Content. 15 An Example of FX Option Trade. 3 About 4 Fast, Transparent, Liquid ve Secure Investment Environment. 16 An Example of FX Option Trade

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1 FX DERIVATIVES

2 Content 3 About 4 Fast, Transparent, Liquid ve Secure Investment Environment 5 When Trading a FX Contract, One Buys/ Sells the Amount of Contract Size 6 In, Contract Expiry Months Are Standard For Everyone 7 Contracts Codes 8 Expiry Date Proceduce In FX Contracts 9 Quotation and Tick Size In FX Contracts 10 Trading FX Futures 11 Trading FX Options 15 An Example of FX Option Trade 16 An Example of FX Option Trade 17 DCD with FX Options 18 An Example of FX Options Trade 20 Margining Procedures in FX Futures 21 Are FX Contracts Risky Instruments? 22 Quick Facts FX Futures 25 Quick Facts FX Options 26 Market Makers at 27 Member List 28 Right of Use and Disclaimer 12 An Example of FX Futures Trade 01

3 About is fully electronic exchange utilizing Nasdaq s high-performing GENIUM INET technology, which features a transparent central limit order book and real-time trade reporting functionality along with robust pretrade risk management capabilities. In VIOP, financial derivatives started to be traded in December, Turkish Derivatives Exchange (TURKDEX) and Borsa İstanbul Futures & Options Market (VIOP) trading platforms have merged as of August 5, Following the merger, all futures and option contracts in Turkey shall be traded on a single platform under the umbrella of VIOP. Currently, Single Stock Futures, BIST 30 Futures, SASX10 Futures, USD/ Futures, EUR/ Futures, EUR/USD Cross Currency Futures, FBIST ETF Futures, Monthly Overnight Repo futures, Single Stock Options, BIST 30 Options, FX options, /gr Gold Futures, USD/Ounce Gold Futures, Aegean Cotton Futures, Anatolian Red Wheat Futures, Durum Wheat Futures, Electricity Futures, Steel Scrap Futures, are traded at our Market. Regarding the futures and options contracts, İstanbul Settlement and Custody Bank Inc. (Takasbank) serves as the clearing house for the trades executed on the Market. General information regarding FX futures and options are stated in this brochure 03

4 Borsa İstanbul : Fast, Transparent, Liquid and Secure Investment Environment You can take the advantage of rapid access and transparent environment in order to gain the best possible return by trading the FX futures through operating system which is completely electronic. You can apply flexible investment strategies offered on a liquid trading environment. offers another way of trading FX which bring along many opportunities below: l Access to USD/, EUR/ and EUR/USD Futures Contracts through the single platform which is fast and transparent l Possibility of investment while expecting declining of prices l Possibility of having position with less initial investment l Possibility of applying flexible trading strategies l Possibilities of hedge and arbitrage l Tax advantage When Trading a FX Contract, One Buys/ Sells the Amount of Contract Size In a FX contract trade, the financial product that you buy/sell is USD/, EUR/, EUR/USD Futures or USD/ Option. You buy/sell the contract size amount of underlying currency when trading a FX contract. Start Trading Today Trading at is quite easy. Opening an account at a VIOP member, informing the member about trading decisions and depositing the required margin are enough for trading. For further information, please contact any VIOP member or visit the links given below. Contract Sizes USD/ Futures = USD 1,000 EUR/ Futures = EUR 1,000 EUR/USD Futures= EUR 1,000 USD/ Options = USD 1,000 borsaistanbul.com/en/members/members borsaistanbul.com/en/products-and-markets/markets/ derivatives-market-viop/market borsaistanbul.com/en/products-and-markets/ products/futures/fx-futures/usd-try-futures borsaistanbul.com/en/products-and-markets/ products/options/usdtry-options By trading FX futures, you can buy/sell today at the future price of the underlying currency assuming the liability to be delivered/to deliver at the expiry date. On the other hand, with FX options, you can buy/sell underlying currency and limit your loss to the premium amount without limiting your gains. For example, when you buy 1 USD/ Call Option Contract, you buy the right to buy USD 1,000 at the determined (exercise) price. With this contract, you can fix the amount of loss without limiting the gain that you get from a USD 1,000 position

5 In, Contract Expiry Months Are Standard For Everyone In USD/, EUR/ and EUR/USD Futures expiry months cycle is February-April-June-August-October-December. In the market, current month, the month following, first cycle month following and December contracts are opened to trade concurrently. In order complete the four concurrent months, next year December contract will also be opened if needed. In USD/ Options expiry months cycle includes every month. In the market, current month and the month following will be opened to trade concurrently. Contracts Codes Specifications of FX Contracts are Included in Contract Codes in the Briefest Form Contract Codes in FX Futures include contract type, underlying security code, expiry date, whether contract size is standard or not and sequence number. Contract Codes in FX Option include contract type, underlying security code, expiry date, option type, exercise price whether contract size is standard or not and sequence number For example, on July 2016 open FX contracts will be as follows: Example: F_USD0815S0 USD/, EUR/ and EUR/USD Futures: July 2016, August 2016, October 2016, December 2016 USD/ Options: July 2016, August 2016 F Futures USD Underlying Security Code 0815 Contract Month SO S: Standard N: Non-standard Last Trading Day and Expiry Day In FX contracts, last trading day and expiry day is the last business day of the expiry month. O Option USDK Underlying Security Code E 0515 E: European F_USD0815S0 Expiry Date C 2600 SO C: Call P: Put Option Exercise Price S: Standard N: Nonstandard 06 07

6 Expiry Proceduce of FX Contracts At the end of last trading day, open positions in FX futures are automatically closed after executing cash settlement. The basis of expiry day profit/loss calculation is the expiry date settlement price calcuted for each future contract as follows: USD/ Futures: The benchmark USD/ ask price published by CBRT (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey) at 15:30 on the last trading day. EUR/ Futures: The benchmark EUR/ ask price published by CBRT (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey) at 15:30 on the last trading day. EUR/USD Futures: The benchmark EUR/USD cross price published by CBRT (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey) at 15:30 on the last trading day.* On the last trading day, in-the-money FX option contracts are automatically exercised. No exercise notification is made on the last trading day. The basis of expiry day profit/loss calculation is the expiry date settlement price calcuted for each option contract which is cash-settled as follows: USD/ Options: Call Options: (The benchmark USD/ ask price published by CBRT (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey) at 15:30 on the last trading day. * 1,000) Option Exercise Price Put Options: Option Exercise Price The benchmark USD/ ask price published by CBRT (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey) at 15:30 on the last trading day ** 1,000) *Beginning from January 2016 final settlement price for USD/, EUR/ and EUR/USD Futures will be The average of Bid and Ask rate announced by the CBRT at 15:30 of the last trading day. The Last Settlement Price shall be rounded to the nearest tick. **Beginning from January 2016 average of CBRT benchmark USD/ Bid/Ask rate will be used for both call and put option. Quotation and Tick Size in FX Contracts l Quotations are given in Turkish Lira for USD/, EUR/ futures and USD/ options, in USD for EUR/USD futures. l Prices of FX futures are given four digits after the decimal point for 1 foreign currency unit. l Prices of FX options are given one digit after the decimal point for foreign currency units. USD/ and EUR/ Futures: Tick size is Contract size is USD 1,000 and 1,000 Euros and tick size per contract corresponds to 0.1 (0.0001*1,000). This amount is the amount of profit/loss to be realized for single-step price change. EUR/USD Futures: Tick size is Contract size is USD 1,000 and tick size per contract corresponds to 0.1 USD (0.0001*1,000). This amount is the amount of profit/loss to be realized in USD terms for single-step price change. USD/ Options: Tick size is 0.1. Contract size is USD 1,000 and tick size per contract corresponds to 0.1(0.1*1) USD

7 Trading FX Options Trading FX Futures l On ; you took a long position by buying USD/ futures expiring on August 2015 (F_USD0815S0). l Cost of the contract that you bought at will be 2,705 (1*1000*2.7050) olacaktır. SCENARIO 1 Before expiration l If you sell 1 contract of F_ USD0815S0 future, your net position becomes 0. l If you sell the FX future contract you bought at , your profit is 5 (( )*1,000). SCENARIO 2 At expiration l On August 31st 2015, profit/loss will be transfered to your account based on the final settlement price. l If CBRT USD/ ask price is on expiration date, your profit is 15 (( )*1,000). On ; when the best bid price and best ask price of the option contract expiring in May (O_USDKE0515C2600S0) are 40.5 and 40.7, you can sell the contract at 40.5 or buy at If these market price levels are not adequate for you, you can enter a new order. For example if you enter a buy order at 40.6 your order becomes the best bid price and when someone is willing to sell at this price, your order will be realized. When your buy order of one contract is matched, you take the long side of one USD 1,000 contract call option. This means you buy the right to buy USD 1,000 for 2,600 at the expiry date in exchange for You can keep your position until the expiry date and you can exercise your option at the expiry date or you can sell the same contract to close your position with a reverse trade. You cannot exercise your option before maturity date because the option type is European. Before the maturity date, if you want to close the position you bought, it is sufficient to sell one O_USDKE0515C2600S0 contract. Thus your net position in the contract becomes 0. If you sell the contract you bought at 40.6, at 43.1 your profit becomes the difference between premiums 3.5 (( )*1*1). If you wait until the expiry date, the option will automatically be exercised if the option is in the money. Your profit will equal to the difference between the currency ask price declared by CBRT multiplied by 1,000 and the exercise price of the option

8 An Example of FX Futures Trade: Buying dollars at the spot market vs. VIOP On , you forecast USD/ rate to increase until the end of August and you consider buying USD 100,000. At the spot market, when the currency is traded at you will need 263,000 to buy USD 100,000. You can take the same position by using USD/ future contract only depositting the initial margin. When you buy 100 USD/ future contracts expiring on August (F_USD0815S0), being traded at , you take a position worth 265,050. In order to take this position, it is sufficient that you deposit the 12,500 required margin calculated based on the then-current parameters. Let s assume that your expectations are correct, on USD/ is traded at at the spot market and F_USD0815S0 contract is traded at in VIOP. If you trade at the spot market and you sell your USD 100,000 on , you profit 11,000 (100,000*( ) which corresponds to approximately 4.1% gain. If you trade in and close your 100 contracts of long position in F_USD0815S0 on , you profit 10,950 (( )*100*1,000). Thanks to leverage effect, the profit corresponds to 88% gain. Besides your margin earns interest during this period. For 100,000 USD Position SPOT 100,000* = 263, *125 = 12,500 You can invest the remaining 250,500 in the investment instrument of your choice

9 An Example of FX Options Trade: Hedging during this period. Objective: Hedging Overview: On August, USD will be received. Risk: Depreciation of USD against You buy 100 contracts of August expiring put option with the strike price of Current rate: Option premium: 42 Total premium paid: 100*42= 4,200 Put Option Exercised Not Exercised USD is below USD is above USD/ rate Revenue from Exercising Option Revenue from selling USD Option Premium Profit/ Loss ( )*1*100= 20, ,000 4, , ( )*1*100= 10, ,000 4, , Not exercised 270,000 4, , Not exercised 280,000 4, ,

10 An Example of FX Options Trade: Speculation - 1 Objective: Speculation Expectation: Appreciation of USD against You sell 100 contracts of August expiring put option with the strike price of Current rate: Option premium: 60 Total premium paid: 100*60= 6,000 USD/ rate Exercised USD is below Put Option Loss due to Exercised Option Not Exercised USD is above Option Premium Profit/ Loss Not exercised 6,000 6,000 DCD with Speculation - 2 FX Options: n FX options are often used to increase revenues of deposit accounts by speculation. n These types of deposit accounts are called Dual Currency Deposits (DCD) and the transactions can be done via banks. Using DCDs, investors sell option contracts based on their expectations and give up his/her right to convert his/her deposit to another currency. In exchange for this option, he/she receives premium revenue. Thus if the investor s expectation come true and option is not exercised, investor increases its interest revenue by the premium he/she receives. n You can make the same investment using USD/ options in using lower margins. For example, consider at the end of May 2015 you have 1,000,000 capital, deposit interest rate is 10.27% and you expect USD/ rate not to be below by the end of June. In this case, you can sell the put option worth 1,000,000 with the exercise price When the spot rate is and contract size is USD 1,000, this amount equals to 380 contracts (1,000,000/2.6300/1.000). Also one needs to consider, the required initial margin to be deposited to Takasbank Not exercised ( )*1*100= - 20,000 ( )*1*100= - 10,000 6,000 6,000 6,000-14,000 6,000-4,000 n Your capital of 1,000,000 will accumulate 8,558 interest at rate during one month period. If you expectations come true and USD/ does not fall below , the put option will not be exercised and you keep the premium as profit. Thus your total profit from your deposit becomes 16,158 (8,558+7,600) which equals 19.3% rate

11 An Example of FX Options Trade Collar - 3: Using Collar strategy, investors can create low-cost hedging opportunities by limitting exposure to both downside and upside risks of their position. Cost of Underlying Net Option Premium 0 Price at Expiration Collar Price Profit / Loss -10, Long position in the underlying currency at the spot market for the price of X (Buy at Spot) 2- Floor: A long position in put option with (X-a) exercise price, maturity at t in the underlying (Buy a Put) Collar Floor Collar Ceiling ,000-10,000-5, Ceiling: A short position in call option with (X+b) exercise price and maturity at t in the underlying currency (Sell a Call) For example, let s consider you USD 100,000 in your portfolio with the average cost of The main risk of this spot market portfolio is depreciation of dollar against Turkish lira. To protect yourself against this risk, you need to buy a put option with a strike price that you determined and limit your potential loss to this strike price. Contract Size 1,000 $ Number of Contracts ,000 10,000 10, ,000 However this option will also have a cost. For example, if the put option with a strike price of is 19, to hedge USD 100,000 portfolio you will need to buy 100 contracts, your total option premium cost will be 1,900. Profit / Loss 10,000 Collar strategy can be used to decrease this cost. You expect USD/ rate to move upwards therefore you are eager to keep this position at the spot market and at the same time you have a forecast about the maximum rate USD/ can achieve or you are willing to forgo your potential profit after this rate. Expiration Price By selling a call option with strike price you determined you can gain Premium revenue at the option market of VİOP. Let s assume this strike price is and the corresponding premium is 19, if you sell 100 contracts of this call option, your revenue will be 1,900 and you have a zero-cost hedging strategy ,9 2,95-10,

12 Margining Procedures in FX Futures To take a position in FX futures and options, you will need to deposit the required margin. It is sufficient that you deposit the required margin. If your margin falls below maintenance level, you will receive a margin call and you will need to increase your margin to the initial margin requirement level. (The maintenance level is generally 75% of initial margin.) Trades executed in the Market are subject to portfolio based margining method. Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk (SPAN) algorithm is used for portfolio based margining. Therefore the amount of required margin while trading in will also depend on other positions in your portfolio. When there is no other position in your portfolio, the required margin to take 1 contract position in futures can be seen in the table below: Contract Required Margin () Price Leverage Ratio* USD/ Futures EUR/ Futures EUR/USD Futures When there is no other position in your portfolio, the required margin to take 1 short position in option contracts depends on parameters such as the exercise price of the option, the time to expiry and the market volatility. Long positions do not require margin. The required margin and the leverage ratios for USD/ options can be seen in the table below. Contract SPAN Margin Net Option Value Required Margin () Delta (%) Leverage Ratio Call Option Call Option Put Option Put Option Are FX Contracts Risky Instruments? It is also important that investors trading FX contracts know the risks entailed. These contracts can be risky depending on the position and the option type for options if traded alone. Do not forget! n If your expectation about underlying security is inaccurate, you won t make profit from the FX contracts. n If you sell an option, you assume the risk of unbounded potential loss exceeding the premium you get from your position in case of a relatively small but opposite price movement. You are to fulfill your obligations if option buyer wants to exercise his/her put/call option. Therefore, selling options is only recommended to experienced individuals with high capital. n Contracts with reasonable leverage ratios should be preferred. High leverage ratio may cause high losses just as it may create high profits. n You can avoid the risks of one of your position by the positions you take in other contracts. For example, when you buy/sell an option, you can decrease or remove the risk by buying/selling the same amount multiplied by option s delta in futures market. *Leverage ratios are based on May 13, 2015 spot prices

13 Quick Facts FX Futures USD/ Futures EUR/ Futures EUR/USD Futures Underlying USD/ EUR/ EUR/USD Contract Size USD 1,000 EUR 1,000 EUR 1,000 Trading Currency USD Price Qutation Prices shall be quoted in terms of Turkish Lira per USD significant to four decimals. Prices shall be quoted in terms of Turkish Lira per EUR significant to four decimals. Prices shall be quoted in terms of USD per EUR significant to four decimals. Tick Size Settlement Cash Contract Months Clearing Period Daily Settlement Price Maturity Last Trading Day Daily Price Limit Trading Hours Central Counter Party Margin Cycle months are February, April, June, August, October and December. Four contracts whose expiration months are the current month, the next calendar month, the next cycle month and December shall be concurrently traded. If there are less than four contracts, an extra contract with an expiration month of December of the next year shall be launched. T+1 The daily settlement price is calculated as follows at the end of the session and rounded to the nearest price tick: a) The weighted average price of all the trades executed within the last 10 minutes of the normal session, b) If less than 10 trades were realized in the last 10 minutes of the normal session, the weighted average price of the last 10 trades executed during the session, Last business day of the contract month. Last business day of the contract month. Daily price limit is equal to ±10% of the base price determined for each contract. Continuous trading from 09:10 to17:45 Istanbul Settlement and Custody Bank (Takasbank) Initial Margin: Set by the SPAN portfolio margining method. Maintenance Margin: 75% of the required collateral

14 Quick Facts FX Options USD/ Options Underlying Security Type Option Type Contract Size Trading Currency Price Qutation Tick Size Settlement Contract Months Exercise Clearing Period Premium Clearing Period USD/ Parity Call and Put Options European USD 1,000 Prices shall be entered for 1,000 USD as the premium value in terms of Turkish Lira significant to one decimal. 0.1 Cash All calendar months (2 consecutive months - the current contract month and the next calendar month shall be concurrently traded) T+1 T+1 The daily settlement price is calculated as follows at the end of the session and rounded to the nearest price tick: Daily Settlement Price Maturity Last Trading Day Daily Price Limit Trading Hours Central Counter Party Margin a) The weighted average price of all the trades executed within the last 10 minutes of the normal session, b) If less than 10 trades were realized in the last 10 minutes of the normal session, the weighted average price of the last 10 trades executed during the session, Last business day of the contract month. Last business day of the contract month. There is no price limits for USD/ Options Continuous trading from 09:10 to17:45 Istanbul Settlement and Custody Bank (Takasbank) Initial Margin: Set by the SPAN portfolio margining method. Maintenance Margin: 75% of the required collateral

15 Market Makers at * Member List Market Making Program based on Revenue Sharing Executed according to Announcement No. 2015/86 In order to trade at VIOP, an investor need to open an account at one of brokerage houses or banks registered as VIOP member. VIOP members are listed at the page below: Contracts Single Stock Futures Contracts BIST30 Index Option Contracts USD Option Contracts Electricity Futures Contracts FBIST ETF Futures Contracts Members İŞ YATIRIM MENKUL DEĞERLER A.Ş. FİNANS YATIRIM MENKUL DEĞERLER A.Ş. AK YATIRIM MENKUL DEĞERLER A.Ş. İŞ YATIRIM MENKUL DEĞERLER A.Ş. AK YATIRIM MENKUL DEĞERLER A.Ş. TÜRKİYE GARANTİ BANKASI A.Ş. DENİZ YATIRIM MENKUL KIYMETLER A.Ş. FİNANS YATIRIM MENKUL DEĞERLER A.Ş. İŞ YATIRIM MENKUL DEĞERLER A.Ş. AK YATIRIM MENKUL DEĞERLER A.Ş. FİNANS YATIRIM MENKUL DEĞERLER A.Ş. borsaistanbul.com/en/products-and-markets/markets/ derivatives-market-viop/how-to-trade-viop Other Market Making Program Executed according to Circular on Operation Principles No. 433 Contracts USD Futures Contracts EUR Futures Contracts EUR/USDollar Futures Contracts Gold Futures Contracts USDollar/Ounce Gold Futures Contracts Members TÜRKİYE GARANTİ BANKASI A.Ş. TÜRKİYE GARANTİ BANKASI A.Ş. TÜRKİYE GARANTİ BANKASI A.Ş. TÜRKİYE GARANTİ BANKASI A.Ş. TÜRKİYE GARANTİ BANKASI A.Ş. *As of November 25, Also available at: borsaistanbul.com/en/products-and-markets/markets/derivativesmarket-viop/market-making 26 27

16 Right of Use and Disclaimer This booklet is for information purposes only. The information contained herein shall not be deemed or interpreted to have given any offer, advice or income commitment of sale and/or purchase of any investment instrument. Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. shall not be held liable in any way whatsoever in the event that any damage is incurred as a result of any investment or similar decisions that may be taken by any third parties, depending on the information contained in this booklet. The information contained herein has been obtained from such resources that are believed to be reliable; however, Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. does not make any representations or warranties, whether express or implied, regarding the accuracy, currency, reliability completeness or impeccability of this information. For the avoidance of any doubt, Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. shall not have any liability in the event that any right or claim has been directed by any third parties due to the use of such resources by Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. publishes the said information with the express condition that Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. does not assume any liability or obligation in any way whatsoever due to any direct or indirect, consequential or actual damages or losses arising out of the use of such information or depending on such information and this condition is deemed to have been accepted by the persons using such information. Against the possibility of human and/or technical errors or other factors, Borsa İstanbul is not liable for any errors or omissions by itself or the information provider. This booklet s all financial rights arising from the Law on Intellectual and Artistic Works No and all other industrial rights arising from other legislations shall belong to Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. For the avoidance of any doubt, against the third party s intellectual property right claims, Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. shall not have any liability in the event that any right or claim has been directed by any third party. The information contained in this booklet belongs to Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. and may not otherwise be copied, performed, distributed, rented, reproduced, sublicensed, altered, stored for subsequent uses and subjected to the similar transactions, in whole or in part, in any manner without Borsa İstanbul A.Ş.'s prior written consent. All images of Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. are Registered Service Marks and may not be used for commercial purposes without Borsa İstanbul A.Ş. s prior written consent. Contact Information Borsa İstanbul borsaistanbul.com/en Takasbank takasbank.com.tr

17 December 2015 To view this publication on the web /borsaistanbulen /borsaistanbul /borsaistanbul

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