELL Are most ELL making progress in general education? Teachers can use CBM data to determine when it is necessary to adjust instruction for ELL who are struggling
24 What are the potential benefits of PM with CBM for ELL? School leaders can use data to identify teachers who might need additional support Reduced subjectivity when making statements of adequate progress Changes emphasis from identifying lowperforming students to finding what works Fine-tune instruction to meet the unique needs of ELL
25 What are the limitations of CBM with ELL? Few studies of CBM with ELL Some measures may be more or less sensitive to the growth of ELL Performance may be dependent on L1 background and other variables Similarity between L1 and L2 Opportunity to develop L1 Other risk factors: SES and acculturation
26 What unique measures are available for ELL? IDEL: Indicadores Dinámicos del Éxito en la lectura (Good, Cummings, & Baker, 2006) AIMSweb MIDE - MEDIDAS INCREMENTALES DE DESTREZAS ESENCIALES AIMSweb Spanish R-CBM
27 Measures for Spanishspeaking ELL Measure Letter Naming Fluency Letter Sound Fluency Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Nonsense Word Fluency Syllable Segmentation Fluency Syllable Reading Fluency Syllable and Word Spelling IDEL Grades K - early 1st K - 1 st Mid K - early 2 nd MIDE Grades K-early 1 st Mid K - early 1 st Early K mid 1 st Late K 1 st Late K 1 st Passage Reading Fluency Mid 1 st 3 rd Mid 1 st -5 th Story Retell Fluency Mid 1 st 3 rd
28 Syllable Segmentation Fluency
29 Syllable Reading Fluency
30 Syllable and Word Spelling
32 Part 3: RTI ELL Considerations
33 What is RTI? RTI is a process of instruction, assessment, and intervention that allows schools to identify struggling students early, provide appropriate instructional interventions, and increase the likelihood that the students can be successful and maintain their class placement (Mellard & Johnson, 2008, p. 1).
34 What is RTI? Seen as a process by which the achievement of ALL students can be enhanced Emphasizes: Eliminating inadequate or inappropriate instruction as an explanation for learning problems Providing early intervention to students at risk
35 Three General Purposes of RTI (Mellard & Johnson, 2008) Screening and prevention of academic failure Early intervention IDEA (2004) Allows for 15% of Part B funds to be allocated to early intervening services Evaluation and diagnosis for special education Can serve as one component of disability determination.
36 Why RTI? (NJCLD, 2005) Concerns about the inadequacy of the ability-achievement (IQ-achievement) discrepancy model Special education has been used to serve struggling learners who do not have LD or other disabilities ELL, minority students, economically disadvantaged students
37 Why RTI for ELL? (NJCLD, 2005) Increased accountability for ALL learners, including ELL, within general education Should promote collaboration and shared responsibility General ed., spec. ed., ELL services and other services Reduction of inappropriate referrals More instructionally relevant data based on PM More precise identification of ELL Over- and underrepresentation
38 Limitation of RTI for ELL (NJCLD, 2005, p. 7) there are students who are underachievers and do not respond to intervention [for reasons other than a LD] who may be inappropriately identified as having a learning disability. This includes environmentally disadvantaged, minority, and English language learners who are overrepresented within the population of underachieving students and students who are at risk and in need of specialized supports and instruction [but not necessarily special education] for other reasons (e.g., lack of motivation, emotional stress).
39 Persistent Challenge: Applying the Exclusion Clause Eligibility teams must rule out: Environmental disadvantages Economic disadvantages Limited English proficiency Eligibility teams find it difficult to apply the exclusion clause because so many factors are interrelated. Culture differences Linguistic differences Poverty
40 Assumptions of the RTI Model (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1998) Student capacity varies; therefore, outcomes will vary. General education must be effective. Most students are thriving. Alternate methods should be tested for individuals not thriving. When most are not thriving, general education instruction could be ineffective or inappropriate.
41 Examining Assumptions of the RTI Model for ELL Capacity to learn varies; therefore, outcomes will vary. Capacity to learn will also vary among ELL; therefore, outcomes will vary. Eligibility teams must consider whether low academic outcomes can be attributed to limited English proficiency, cultural, economic or other disadvantage. Eligibility teams should seek evidence of capacity to learn before suspecting disability.
42 Examining Assumptions of the RTI Model for ELL Evidence that most students are thriving in the gen. ed. environment should be provided. Those not thriving, may need specialized intervention. Student assessment data inform teachers about appropriateness of instruction for MOST students. Specific evidence that most ELL are thriving in general education should be provided.
43 Examining Assumptions of the RTI Model for ELL If a student is not thriving and others are, alternative methods should be tested. Alternative methods should be validated with ELL. Alternative methods should only be tested when it has been determined that MOST ELL, with the exception of the student(s) in question, are thriving.
44 Examining Assumptions of the RTI Model for ELL If MOST are not thriving, then the general education environment needs to be examined. Students identified as LD only after not responding to high quality, effective instruction. Poor instructional quality is ruled out as explanation for poor student performance.
45 Examining Adequate Instruction and Responsiveness for ELL Scientific evidence about what works. Important for ELL: What works with whom, in what contexts, and under what circumstances (Klinger, Sorrells, & Barrera, 2007, p. 224) Shouldn t merely be a statement of providing quality instruction or not Treatment fidelity should also be evaluated Culturally responsive instruction
46 Examining Adequate Instruction and Responsiveness for ELL System problem: Are ELL consistently NOT making progress? Examining responsiveness: Should expectations be based on published norms? Local norms? ELL norms?
47 Part 4: A Closer Look at Using CBM in a RTI Model
48 Three Tiers of RTI TIER 1: Primary Prevention - General education setting - Research-based instruction - Screening to identify students suspected to be at risk - PM to (dis)confirm risk status AT RISK TIER 2: Secondary Prevention - Validated or researchedbased tutoring - PM to assess responsiveness RESPONSIVE UNRESPONSIVE TIER 3: Tertiary Prevention - Special education - PM to set IEP goals - PM to formulate individualized programs - PM to assess responsiveness RESPONSIVE UNRESPONSIVE
49 One Method of Operationalizing RTI: Dual Discrepancy Unresponsiveness can be operationalized as dual discrepancy (Fuchs, Fuchs, & Speece, 2002): Student has significantly low achievement. Student performs substantially below level compared to peers. Student is not making satisfactory progress Demonstrates a learning rate substantially below peers.
50 Where Does CBM Fit in the Dual-discrepancy RTI Model? *CBM benchmarks are used for screening. * CBM rate of growth is used to confirm or disconfirm student risk status in Tier 1. * CBM rate of growth and level are used to define RTI in Tier 2. * CBM rate of growth and level are used to set IEP goals, formulate individualized programs, and determine RTI in Tier 3. * Note: Other measures may also be for screening and progress monitoring.
51 Tier 1: Primary Prevention All students screened to determine which students are suspected to be at risk. Students suspected to be at risk remain in primary prevention, with PM (Compton, Compton, Fuchs, & Bryant, 2006). PM: Disconfirms risk: responsive students remain in Tier 1 Confirms risk: Unresponsive students move to Tier 2. Responsiveness: Cut-point on CBM screen plus CBM rate of growth over 6 to 10 weeks.
52 Tier 1 Decisions with CBM (Mellard & Johnson, 2008) Class level: average class performance and rate of growth used to determine necessary instructional and curricular changes. Individual student level: Schools can use predetermined CBM cut scores (level) and rates of progress (slope) to identify students needing Tier 2. Scores can be based on published norms or local norms.
53 Sample PM Class Report
54 Tier 1 Primary Prevention: Confirming Risk Status With PM for Computation Digits Correct in 3 Minutes X X Weeks of Instruction 4 th Grade Slope cut-off =.50 Student s slope = 1.29 Decision: No need for Tier 2
55 Tier 1 Primary Prevention: Confirming Risk Status With PM for Computation Problems Correct in 3 Minutes X X Weeks of Instruction 4 th Grade Slope cut-off =.50 Student s slope =.00 Decision: Provide Tier 2
56 Tier 2: Secondary Prevention Research-based, small group instruction Continued PM with CBM At the end of Tier 2, CBM indicates students were: Responsive: return to Tier 1 with continued PM Unresponsive: Students move to Tier 3 Responsiveness: CBM rate of growth and level
57 Tier 2 Decisions (Mellard & Johnson, 2008, p. 4) 1. If the student s performance matches his grade-level peers, he returns to Tier If the student s performance is below that of his grade-level peers, but he is making adequate progress toward goals, the student may remain in Tier If the student s performance is below that of his grade-level peers and he is NOT making adequate progress toward goals, the student may need Tier 3 intervention.
58 Tier 2 Secondary Prevention: Determining Response With PM Words Read Correctly X David s slope: (54 24) 8 = Weeks of Instruction Answer: Student responding to Tier 2 S. still below level and could provide more Tier 2, but does not need Tier 3. X Slope cut-off for 3 rd =.75
59 Tier 2 Secondary Prevention: Determining Response With PM for Concepts and Applications Points Correct X X Martha s slope: (10 6) 8 = 0.5 Slope cut-off = Weeks of Instruction Answer Student may need Tier 3
60 Tier 3: Tertiary Prevention Special education services With weekly CBM PM CBM is used to: Set Individualized education program (IEP) goals. Design individualized instructional programs. Monitor student response. When PM indicates the student achieves benchmark performance, student exits special education (i.e., returns to primary or secondary prevention), with ongoing PM.
61 Advantages of the RTI Model for ELL Increases accountability for ALL ELL, including those struggling Reduces subjectivity in making referrals for special education Emphasizes the identification of appropriate instruction Deemphasizes finding the deficit in the child or home/family environment
62 Unique Challenges of the RTI Model for ELL Emerging, but limited evidence of what works with ELL Dimension of culturally responsive instruction unclear to most Identifying the comparison group Benchmarks and rates of improvement limited to English speakers Rate of growth may be affected by variables other than instruction
63 Unique Challenges of the RTI Model for ELL Model conflicts with ESL/bilingual approaches and philosophy May be perceived as a method of tracking ELL Schools general lack of knowledge concerning ELL May be used as evidence of one language program over another Example: Immersion programs Early grades = steep trend line Intermediate grades = slower rate of progress
64 What Can be Gleaned? Not as simple as it would seem A one size fits all model will not suffice. Local context will need to be considered. RTI should only be one component of a comprehensive evaluation for ELL
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